Publications by authors named "Guodong Zhang"

375 Publications

Stromal infiltrating mast cells identify immunoevasive subtype high-grade serous ovarian cancer with poor prognosis and inferior immunotherapeutic response.

Oncoimmunology 2021 11;10(1):1969075. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Tumor infiltrating mast cells (TIMs), with pro- or anti-tumorigenic role in different types of malignancies, have been implicated in resistance to anti-PD1 therapy. Here, we aimed to identify the relevance of TIMs with the prognosis, immune contexture, and immunotherapy in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Tissue microarrays containing 197 HGSOC patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting the expression of mast cell tryptase and other immune markers. Kaplan-Meier curve, log-rank test, and Cox regression model were applied to perform survival analysis. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis and flow cytometric analysis were selected to characterize TIMs. Furthermore, short-term HGSOC organoids were employed to validate the effect of TIMs on anti-PD1 therapy. Abundance of stromal TIMs (sTIMs) predicted dismal prognosis and linked to immunoevasive subtype of HGSOC, characterized by increased infiltration of pro-tumor cells (Treg cells, M2-polarized macrophages, and neutrophils) and impaired anti-tumor immune functions. Intensive inter-cell interactions between TIMs and other immune cells were identified, suggesting potential cross-talks to foster an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Organoids derived from sTIMs-low patients were associated with increased response to anti-PD-1 treatment other than the presence of high sTIMs infiltration. A nomogram, constructed by combining FIGO stage, sTIMs, and PD-L1, with an area under the curve (AUC) for predicting 5-year overall survival of 0.771 was better than that of FIGO staging system of 0.619. sTIMs/PD-L1-based classifier has potential clinical application in predicting prognosis of patients with HGSOC. sTIMs-high tumors correlate with immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and possess potential insensitivity to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2021.1969075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437532PMC
September 2021

Research on the Response Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Film to the Irradiation of Ultrafast Pulsed Laser.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 16;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

School of Artificial Intelligence, Optics and Electronics (iOPEN), Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

Vanadium pentoxide (VO) is the most stable phase among many transition metal vanadium oxides, and has already been widely used in many fields. In this study, the morphological, structural, and optical responses of VO film to ultrafast laser irradiation was investigated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of VO film were measured by common Z-scan technique, and the results showed that VO film has self-defocusing and saturable absorption characteristics. The third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were calculated to be -338 cm/GW and -3.62 × 10 cm/W, respectively. The tunable saturated absorption with modulation depth ranging from 13.8% to 29.3% was realized through controlling the thickness of vanadium pentoxide film. VO film was irradiated by ultrafast laser with variable pulse energy, and the morphological and structural responses of the VO to the laser with different energy densities were investigated. The irreversible morphological and structural responses of VO films to ultrafast laser irradiation was analyzed using the phase-contrast microscope and Raman spectrum. The chemical structure change from VO to VO was considered the main reason for refractive index modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11082078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401291PMC
August 2021

Can Residential Greenspace Exposure Improve Pain Experience? A Comparison between Physical Visit and Image Viewing.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jul 20;9(7). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Sports Science, College of Physical Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Reducing the burden of pain via greenspace exposure is a rising research topic. However, insufficient evidence has been found in relation to the environmental effect itself. Residential greenspace, as a convenient but limited natural environment for urban dwellers, has benefits and services yet to be discovered. Therefore, the current study recruited 24 young adults to evaluate the effects of physical visit to, or image viewing of, residential greenspace on pain perception and related psychophysiological outcomes, via simulated pain. Pain threshold and tolerance were recorded via the level of pain stimuli, and pain intensity was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The state scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and two adjective pairs were employed to measure the state anxiety and subjective stress, respectively. Meanwhile, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) were measured to investigate physiological responses. Besides, Scenic Beauty Estimation (SBE) was also employed to assess participants' preference regarding the experimental environments. The results revealed that visiting the greenspace significantly increased the pain threshold and tolerance, while no significant effect was observed for image viewing. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in pain-related psychophysiological indices between the experimental settings, but significantly negative associations were found between the scores of SBE and subjective stress and state anxiety. In conclusion, the current study brings experimental evidence of improving pain experience via residential greenspace exposure, while the related psychophysiological benefits require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306991PMC
July 2021

Construction of Aptamer-Based Molecular Beacons with Varied Blocked Structures and Targeted Detection of Thrombin.

Langmuir 2021 07 16;37(29):8738-8745. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, P. R. China.

A kind of blocked aptamer-functionalized molecular beacon (MB) was designed as fluorescence sensors to detect thrombins by binding-induced "turn on" structural transformation. Three MBs named MB(8 + 8), MB(15 + 8), and MB(15 + 6) consisted of two single-stranded oligonucleotides. One long single-stranded oligonucleotide (abbreviated as SS) contained a thrombin aptamer sequence and was modified with a fluorescence group and quenching group on each end side. Another short single-stranded oligonucleotide (written as cDNA) was partially complementary to the long SS. It was interesting to find that the complementary sequence length of cDNA greatly influenced the structure of the MBs. The construction of MB experiments proved that MB(8 + 8) and MB(15 + 8) could form the quenching MBs but MB(15 + 6) could not. MB(8 + 8) was composed of a SS strand paired with a complementary cDNA(8 + 8), which was called one-to-one combination, while MB(15 + 8) was two-to-two combination and MB(15 + 6) was one-to-two combination. When the ratio of SS and cDNA (15 + 8) was 1:1, the quenching efficiency reached maximum. But with the molar ratio of SS and cDNA(8 + 8) increasing, the quenching efficiency increased continuously. Under the optimal conditions that we studied, the detection limit of thrombin by MB(8 + 8) and MB(15 + 8) was 0.19 and 1.2 nM, respectively. In addition, the assay proved to be selective, and the average recovery of thrombin detected by MB(8 + 8) and MB(15 + 8) in diluted serum was 95.4 and 94.5%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00994DOI Listing
July 2021

Temperature-Dependent Residue Depletion Regularities of Tiamulin in Nile Tilapia () Following Multiple Oral Administrations.

Front Vet Sci 2021 11;8:679657. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuhan, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different water temperatures (19, 25, and 30°C) on tissue residue depletion of tiamulin in Nile tilapia () after five consecutive days of oral administration at the dose of 20 mg/kg body weight and to calculate the corresponding elimination half-life ( ) and withdrawal times (WTs). After oral administration at scheduled 11 time points (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days), samples of plasma and tissues (muscle plus skin, liver, kidney, and gill) were collected. Tiamulin concentration in samples were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). was calculated by the equation: = ln2/. WT 1.4 software was used to calculate WT. The results showed that tiamulin was widely distributed in all tissue samples with the highest concentration in liver. At three different water temperatures, the were calculated as 2.76, 2.13, and 1.64 days in plasma, 2.71, 1.85, and 1.31 days in muscle plus skin, 2.27, 1.70, and 1.50 days in liver, 2.84, 2.32, and 1.94 day in kidney, and 3.16, 2.42, and 1.74 days in gill, respectively. At 19°C, the order of WT is kidney (11.88 days) > liver (10.41 days) > gill (10.77 days) > plasma (8.83 days) > muscle plus skin (7.14 days). The WT for tiamulin at 25°C was in the following order: kidney (8.40 days) > liver (8.21 days) > gill (8.07 days) > plasma (7.24 days) > muscle plus skin (4.05 days). At 30°C, the WT dropped and shown as follows: gill (6.99 days) > kidney (6.51 days) > liver (6.29 days) > plasma (3.27 days) > muscle plus skin (2.92 days). The present investigations indicated that increasing the temperature from 19 to 30°C shortened and WT of tiamulin in tilapia. To ensure the safety of fish consumption, the longest WT of tissues is suggested for tiamulin in Nile tilapia at the corresponding water temperature; i.e., WTs were 12 days at 19°C, 9 days at 25°C, and 7 days at 30°C, respectively. Overall, we intended to provide a theoretical basis for tissue residue depletion kinetics of tiamulin in fish and improve our understanding of the influence of the temperature on tissue residue depletion kinetics of tiamulin in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.679657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225925PMC
June 2021

Prevalence and Distribution of in Three Commercial Tree Fruit Packinghouses.

Front Microbiol 2021 10;12:652708. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD, United States.

A 2-year longitudinal study of three tree fruit packinghouses was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of . Samples were collected from 40 standardized non-food-contact surface locations six different times over two 11-month production seasons. Of the 1,437 samples collected, the overall prevalence of over the course of the study was 17.5%. Overall prevalence did not differ significantly ( > 0.05) between each year. However, values varied significantly ( ≤ 0.05) within each production season following packing activity levels; increasing in the fall, peaking in early winter, and then decreasing through spring. was most often found in the packing line areas, where moisture and fruit debris were commonly observed and less often in dry cold storage and packaging areas. Persistent contamination was attributed to the inability of water drainage systems to prevent moisture accumulation on floors and equipment during peak production times and uncontrolled employee and equipment traffic throughout the facility. This is the first multiyear longitudinal surveillance study to compare prevalence at standardized sample sites common to multiple tree fruit packinghouses. Recommendations based on our results will help packinghouse operators to identify critical areas for inclusion in their environmental monitoring programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.652708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222780PMC
June 2021

Salmonella Genomics in Public Health and Food Safety.

EcoSal Plus 2021 Jun 14:eESP00082020. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland, USA.

The species Salmonella enterica comprises over 2,600 serovars, many of which are known to be intracellular pathogens of mammals, birds, and reptiles. It is now apparent that Salmonella is a highly adapted environmental microbe and can readily persist in a number of environmental niches, including water, soil, and various plant (including produce) species. Much of what is known about the evolution and diversity of nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) in the environment is the result of the rise of the genomics era in enteric microbiology. There are over 340,000 Salmonella genomes available in public databases. This extraordinary breadth of genomic diversity now available for the species, coupled with widespread availability and affordability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) instrumentation, has transformed the way in which we detect, differentiate, and characterize Salmonella enterica strains in a timely way. Not only have WGS data afforded a detailed and global examination of the molecular epidemiological movement of Salmonella from diverse environmental reservoirs into human and animal hosts, but they have also allowed considerable consolidation of the diagnostic effort required to test for various phenotypes important to the characterization of Salmonella. For example, drug resistance, serovar, virulence determinants, and other genome-based attributes can all be discerned using a genome sequence. Finally, genomic analysis, in conjunction with functional and phenotypic approaches, is beginning to provide new insights into the precise adaptive changes that permit persistence of NTS in so many diverse and challenging environmental niches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/ecosalplus.ESP-0008-2020DOI Listing
June 2021

Roles of Lipid Peroxidation-Derived Electrophiles in Pathogenesis of Colonic Inflammation and Colon Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:665591. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States.

Redox stress is a common feature of gut disorders such as colonic inflammation (inflammatory bowel disease or IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). This leads to increased colonic formation of lipid-derived electrophiles (LDEs) such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), and epoxyketooctadecenoic acid (EKODE). Recent research by us and others support that treatment with LDEs increases the severity of colitis and exacerbates the development of colon tumorigenesis and , supporting a critical role of these compounds in the pathogenesis of IBD and CRC. In this review, we will discuss the effects and mechanisms of LDEs on development of IBD and CRC and lifestyle factors, which could potentially affect tissue levels of LDEs to regulate IBD and CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.665591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165272PMC
May 2021

Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genome Features among Four Species and Insight into Their Systematic Positions in the Order Hypocreales.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.

The mycoparasite fungi of have contributed to the biological control of plant fungal disease and nematodes. The fungi strains were isolated from , and soil, which identified as , , and sp. To explore the evolutionary relationship between the mentioned species, the mitochondrial genomes of four species were sequenced and assembled. The four mitogenomes consisted of complete circular DNA molecules, with the total sizes ranging from 27,410 bp to 42,075 bp. The GC contents, GC skews and AT skews of the mitogenomes varied considerably. Mitogenomic synteny analysis indicated that these mitogenomes underwent gene rearrangements. Among the 15 protein-coding genes within the mitogenomes, the nad4L gene exhibited the least genetic distance, demonstrating a high degree of conservation. The selection pressure analysis of these 15 PCGs were all below 1, indicating that PCGs were subject to purifying selection. Based on protein-coding gene calculation of the significantly supported topologies, the four species were divided into a group in the phylogenetic tree. The results supplemented the database of mitogenomes in Hypocreales order, which might be a useful research tool to conduct a phylogenetic analysis of . Additionally, the suitable molecular marker was significant to study phylogenetic relationships in the Bionectriaceae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197242PMC
May 2021

Effects of CeO and SbO on the Nonlinear Photochemical Process in Ultrashort Laser Gaussian-Bessel Beams Irradiated Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 26;12(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Electronic Information College, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

Microfluidic chips and optical elements can be fabricated based on the nonlinear photosensitivity in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass by controlling the growth of nanocrystals in the femtosecond (fs) laser-irradiated region. Here, we focus on CeO and SbO that play important roles in UV irradiation, experimentally investigate the effects of the dopants on the nonlinear photochemical process in PTR glass triggered by fs Gaussian-Bessel beams. The results show that the generation of Ag atoms and the Ag nanoparticles can be improved by CeO and SbO co-doping. Besides, each multivalent ion in PTR glass possibly participates in the electron transfer processes and contributes to the generation of Ag atoms. Finally, X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the precipitation of NaF nanocrystals with an average size of 10 to 12 nm after laser irradiation and thermal treatment, which is unrelated to the dopants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12060615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229932PMC
May 2021

Nano-Crystal and Microstructure Formation in Fluoride Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass Using Chirp-Controlled Ultrafast Laser Bessel Beams.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Artificial Intelligence, Optics and Electronics (iOPEN), Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

Nano-crystals were formed in the exposed regions of photo-thermo-refractive glass undergoing irradiation with zeroth order chirp-controlled ultrafast laser Bessel beams and subsequent heat treatment. Effects of various writing powers, pulse durations and heat treatment time on the distribution and the size of the nano-crystals were investigated. The results show that nano-crystals' distribution depended on the laser power density spatial shape, while the size of the nano-crystals is quasi-independent. However, the average diameter of the nano-crystals was affected by the heat treatment time, decreasing from 175 to 105 nm with the time halved. In addition, using crystallographic characterization by X-ray diffraction, the nano-crystal composition in the laser-exposed regions was detected to be sodium fluoride.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11061432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227268PMC
May 2021

Green Exercise: Can Nature Video Benefit Isometric Exercise?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 22;18(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Key Lab of Physical Fitness Evaluation and Motor Function Monitoring of General Administration of Sports of China, Institute of Sports Science, College of Physical Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Green exercise is the combination of physical activity and nature exposure, which has been associated with positive effects on psychophysiological health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nature video viewing on isometric exercise and find a useful practice for green exercise in urban living. In the current study, 18 male subjects were recruited in a randomized crossover trial and underwent a sequence of wall squat exercises. The whole experiment contained three periods of baseline (before exercise), exercise, and recovery (after exercise), and each period lasted for 2 min. A video of forest walking was played in the exercise and recovery periods as treatment, while a black screen was set as control. The Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE) and Feeling Scale (FS) were employed to measure perceived exertion and affective responses in the exercise period; heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) including the standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and the standard deviations of the Poincaré plot (SD1), were recorded in the three periods. Heart rate recovery (HRR) in the recovery period was further calculated based on 30 s and 60 s time frames. Results demonstrated that during the exercise period nature video viewing was associated with better affective responses (median of 1.00 and an interquartile (IQR) of 2.00, = 0.017), lower perceived exertion (median = 6.00, IQR = 2.00, = 0.021), and lower HR (median = 89.60, IQR = 20.94, = 0.01), but the differences in HRV indices between the experimental settings were not statistically significant. In the recovery period, significantly higher values of RMSSD (median = 34.88, IQR = 24.52, = 0.004), SD1 (median = 24.75, IQR = 17.41, = 0.003), and HR (median = 84.18, IQR = 16.58, = 0.001) were observed in the treatment setting, whereas no statistically significant difference was found for HRR. In general, our findings support that nature video viewing may help reduce perceived exertion, increase exercise pleasure, buffer heart rate, and improve cardiac autonomic recovery for wall squat exercising, which implies the potential of nature-based stimuli in green exercise. However, due to the limited research sample, further study may need to include female participants and focus on various populations to confirm the effectiveness of using virtual and environments depicting nature at home or in public exercise places to promote positive exercise experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196960PMC
May 2021

Metabolic fate of environmental chemical triclocarban in colon tissues: roles of gut microbiota involved.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 11;787:147677. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA; Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Metabolic transformations play critical roles in the bioavailability and toxicities of environmental pollutants and toxicants. However, most previous research has focused on the metabolic reactions in host tissues, the gut microbiota-mediated biotransformation of environmental compounds is understudied. Using triclocarban (TCC) as a model environmental compound, here we study the metabolic fate of TCC in gut tissues and determine the roles of gut microbiota involved. We find that compared with other tissues, the colon tissue has a unique metabolic profile of TCC, with high abundance of the parent compound TCC and its free-form metabolites. Using a variety of approaches including antibiotic-mediated suppression of gut bacteria in vivo, germ-free mice, and in vitro culture of fecal bacteria, we found that the unique metabolic profile of TCC in the colon is mediated by the actions of gut microbiota. Overall, our findings support that gut microbiota plays important roles in colonic metabolism of TCC, highlighting the importance to consider the contributions of gut microbiota in toxicology evaluation of environmental compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192447PMC
September 2021

Spatial cytotoxic and memory T cells in tumor predict superior survival outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 06 5;10(12):3905-3918. Epub 2021 May 5.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Although the association between tumor-infiltrating CD3 T and CD8 T cells and superior survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) has been observed, the different spatial localization of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) possesses heterogeneous effects. We performed localized measurements in 260 HGSOC from 2 independent cohorts represented in tissue microarray format to determine the localized expression pattern and clinical significance of CD3 T, CD8 T, and CD45RO cells in HGSOC. Different density of spatial localization of CD3 T, CD8 T, and CD45RO cells exhibited heterogeneous association with OS. The combination of the center of the tumor and invasive margin localized CD8 T cells (CD8 ) with the same margin localized CD45RO (CD45RO ) was the most robust prognostic predictor. Immune score (IS) was constructed by integrating FIGO stage with CD8 and CD45RO and had the best prognostic value in HGSOC. The low-, intermediate-, and high-IS groups were observed in 44.7%, 41.6%, and 13.7% of patients, respectively. Low-IS identified patients were at higher risk of death compared to high-IS identified patients (HR = 12.426; 95% CI 5.317-29.039, p < 0.001); meanwhile, we evaluate the RMSTs over 10 years of follow-up and obtained RMST values of 104.09 months (95% CI 96.31-111.87 months) in the high-IS group, 75.26 months (95% CI 59.92-90.60 months) in the intermediate-IS group, and 48.68 months (95%CI 38.82-58.54 months) in the low-IS group. In general, spatial localization can modulate the clinical effects of TILs in HGSOC. Thus, the spatial expression of CD8 and CD45RO could aid clinicians to determine the follow-up plan of patients with HGSOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209602PMC
June 2021

Nonclinical Pharmacokinetics and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Givosiran, the First Approved -Acetylgalactosamine-Conjugated RNA Interference Therapeutic.

Drug Metab Dispos 2021 Jul 3;49(7):572-580. Epub 2021 May 3.

Alnylam Pharmaceuticals Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts

Givosiran is an -acetylgalactosamine-conjugated RNA interference therapeutic that targets 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 1 mRNA in the liver and is currently marketed for the treatment of acute hepatic porphyria. Herein, nonclinical pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties of givosiran were characterized. Givosiran was completely absorbed after subcutaneous administration with relatively short plasma elimination half-life (t; less than 4 hours). Plasma exposure increased approximately dose proportionally with no accumulation after repeat doses. Plasma protein binding was concentration dependent across all species tested and was around 90% at clinically relevant concentration in human. Givosiran predominantly distributed to the liver by asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated uptake, and the t in the liver was significantly longer (∼1 week). Givosiran was metabolized by nucleases, not cytochrome P450 (P450) isozymes, across species with no human unique metabolites. Givosiran metabolized to form one primary active metabolite with the loss of one nucleotide from the 3' end of antisense strand, AS(N-1)3' givosiran, which was equipotent to givosiran. Renal and fecal excretion were minor routes of elimination of givosiran as approximately 10% and 16% of the dose was recovered intact in excreta of rats and monkeys, respectively. Givosiran is not a substrate, inhibitor, or inducer of P450 isozymes, and it is not a substrate or inhibitor of uptake and most efflux transporters. Thus, givosiran has a low potential of mediating drug-drug interactions involving P450 isozymes and drug transporters. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Nonclinical pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of givosiran were characterized. Givosiran shows similar pharmacokinetics and ADME properties across rats and monkeys in vivo and across human and animal matrices in vitro. Subcutaneous administration results in adequate exposure of givosiran to the target organ (liver). These studies support the interpretation of toxicology studies, help characterize the disposition of givosiran in humans, and support the clinical use of givosiran for the treatment of acute hepatic porphyria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.121.000381DOI Listing
July 2021

Ru-Catalyzed ()-Specific -C-H Alkenylation of Arenecarboxylic Acids by Coupling with Alkenyl Bromides.

Org Lett 2021 May 22;23(9):3541-3545. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Evonik Chair of Organic Chemistry, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany.

In the presence of [-cymene)RuCl], ()-configured alkenyl bromides couple with aromatic carboxylates to form -vinylbenzoic acids. This C-H vinylation proceeds in high yields without any activating phosphine ligands and has an excellent functional group tolerance. Starting from commonly available (/ )-mixtures of alkenyl bromides, ()-configured vinyl arenes or dienes are formed exclusively. Mechanistic studies show that this selectivity is achieved because the ()-configured alkenyl bromides undergo a smooth coupling, whereas the ()-isomers are rapidly eliminated with the formation of alkynes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00956DOI Listing
May 2021

The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in cervical cancer.

J Gynecol Oncol 2021 05;32(3):e32

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To predict the prognosis of cervical cancer, we constructed a novel model with 5 specific cell types and identified a potential biomarker.

Methods: We employed CIBERSORT and xCell method to evaluate the abundances of 23 cells types in tumor microenvironment. Five specific cell types were filtrated to determine different immunotypes by applying least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression method. The expression of immune checkpoints (ICPs) and effectors were validated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation analysis was performed to examine the relevance between PIK3CA mutational status and ICPs.

Results: Unsupervised clustering of patients on the basis of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and fibroblasts identified patients with shorter overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR]=3.0729; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5103-6.2522; p=0.0118). An immunoscore (IS) signature consisting of 5 immune cell types infiltrating in tumor core (CD8T, activated NK cells, neutrophils, activated mast cells, macrophages) was constructed using LASSO Cox regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves confirmed that the area under the curve of IS was significantly higher to that of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging alone (0.637 vs. 0.55). Survival analysis revealed patients in high IS group exhibited a poorer OS (HR=3.0113; 95% CI=1.8746-4.8373; p<0.0001). The multivariate analysis indicated the IS was an independent prognostic factor. In addition, the lower IS related to higher expression of ICPs and neoantigen load.

Conclusions: The identification of IS in cervical cancer tissues could facilitate patient risk stratification and selection of immunotherapeutic responses, but more prospective studies are needed to assess its reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039170PMC
May 2021

Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cells with enriched ferrous iron oxidation microflora at room temperatures.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 24;331:125025. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan; Department of Mechanical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; College of Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Adding ferric ions (Fe) in catholyte can enhance performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This work adopted biocathode with enriched Fe oxidizing microflora to perform in situ Fe oxidization so the MFC could operate with prolonged period with increased cell open circuit voltage (1037 mV) and maximum power density (71.8 Wm at 154 Am) but with minimal needs for iron replenishment. The Fe-oxidizing microflora was very effective so the Fe/Fe could reach high ratio, which was composed of Acidithiobacillus (73.8%), Acidiphilium (12.1%), Mycobacterium (6.92%), Sulfobacillus (2.66%), Ochrobactrum (1.30%), Alicyclobacillus (0.82%), and other minor species. The membrane transport and cell replication were shown to be their most important metabolic activities. The formation of jarosite and hydronium jarosite by Fe and sulfate led to loss of iron ions, which should be minimized in operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125025DOI Listing
July 2021

Auto-Regulation Method vs. Fixed-Loading Method in Maximum Strength Training for Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Physiol 2021 12;12:651112. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Key Lab of Physical Fitness Evaluation and Motor Function Monitoring of General Administration of Sports of China, College of Physical Education, Institute of Sports Science, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

The auto-regulation method is a rising training strategy to improve strength and motor performance, and the Autoregulatory Progressive Resistance Exercise (APRE), Rating of Perceived Exertion program (RPE), and Velocity-Based Training (VBT) are the three common auto-regulation programs. However, whether the auto-regulation method is more effective than the traditional strength training (the fixed-loading method) in maximum strength training is still unclear. The present study searched the Pubmed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane, CNKI, and CQVIP databases, and included eight related studies published between 2010 and 2020, with a total of 166 subjects including division 1 college players and athletes with at least 1-year training history, and interventions ranging from 5 to 10 weeks. A meta-analysis was performed to check the difference between the two training methods, and analyzed the differences in the existing auto-regulation programs' effectiveness. The overall results showed that the auto-regulation method was more effective than the fixed-loading method in maximum strength training (effect size = 0.64; < 0.001; = 0%). In specific, the pooled results in subgroup analysis indicated that the auto-regulation method may effectively improve the strength performance in squat (effect size = 4.64; < 0.05; = 54%) and bench press (effect size = 3.21; < 0.05; = 62%). Greater benefits of the auto-regulation method on strength improvement could be achieved in an 8-week or even shorter training (effect size = 0.87; < 0.001; = 0%) compared with those of 8-10 weeks (effect size = 0.32; < 0.001; = 0%). The APRE is the most effective training program among the three auto-regulation programs (effect size = 0.78; < 0.001; = 0%). In conclusion, the auto-regulation method could be more effective than the fixed-loading method in maximum strength training. The APRE is a convenient and effective training program that may be considered a practical training program to replace traditional training in athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.651112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994759PMC
March 2021

Potential chemopreventive, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of a refined artocarpin-rich wood extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Sci Rep 2021 03 25;11(1):6854. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Natural Products Institute, The University of West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, West Indies.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the third leading cause of death among cancer patients below the age of 50, necessitating improved treatment and prevention initiatives. A crude methanol extract from the wood pulp of Artocarpus heterophyllus was found to be the most bioactive among multiple others, and an enriched extract containing 84% (w/v) artocarpin (determined by HPLC-MS-DAD) was prepared. The enriched extract irreversibly inhibited the activity of human cytochrome P450 CYP2C9, an enzyme previously shown to be overexpressed in CRC models. In vitro evaluations on heterologously expressed microsomes, revealed irreversible inhibitory kinetics with an IC value of 0.46 µg/mL. Time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity was observed on human cancerous HCT116 cells with an IC value of 4.23 mg/L in 72 h. We then employed the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis-induced model in C57BL/6 mice, which revealed that the enriched extract suppressed tumor multiplicity, reduced the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and attenuated the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-6 and Ifn-γ) and protumorigenic markers (Pcna, Axin2, Vegf, and Myc). The extract significantly (p = 0.03) attenuated (threefold) the gene expression of murine Cyp2c37, an enzyme homologous to the human CYP2C9 enzyme. These promising chemopreventive, cytotoxic, anticancer and anti-inflammatory responses, combined with an absence of toxicity, validate further evaluation of A. heterophyllus extract as a therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86040-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994669PMC
March 2021

The immune landscape during the tumorigenesis of cervical cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 04 10;10(7):2380-2395. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Deciphering the determinants of the intralesional immune reaction in cervical carcinogenesis may be conducive to improving the understanding of the disease and then improve outcomes.

Methods: Public gene-expression data and full clinical annotation were searched in Gene Expression Omnibus in the joint analysis of the array-based four eligible cohorts. The infiltrating estimation was quantified using microenvironment cell populations-counter algorithm and absolute-mode CIBERSORT and verified by flow cytometry analysis. An unsupervised classification on immune genes strongly associated with progression, designated by linear mixed-effects regression. We determined immune response and signaling features of the different developmental stages and immune phenotypes by functional annotation and systematically correlated the expression of immune checkpoints with cell-infiltrating characteristics.

Results: We identified the lesion-intrinsic immunosuppression mechanism was triggered at precancerous stages, such as genome instability and mutation, aerobic glycolysis, activation of proto-oncogene pathways and so forth. Predominant innate and adoptive cells were increasing from normalcy to cancer (B cell, total T cell, regulatory T cells [Tregs], monocytes, neutrophils, and M2-like macrophages) together with the decrease of CD4 T cell and CD8 T cell through the development of cervical cancer. Immune escape initiated on the expression of immunosuppressive molecules from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and culminated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Of note, the expression of immune checkpoints was escalated in the immune-hot and immune-warm phenotype largely encompassed by HSIL and SCC under the stress of both activated and suppressive immune responses.

Conclusions: Immune surveillance is unleashing from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions onwards and immune-suppression mechanisms are triggered in HSIL. Thorough knowledge of the immune changing pattern during cervical tumorigenesis contributes to finding the potential therapeutic targets to susceptive patients towards immune checkpoints inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982625PMC
April 2021

Continuous Dermal Exposure to Triclocarban Perturbs the Homeostasis of Liver-Gut Axis in Mice: Insights from Metabolic Interactions and Microbiome Shifts.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 10;55(8):5117-5127. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Humans are constantly exposed to antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) via direct skin contact with personal care and consumer products, but the safety of long-term dermal exposure to TCC remains largely unknown. Herein, we used a mouse model to evaluate the potential health risks from the continuous dermal application of TCC at human-relevant concentrations. After percutaneous absorption, TCC circulated in the bloodstream and largely entered the liver-gut axis for metabolic disposition. Nontargeted metabolomics approach revealed that TCC exposure perturbed mouse liver homeostasis, as evidenced by the increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity, leading to oxidative damage and enhancement of upstream glycolysis and folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. Meanwhile, TCC was transformed in the liver through hydroxylation, dechlorination, methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and glutathione conjugation. TCC-derived xenobiotics were subsequently excreted into the gut, and glucuronide and sulfate metabolites could be further deconjugated by the gut microbiota into their active free forms. In addition, microbial community analysis showed that the composition of gut microbiome was altered in response to TCC exposure, indicating the perturbation of gut homeostasis. Together, through tracking the xenobiotic-biological interactions , this study provides novel insights into the underlying impacts of dermally absorbed TCC on the liver and gut microenvironments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08273DOI Listing
April 2021

Antireflective and Superhydrophilic Structure on Graphite Written by Femtosecond Laser.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Feb 26;12(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Electronic Information College, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

Antireflection and superhydrophilicity performance are desirable for improving the properties of electronic devices. Here, we experimentally provide a strategy of femtosecond laser preparation to create micro-nanostructures on the graphite surface in an air environment. The modified graphite surface is covered with abundant micro-nano structures, and its average reflectance is measured to be 2.7% in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions (250 to 2250 nm). The wettability transformation of the surface from hydrophilicity to superhydrophilicity is realized. Besides, graphene oxide (GO) and graphene are proved to be formed on the sample surface. This micro-nanostructuring method, which demonstrates features of high efficiency, high controllability, and hazardous substances zero discharge, exhibits the application for functional surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12030236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996749PMC
February 2021

The lipid peroxidation product EKODE exacerbates colonic inflammation and colon tumorigenesis.

Redox Biol 2021 06 27;42:101880. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA; Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is emerging as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC), however, the molecular mechanisms by which the disturbed redox balance regulates CRC development remain undefined. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based lipidomics, we found that epoxyketooctadecenoic acid (EKODE), which is a lipid peroxidation product, was among the most dramatically increased lipid molecules in the colon of azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced CRC mice. This is, at least in part, due to increased oxidative stress in colon tumors, as assessed by analyzing gene expression of oxidative markers in AOM/DSS-induced CRC mice and human CRC patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Systemic, short-time treatment with low-dose EKODE increased the severity of DSS-induced colitis, caused intestinal barrier dysfunction and enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/bacterial translocation, and exacerbates the development of AOM/DSS-induced CRC in mice. Furthermore, treatment with EKODE, at nM doses, induced inflammatory responses via JNK-dependent mechanisms in both colon cancer cells and macrophage cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that the lipid peroxidation product EKODE is an important mediator of colonic inflammation and colon tumorigenesis, providing a novel mechanistic linkage between oxidative stress and CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.101880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113040PMC
June 2021

Rolling Circle Amplification-Based Polyvalent Molecular Beacon Probe-Assisted Signal Amplification Strategies for Sensitive Detection of B16 Cells.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 05 16;6(5):3114-3121. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, P. R. China.

We developed a simple and sensitive signal amplification method for the detection of B16 cells based on the combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA) and molecular beacons (MBs). A long-chain structure of DNA synthesized by RCA was used to turn on aptamer-based MBs. Because of the multiple complementary repeat units, the RCA scaffold hybridized tens or hundreds of MBs to form polyvalent aptamer probes. The unfold ability and the fluorescence intensity of MBs were both improved by RCA, as compared to short single chains. The cell experiment results demonstrated that RCA-based polyvalent MBs were significantly more effective than monovalent MBs in targeting B16 cells and signal sensitivity because of their multivalent effects. The establishment of this strategy would provide a powerful platform for early clinical diagnostics of cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00288DOI Listing
May 2020

Occurrence of antibiotics in the Xiaoqing River basin and antibiotic source contribution-a case study of Jinan city, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 16;28(20):25241-25254. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Institute of Environment and Ecology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250358, China.

Twenty antibiotics were investigated to evaluate the degree of antibiotic pollution, the temporal and spatial antibiotic distribution and the ecological risks in the Xiaoqing River basin (main stream). The total antibiotic concentrations in surface water and sediment were 0.99 to 832.4 ng L and 9.71 to 7841.61 ng g, respectively, and that ofloxacin was the dominant antibiotic. However, ofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole posed high risks to algae, among which clarithromycin presented the highest risk quotients (23.8). In addition, there were spatial and temporal differences in the antibiotic concentration distribution. Temporally, the following trend was detected: dry season > normal season > wet season; spatially, the following trend was detected: Jinan > Dongying > Binzhou > Zibo > Weifang. Meanwhile, we used the PCA-MLR model to quantify the contribution rate of the four sewage treatment plants A, B, C and D. Factor 1 (co-sources A, B, C, D) contributed 64.1% of the total antibiotic concentration in the Xiaoqing River. According to the estimated flux into the sea, approximately 972.31 kg of antibiotics were discharged into Bohai Bay in 2017, posing a potential threat to the marine ecosystem. As a comprehensive river channel used for flood control, waterlogging, irrigation and shipping, its water quality safety is of great significance to the surrounding residents and ecological safety. Therefore, further investigations of antibiotic pollution and source contribution are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12202-zDOI Listing
May 2021

CXCL13 shapes immunoactive tumor microenvironment and enhances the efficacy of PD-1 checkpoint blockade in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 01;9(1)

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Background: Most patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) lack an effective response to immune checkpoint blockade, highlighting the need for more knowledge about what is required for successful treatment. As follicular cytotoxic CXCR5CD8 T cells are maintained by reinvigoration by immune checkpoint blockade in tumors, we attempted to reveal the relationship between CXCR5CD8 T cells and the tumor microenvironment to predict immunotherapy responses in HGSC.

Methods: 264 patients with HGSC from two cohorts and 340 HGSC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort were enrolled. Ex vivo and in vivo studies were conducted with human HGSC tumors and murine tumor models. The spatial correlation between CXC-chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), CXCR5, CD8, and CD20 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Survival was compared between different subsets of patients using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The therapeutic effect of CXCL13 and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade was validated using human HGSC tumors and murine models.

Results: High CXCL13 expression was associated with prolonged survival. Tumors with high CXCL13 expression exhibited increased infiltration of activated and CXCR5-expressing CD8 T cells. Incubation with CXCL13 facilitated expansion and activation of CXCR5CD8 T cells ex vivo. CXCR5CD8 T cells appeared in closer proximity to CXCL13 in tumors and chemotaxis towards CXCL13 in vitro. The combination of CXCL13, CXCR5, and CD8 T cells was an independent predictor for survival. In addition, CXCL13 was associated with clusters of CD20 B cells. CD20 B cells predicted better patient survival in the presence of CXCL13. Histological evaluation highlighted colocalization of CXCL13 with tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). TLSs carried prognostic benefit only in the presence of CXCL13. CXCL13 in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy retarded tumor growth in a CD8 T-cell-dependent manner, resulting in increased infiltration of cytotoxic CD8 T cells and CXCR5CD8 T cells.

Conclusions: These data define a critical role of CXCL13 in shaping antitumor microenvironment by facilitating the maintenance of CXCR5CD8 T cells in TLSs and support a clinical investigation for a combination of CXCL13 and PD-1 blockade therapy in HGSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813306PMC
January 2021

Survey of Salmonella in raw tree nuts at retail in the United States.

J Food Sci 2021 Feb 12;86(2):495-504. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD, 20740, U.S.A.

The objective of this survey was to estimate the prevalence, contamination level, and genetic diversity of Salmonella in selected raw, shelled tree nuts (Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,374 samples of eight tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between September 2015 and March 2017. These samples (375 g) were analyzed using a modified FDA's BAM Salmonella culture method. Of the 3,374 samples, 15 (0.44%) (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.25, 0.73]) were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella; 17 isolates were obtained. Among these isolates, there were 11 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in Brazil nuts (296), hazelnuts (487), pecans (510), pine nuts (500), and walnuts (498). Salmonella prevalence estimates in cashews (510), macadamia (278), and pistachios (295) were 0.20% (95% CI [<0.01, 1.09]), 2.52% (95% CI [1.02, 5.12]), and 2.37% (95% CI [0.96, 4.83]), respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major/big-chain supermarkets (1381), small-chain supermarkets (328), discount/variety/drug stores (1329), and online (336) were 0.29% (95% CI [0.08, 0.74]), 0.30% (95% CI [0.01, 1.69]), 0.45% (95% CI [0.17, 0.98]), and 1.19% (95% CI [0.33, 3.02]), respectively. Salmonella prevalence in organic (530) and conventional (2,844) nuts was not different statistically (P = 0.0601). Of the enumerated samples (15), 80% had Salmonella levels ≤0.0092 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.75 MPN/g. The prevalence and contamination levels of Salmonella in the tree nuts analyzed were generally comparable to previous reports. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, serotype, and sequencing data all demonstrated that Salmonella population in nuts is very diverse genetically. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The prevalence, contamination level, and genetic diversity of Salmonella in eight types of tree nuts (3,374 samples collected nationwide) revealed in this survey could help the development of mitigation strategies to reduce public health risks associated with consumption of these nuts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898309PMC
February 2021

Ru-catalysed C(sp)-H vinylation/annulation of benzoic acids and alkynes: rapid access to medium-sized lactones.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan 7;57(9):1113-1116. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Energy Materials Chemistry of Ministry of Education & Hubei Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.

An unprecedented ruthenium catalysed [4+4] annulation of readily available benzoic acids and alkynes is reported for the first time. The carboxylate group acts as both a directing group and an internal nucleophilic reagent to facilitate a C(sp)-H vinylation/annulation cascade. This reaction avoids the classically oxidative [4+2] annulation, allowing the efficient synthesis of a wide array of eight-membered lactones under oxidant-free conditions. Moreover, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to [4+3] and [4+5] annulations for the assembly of seven- and nine-membered lactones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc07573fDOI Listing
January 2021

Application of bilateral internal mammary artery with different configurations in coronary artery bypass grafting.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Jan 6;16(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Cardiac Surgery Department, Peking University People's Hospital, BeiJing, 100044, China.

Background: A large number of studies have shown that BIMA grafting is superior to single internal mammary artery grafting in cardiac function protection and long-term survival after surgery. While, there is still no consensus on how is the best configuration to use BIMA. This study aims to compare intraoperative blood flow, early clinical results and early postoperative patency of different configurations of BIMA.

Methods: There were 74 patients who underwent CABGs with bilateral internal mammary artery with different configurations we included. According to the different target territories that RIMA grafted to, the patients were divided into bilateral group (group I) with 20 cases and left group (group II) with 54 cases. Intraoperative blood flow, early clinical results and early postoperative patency of different configurations of BIMA were compared.

Results: There was no difference in the early postoperative death and major complications between group I and Group II(P>0.05). Compared with the LIMA in group II, the LIMA in group I had a slightly higher DF value (76.7 ± 6.2 vs 73.1 ± 6.8, P = 0.040). Compared with the RIMA in group II, the RIMA in group I had a slightly higher MGF (51.7 ± 34.4 ml/min vs 31.4 ± 21.4 ml/min, P = 0.024). There was no difference in the other TTFM parameters of LIMA and RIMA between group I and Group II(P>0.05). Further subgroup analysis revealed that compared with free RIMA in group II, in situ RIMA had a higher DF value (71.4 ± 7.8 vs 61.8 ± 18.1,P = 0.025). The PI of LIMA in free RIMA subgroup was higher than the PI of LIMA in in-situ RIMA subgroup (3.0 ± 1.6 vs 2.1 ± 1.0,P = 0.018). The results of early postoperative CTA examination showed that all IMAs grafts were completely patent.

Conclusions: The use of BIMA for CABG is safe and efficacious, RIMA used in right coronary artery received more satisfactory graft flow. BIMA with no stenosis and occlusion in the early stage, therefore is the ideal and stable coronary bypass graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-020-01380-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787227PMC
January 2021
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