Publications by authors named "Guo-Yu Zhou"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Role of the hippo signaling pathway in the extracellular matrix degradation of chondrocytes induced by fluoride exposure.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Dec 21;225:112796. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Environment and Health Innovation Team, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, PR China. Electronic address:

To identify the role of the Hippo signaling pathway in the extracellular matrix degradation of chondrocytes induced by fluoride exposure. Environmental response genes (ERGs) of bone injury induced by fluoride exposure were obtained from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and annotated by STRING for KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The CCK-8 kit was used to measure the proliferation of ATDC5 cells. The malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels in ATDC5 cells were measured using oxidative stress detection kit. Western blot analysis was used to measure the p-MST1/2, p-LATS1/2, and p-YAP/YAP1 expression levels in the Hippo pathway and the COL2A1, ACAN and MMP13 expression levels in the cartilage matrix. Localizations of YAP1 and COL2A1 proteins in chondrocytes were performed using cell immunofluorescence. Continuous data from the multiple groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance, and then the differences between groups were tested with Dunnett's t-test, with the test level α = 0.05. The 145 ERGs of bone injury induced by fluoride exposure were identified, and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed Hippo signaling pathways significantly related to bone injury. A CCK-8 assay revealed that the viability of the ATDC5 cells was significantly decreased with increased fluorine concentration. The MDA content in 20 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF) exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the T-SOD, T-AOC and GSH-PX activities in 15 and 20 mg/L NaF exposure groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Western blot results showed the protein levels of p-MST1/2, p-LATS1/2 and p-YAP1 in 15 and 20 mg/L NaF exposure groups were significantly lower than those in the control group, while the YAP1 protein level in 20 mg/L NaF group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The COL2A1 and ACAN proteins in 20 mg/L NaF group were significantly decreased, while the MMP13 protein level in 15 and 20 mg/L NaF groups were significantly increased (P < 0.05). It was observed that the expression of YAP1 protein expression level in the cytoplasm decreased with the increased fluoride exposure, whereas that the expression level of YAP1 protein in the nucleus increased. Fluoride inhibited the proliferation of ATDC5 cells, induced oxidative stress, inhibited the activity of the Hippo pathway, and eventually led to cartilage matrix degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112796DOI Listing
December 2021

Meta-analysis of Association Studies of Selenoprotein Gene Polymorphism and Kashin-Beck Disease: an Updated Systematic Review.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Environment and Health Innovation Team, 100 Kexue Avenue, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, People's Republic of China.

To evaluate the association between selenoprotein gene polymorphisms and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) susceptibility through a systematic review and updated meta-analysis. PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were electronically searched using the terms "selenoprotein" and "Kashin-Beck disease" or "KBD" with a search time from the establishment of the database to January 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used for methodological quality evaluation of the included studies. Stata 14.0 software was used to pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval. There were a total of eight included case-control studies covering 2025 KBD patients and 1962 controls. Meta-analysis results show that the pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for DIO2 (rs225014) were 0.69 (0.52, 0.91), 0.69 (0.50, 0.96), and 0.72 (0.52, 0.99) in the allele, heterozygote, and dominant models, respectively. The OR and 95%CI for SEPS1 (-105G>A) were 2.47 (1.85, 3.29), 9.36 (4.58, 19.12), 2.17 (1.53, 3.08), and 8.60 (4.25, 17.38) in the allele, homozygote, dominant, and recessive models, respectively. In addition, the OR and 95%CI for Sep15 (rs5859) were 2.05 (1.06, 3.96) in the allele model. These results illustrate that there was a significant association between DIO2 (rs225014), SEPS1 (-105G>A), Sep15 (rs5859), and KBD. For GPX1 (rs1050450, rs1800668, rs3811699), DIO2 (rs225014, rs1352815, rs1388382), TrxR2 (rs1139793, rs5746841), GPX4 (rs713041, rs4807542), and SEPP1 (rs7579, 25191g/a), there was no significant statistical difference between the KBD and control groups (P>0.05). We conclude that the DIO2 (rs225014), SEPS1 (-105G>A), and Sep15 (rs5859) gene polymorphism are associated with susceptibility to KBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02705-2DOI Listing
April 2021

[Effect of pulsed dye laser on inhibiting early scar after maxillofacial trauma].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2018 Apr;27(2):200-203

Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology and Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology. Shanghai 200011,China.

Purpose: The study was designed to explore an effective method to control early scar after maxillofacial trauma and improve the satisfaction of clinical treatment.

Methods: Fifty skin lesions after maxillofacial trauma were divided into the experimental group and control group. Patients in the experimental group were treated with pulsed dye laser when taking out stitches, 15, 30 and 60 days later. Digital microscope photos were taken and lesion area was measured before and 3 months after laser irradiation. Adverse effects were recorded during and after each treatment as well. All patients were asked to rate their satisfaction at 3-month of follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package.

Results: The efficiency of the experimental group was 74% and 37 lesions were cured or significantly improved, while the efficiency rate was 22% in the control group. Area reduction of maxillofacial lesions before and after treatment between the two groups was significantly different (P<0.05). Patients in the experimental group were highly satisfied with the final outcomes. No severe adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Pulsed dye laser is safe and effective in inhibiting early scar following maxillofacial trauma.
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April 2018

The inhibition of CB receptor accelerates the onset and development of EAE possibly by regulating microglia/macrophages polarization.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 04 9;317:37-44. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Institutes of Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CBR) regulates the neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative damages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanism by which CBR inhibition exerts inflammatory effects is still unclear. Here, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CBR in the treatment of EAE by using a specific and selective CBR antagonist SR141716A. Our study demonstrated that SR141716A accelerated the clinical onset and development of EAE, accompanied by body weight loss. SR141716A significantly up-regulated the expression of toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) on microglia/macrophages of EAE mice as well as levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1, CX3CL1), accompanied by the shifts of cytokines from Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) to Th1 (IFN-γ)/Th17 (IL-17) in the spinal cords of EAE mice. Similar changes happened on splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) except chemokine CX3CL1. Consistently, SR141716A promoted BV-2 microglia to release inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) while inhibited the production of IL-10 and chemokines (MCP-1, CX3CL1). Furthermore, when splenic CD4 T cells co-cultured with SR141716A-administered BV-2 microglia, the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased while production of IL-17 and IFN-γ increased significantly. Our research indicated that inhibition of CBR induced M1 phenotype-Th17 axis changed of microglia/macrophages through TLR-4 and NF-κB/p65 which accelerated the onset and development of EAE. Therefore, CBR may be a promising target for the treatment of MS/EAE, but its complexity remains to be carefully considered and studied in further clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.02.001DOI Listing
April 2018

Endemic fluorosis in Henan province, China: ERα gene polymorphisms and reproductive hormones among women.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2016 Dec;25(4):911-919

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Email:

Background And Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of fluoride exposure and ERα gene polymorphisms on reproductive hormone concentrations of women in accordance with endemic fluorosis residence.

Methods And Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Tongxu county, Henan Province, China. A total of 679 women were recruited using cluster sampling and each subject provided fasting blood and an associated urine sample. We measured the concentrations of serum gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol and urinary fluoride.

Results: In the defluoridation project group (DFPG), serum GnRH was lower in women carrying C/C genotype compared to in those carrying C/T and T/T genotypes of ERα gene rs3798577 (p<0.05). In the endemic fluorosis group (EFG), serum GnRH was lower in women carrying Pp genotype compared to in those carrying PP and pp genotypes of ERα PvuII (p<0.05). Serum GnRH in women from EFG who carried Pp, pp, Xx and xx genotypes in ERα gene PvuII and XbaI was lower than in those in the control group (CG) who carried same genotypes (p<0.05). Furthermore, serum GnRH in women from EFG was significantly lower than in those in CG, regardless of whether the women were carrying C/C, C/T or T/T genotypes of ERα rs3798577 (p<0.05). Serum estradiol concentrations in EFG were significantly lower than in CG when the women were carrying the Pp, Xx and T/T genotypes in ERα gene (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Interaction of ERα gene and fluoride exposure may influence women's serum reproductive hormone concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.062016.01DOI Listing
December 2016

Safety and efficacy of a new prophylactic tirofiban protocol without oral intraoperative antiplatelet therapy for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

J Neurointerv Surg 2016 Nov 27;8(11):1148-1153. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Background: Coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms is being increasingly used; however, thromboembolic events have become a major periprocedural complication.

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of prophylactic tirofiban in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

Methods: Tirofiban was administered as an intravenous bolus (8.0 μg/kg over 3 min) followed by a maintenance infusion (0.10 μg/kg/min) before stent deployment or after completion of single coiling. Dual oral antiplatelet therapy (loading doses) was overlapped with half the tirofiban dose 2 h before cessation of the tirofiban infusion. Cases of intracranial hemorrhage or thromboembolism were recorded.

Results: Tirofiban was prophylactically used in 221 patients, including 175 (79.19%) who underwent stent-assisted coiling and 46 (20.81%) who underwent single coiling, all in the setting of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Six (2.71%) cases of intracranial hemorrhage occurred, including four (1.81%) tirofiban-related cases and two (0.90%) antiplatelet therapy-related cases. There were two (0.90%) cases of fatal hemorrhage, one related to tirofiban and the other related to dual antiplatelet therapy. Thromboembolic events occurred in seven (3.17%) patients (6 stent-assisted embolization, 1 single coiling), of which one (0.45%) event occurred during stenting and six (2.72%) occurred during intravenous tirofiban maintenance. No thromboembolic events related to dual antiplatelet therapy were found.

Conclusions: Tirofiban bolus over 3 min followed by maintenance infusion appears to be a safe and efficient prophylactic protocol for the endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and may be an alternative to intraoperative oral antiplatelet therapy, especially in the case of stent-assisted embolization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-012055DOI Listing
November 2016

Fluoride Exposure, Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian Axis Hormones in Chinese Women.

Biomed Environ Sci 2015 Sep;28(9):696-700

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.

The effects of fluoride exposure on the functions of reproductive and endocrine systems have attracted widespread attention in academic circle nowadays. However, it is unclear whether the gene-environment interaction may modify the secretion and activity of hypothalamus-pituitary- ovarian (HPO) axis hormones. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of fluoride exposure and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphism on reproductive hormones in Chinese women. A cross sectional study was conducted in seven villages of Henan Province, China during 2010-2011. A total of 679 women aged 18-48 years were recruited through cluster sampling and divided into three groups, i.e. endemic fluorosis group (EFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG), and control group (CG) based on the local fluoride concentration in drinking water. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) were determined respectively and the FSHR polymorphism was detected by real time PCR assay. The results provided the preliminary evidence indicating the gene-environment interaction on HPO axis hormones in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2015.099DOI Listing
September 2015

Neck dissection and post-operative chemotherapy with dimethyl triazeno imidazole carboxamide and cisplatin protocol are useful for oral mucosal melanoma.

BMC Cancer 2010 Nov 11;10:623. Epub 2010 Nov 11.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, China.

Background: Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is a clinically rare disease with poor prognosis. Various treatment methods have been investigated with the aim of improving the prognosis. This study aimed to analyze the data of a single institution in the management of OMM.

Methods: A total of 78 consecutive OMM patients were included in this retrospective study. The intraoral lesion was treated either by cryotherapy, surgery or both; the neck was treated by neck dissection or observation; post-operative chemotherapy with dimethyl triazeno imidazole carboxamide and cisplatin was performed in some patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Among the 78 patients, there were 50 males and 28 females with an average age of 53.8 years (ranging from 27 to 85 years). The most common sites of OMM were the hard palate and gingiva. The main cause of death in OMM was distant metastasis. No significant difference was found between the intraoral/cervical lesion recurrence/post-operative distant metastasis and the intraoral lesion site/biopsy method/treatment method. The metastasis rate of cervical lymph node was high in the OMM patients, even in the patients with clinically negative necks. Cervical lesion recurrence was correlated with N stage and intraoral lesion recurrence. The survival period was longer in the patients with T3 staging, clinical stage III disease, with post-operative chemotherapy and without post-operative distant metastasis when compared to those patients with T4a staging, clinical stage IV disease, without post-operative chemotherapy and with post-operative distant metastasis.

Conclusions: Radical surgery including wide intraoral resection and neck dissection is recommended for OMM patients. Post-operative chemotherapy may also be beneficial for both primary and recurrent OMM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2993680PMC
November 2010

[Evaluation of MR diffusion-weighted imaging (MR-DWI) between head and neck hemangioma and venous malformation in children].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2010 Aug;19(4):378-82

Department of Radiology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Purpose: To analyze and evaluate the MR diffusion-weighted imaging (MR-DWI) features of head and neck hemangioma and venous malformation in children.

Methods: We retrospectively observed 10 head and neck hemangiomas and 40 head and neck venous malformations in children, which underwent both conventional MR imaging and MR-DWI. In the MR-DW images, the apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC) mean value was taken from b=500 s/mm² and 1000 s/mm², The data was analyzed using SPSS13.0 software package for t test.

Results: The mean ADC obtained from b value of 500 s/mm² was (1.227±0.324)x10⁻³mm²/s in hemangioma and (1.851±0.364)x10⁻³mm²/s in venous malformation, and from b value of 1000 s/mm² was (0.728±0.256)x10⁻³mm²/s in hemangioma and (1.200±0.228)x10⁻³mm²/s in vein malformation. There was significant difference between both lesions (P<0.01).

Conclusion: There are different features in MR-DWI between head and neck hemangioma and venous malformation in children, which may be helpful for radiological differential diagnosis.
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August 2010

Treatment guideline for hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck.

Head Neck 2010 Aug;32(8):1088-98

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Stomatology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Vascular anomalies are among the most common congenital and neonatal dysmorphogenesis, which are separated into hemangiomas and vascular malformations. They can occur in various areas throughout the body, with 60% being located in the head and neck. The true mechanism of pathogenesis of vascular anomalies is still unclear. Various treatment methods have been reported, and there are still controversies over the selection of different treatment modalities. Based on the clinical and basic research and current literature, the Chinese Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Vascular Anomalies formulated a treatment guideline for hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck, which will be modified and updated periodically based on new medical evidence and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.21274DOI Listing
August 2010

[Treatment of orbital venous malformation using surgical procedure combined with Nd:YAG laser].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2008 Aug;44(8):681-6

Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Objective: To evaluate the security and efficacy of surgical procedure combined with Nd:YAG laser in the management of orbital venous malformation.

Methods: A total of 17 successive patients with orbital venous malformation were treated with surgical excision in conjunction with Nd:YAG laser from July 2003 to June 2005. General anesthesia was performed in all patients. Appropriate approach was used according to the location and size of the lesion as well as its relation with adjacent tissues. Surgical procedure and laser coagulation were performed alternatively. Intermittent or continuous photocoagulation aimed at minor and deep lesions or large and superficial lesions was administrated, respectively, when indicated. Laser power of these two procedures was set at 60 to 90 J/cm2 or less than 100 J/cm2, respectively. Cold saline solution was used to cool the targeted region immediately after photocoagulation in case of damage to surrounding normal tissues.

Results: Seventeen patients were followed-up for 12 to 26 months. Notable lesion regression was found in 15 cases and fair reduction of the lesion in 2 cases. Vision acuity decrease did not occur and vision acuity increase was found in 2 patients. Exophthalmos was completely corrected, enophthalmos was found in 4 patients, the movement of the eyeballs was markedly improved. Complications consisted of superior oblique muscle paralysis (1 case) and ptosis (1 case). Relapse or aggravation of residual lesion was not found during the whole follow-up period.

Conclusions: Surgical procedure combined with Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective procedure in managing patients with orbital venous malformation. Laser treatment can decrease the hemorrhage during operation, make the surgical procedure easier, reduce the risk of operation and improve the results of surgical treatment.
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August 2008

[Current treatment of infantile hemangiomas: an overview of the literature].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2008 Aug;17(4):337-47

Hemangiomas are the most common neoplasm of infancy and childhood, about 40% to 60% of them involve the head and neck region. In recent years, many studies had been carried out on the natural course of hemangiomas, an algorithm for intervention versus observation was proposed, and effective safe treatment plan is devised. Close observation is indictable for hemangiomas which are remaining stable in size or in the involutive phase or post- involutive phase. For large hemangiomas, multiple hemangiomas, life-threatening hemangiomas and problematic hemangiomas with complications such as ulceration, infection, bleeding, dysfunction, etc, systematic drug therapy (Cortico steroids, interferon alpha-2a or 2b ) should be considered. Growing hemangioma can be treated effectively by systematic drug therapy, sclerotherapy, laser therapy or combined therapy. Topical application of imiquimoid and intratumoral injection of steroids or pinyangmycin can be used in selected patients with rapidly growing hemangioma. Surgery is no longer the first choice of treatment for hemangiomas, which is only reserved for correction of large residuals postinvolution.
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August 2008

Adenoviral delivery of soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1) inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dark Agouti (DA) rats.

Life Sci 2008 Sep 30;83(11-12):404-12. Epub 2008 Jul 30.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, People's Republic of China.

Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is up-regulated in both multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS, and may exacerbate the disease. However, it remains unknown whether anti-VEGF modalities could serve as a potential treatment for such central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector carrying FLAG-tagged sFlt-1(1-3) (the first three extracellular domains of Flt-1, the hVEGF receptor-1). Intramuscular transfection of the recombinant adenoviral vector suppressed VEGF-induced inflammatory cell infiltration in matrigel plugs. When given intracerebrally to EAE rats, recombinant sFlt-1(1-3) adenoviral vector significantly reduced disease severity compared to untreated rats. sFlt-1(1-3) gene transfer blocked VEGF and greatly reduced the number of cells that express VEGF and ED1-positive cells in CNS in EAE rats. This study demonstrates that sFlt-1(1-3) gene transfer into the brain ameliorates the severity of EAE by inhibiting monocyte recruitment in the CNS of dark Agouti rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2008.07.009DOI Listing
September 2008

Management of head and neck hemangiomas in China.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2008 Jun;121(11):1037-42

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Stomatology, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

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June 2008

[Clinical analysis of 193 patients with thickening and nodular port wine stains].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2008 Jun;17(3):272-4

Department of Stomatology, Lishui People's Hospital, Hospital of Stomatology. Lishui 323000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between age, gender and thickening and nodules in port wine stains(PWS) patients.

Methods: The gender and age of 193 cases with port wine stains were compared between those with flat, those with thickening, those with thickening and nodules, in 0-19, 20-year age group. SAS6012 software package was used for Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results: There were 165 cases with flat (85.49%), 10 cases with thickening (5.18%), 18 cases with thickening and nodules (9.33%). Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated significant difference between 2 age groups(P<0.01).There was an increase incidence of thickening, and thickening and nodule formation in 0-19, 20-year age group(P<0.01), but there was no gender difference between thickening and nodules.The data were analyzed by SAS6.12 Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test.

Conclusion: The incidence of thickening and nodule formation in PWS increase with age.
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June 2008

[Imaging diagnosis of hemangioma in infants].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2008 Apr;17(2):221-4

Department of Radiology, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Hemangioma is the most commonly benign tumor of soft tissue tumors in infants. Most of them locate in the oral and maxillofacial region. The imaging examinations mainly contain ultrasonography, X-ray plain film, CT, MRI and X-ray angiography. In this article, the current situation of application with all imaging examinations used in diagnosis of hemangioma is reviewed.
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April 2008

[Experimental study on effect of Buchang Naoxintong containing serum for antagonizing hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cortical neurons].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2007 Sep;27(9):835-8

Department of Neurol-ogy, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Buchang Naoxintong containing serum (BNCS) for antagonizing hypoxia-induced apoptosis of primary cultured cortical neurons with the sero-pharmacological method.

Methods: Primary cortical neurons from neonate rats (within 24 h) were cultured and induced into hypoxia model on the 7th day, which were then treated with different concentrations of BNCS. Cell apoptosis was detected qualitatively and quantitatively; and further verified by agarose gel electrophoresis through analyzing in-ternucleosomal DNA fragmentation of the neurons. Besides, neuron viability was tested by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and change of nuclear morphology was observed by Hoechst 33258 staining.

Results: After treatment with BNCS, the viability of the hypoxia neurons improved with significantly reduced neuron apoptosis.

Conclusion: Buchang Naoxintong can protect cortical neurons from hypoxia-induced apoptosis.
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September 2007

[Head and neck hemangiomas: how and when to treat].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2007 Aug;16(4):337-42

Hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors of infancy characterized by a proliferative growth phase followed by very slow inevitable regression (involutive phase) between one to ten years of age, about 60% to 70% of the lesions are found in the head and neck region. There are many treatment modalities reported in the literature for head and neck hemangiomas, including wait and see policy, drug therapy, sclerotherapy (steroids, bleomycin), cryotherapy, isotope radiotherapy, laser therapy, and surgical therapy. There still exist many controversies over the optimal treatment options for individual patient. Based on our clinical experience on 250 cases and literature review, a rational treatment regime for head and neck hemangioma was proposed in this study: (1) As it is not possible to predict, whether a hemangioma will remain small and unproblematic or grow into a very large lesion, early therapy is the only way out of this dilemma. A white or pink macule, a port-wine stain-like lesion initially appearing in the children can be effectively and easily removed by laser, thus preventing a growth in the size in the early stage. (2) The term of "wait and see" should be substituted by "close observation", and this approach should only be reserved for hemangiomas which are without visible growth or in the involutive phase. (3) Systematic drug therapy (steroids, interferon alpha-2a ) should be considered for large hemangioma, multiple hemangiomas, life-threatening hemangiomas and hemangiomas with complications such as ulceration, infection, bleeding, dysfunction, etc. Congestive heart failure, consumptive coagulopathy, and thrombocytopenia are also urgent indications for the institution of corticoid therapy. (4) Growing hemangioma can be treated effectively by systematic drug therapy, sclerotherapy, laser therapy or combined therapy. The argon laser (514 nm in wavelength, 0.5 mm in depth) is useful in the treatment of superficial telangiectasias and small, flat cutaneous hemangiomas. Flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser (FPDL, 585 nm or 595 nm in wavelength, 1.0-2.0 mm in depth) can be used in patients with cutaneous and flat hemangiomas at the sites of potential functional impairment. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm in wavelength) with continuous ice cube cooling is useful for subcutaneous or mixed hemangiomas, and often requires repeated treatments. For larger and deeper hemangiomas up to a depth of 2.0 cm, percutaneous interstitial Nd:YAG laser treatment may be preferred, because it may decrease possible cutaneous skin damage and more effectively reduce bulky, deep lesion. (5) Topical application of imiquimoid and intratumoral injection of steroids or bleomycin can be used in selected patients with rapidly growing hemangioma. (6) The indication for a primary operation is rare and limited to large hemangiomas in the eyelid or hemangiomas on the scalp. Surgical correction of large residuals, especially before formal education begins, to prevent considerable psychosocial impairment is still a well established procedure. The aim of treatment is to counter the proliferative growth, reduce the volume of hemangioma, and initialize the process of regression. Cryotherapy or isotope radiotherapy is nowadays seldom used for the treatment of hemangiomas, due to the high incidence of scarring, pigmentation, or depigmentation. A successful treatment of hemangiomas should be individualized and based on the size of the tumor, the localization, and the therapies available.
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August 2007

Translocation and neuroprotective properties of transactivator-of-transcription protein-transduction domain-neuroglobin fusion protein in primary cultured cortical neurons.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2008 Jan;49(Pt 1):25-33

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, People's Republic of China.

Ngb (neuroglobin) is a newly discovered hexaco-ordinate globin that is expressed in vertebrate brain and peripheral nervous systems. Expression of Ngb increases in response to oxygen deprivation and protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. However, the lack of its transduction ability into cells resulted in limited neuroprotection. To educe its neuroprotection under hypoxia, a cell-permeable Ngb fusion protein was generated. A rat brain Ngb gene was cloned and fused with a gene fragment encoding the nine-amino-acid TAT PTD (transactivator-of-transcription protein-transduction domain; RKKRRQRRR) of HIV-1 in a prokaryotic expression vector to generate a genetic in-frame N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged) TAT PTD-Ngb fusion protein. It was expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)plysS and purified with Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography. The results showed that the purified fusion protein TAT PTD-Ngb can enter into the primary cultured cortical neurons in a dose-dependent manner when added exogenously to the culture media and can be detected in cells within 48 h. The cell viability under hypoxia was increased and apoptosis induced by hypoxia was decreased after TAT PTD-Ngb was transduced into cortical neurons. The results provide a clue for the research of Ngb and suggest that transduction of TAT PTD-Ngb may be one of the ways for the therapy of CNS (central nervous system) diseases, especially cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BA20070061DOI Listing
January 2008

[Treatment of 113 oral and maxillofacial hemangiomas with long pulsed turnable 1064 nm Gentle YAG laser].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2006 Jun;15(3):250-3

Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical therapeutic efficacy on hemangioma of oral maxillofacial regions using pulsed Gentle YAG laser.

Methods: Since April 2005 to August 2005, 113 cases of oral and maxillofacial hemangiomas were treated using pulsed Gentle YAG laser 1064 nm wavelength in our department. Minimal coagulation laser dosage was defined and used to avoid side effects such as thermal skin damage. The laser dosage was 170-240 J/cm2, with 1.5 mm in diameter spot and pulse wide of 30-60 ms. Dynamic cooling device set was used 10-20 times and 10-15 times pre- and post-pulse respectively. 9 of 113 cases had two sessions of treatment, 104 underwent only one session. 96% cases were followed up for 4-6 months.

Results: Total response was achieved in 85 cases (75.22%), good response in 28 cases (24.78%), fair response and poor response was 0. Temporary side effects included hyper-pigmentation in 11 cases (9.73%), hypo-pigmentation in 2 cases (1.77%), and they disappeared after 4 to 6 months. 7 cases had scar formation accounting for 6.19%.

Conclusion: The minimal coagulation dosage pulsed Gentle YAG laser is a good tool to treat hemangioma in oral and maxillofacial regions. It has the advantage of fast efficacy, short term sessions and fewer side effects. It is worthy of wide clinical application.
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June 2006

[Advances of in vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2006 Feb;15(1):97-100

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Stomatology, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200011, China.

In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy is being widely established as a time-saving, non-invasive, investigative methods in the study of body surfaces. Skin can be observed in its native state in vivo without the fixing, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. It is a new technology that can provide detailed images of tissue architecture and cellular morphology of living tissue. This paper reviews the fundamentals of in vivo confocal imaging and its clinical applications.
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February 2006

[Clinical study on laser therapy of the venous malformations and hemangioma in oral and maxillofacial regions].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2005 May;40(3):200-2

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Affiliated Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200011, China.

Objective: To try to find the best method of laser therapy for the management of venous malformation and hemangioma in oral and maxillofacial regions.

Methods: From June, 1999 to July, 2002, 2 481 cases of venous malformations and hemangiomas were treated by several kinds lasers in our department. The lesions included port-wine stains, venous malformations, telangiectasia and hemangioma. The lasers used were continuous wave CO(2), Nd:YAG and Krypton lasers, pulsed dye laser and ultra-pulsed CO(2) lasers. The treatment modalities were direct irradiation, irradiation after surgical flap raising and photodynamic therapy.

Results: Follow up between 2 - 5 years revealed the treatment results as follows: excellent is 79.24%, good is 14.31% and poor is 6.45%.

Conclusions: Laser therapy is one of the best method to treat venous malformations and hemangiomas. The key point is to apply different lasers properly.
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May 2005

[Discussion of surgical laser manipulation of venous malformations in the parotid gland region].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2004 Apr;13(2):152-4

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth people's Hospital, School of Stomatology, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200011, China.

Purpose: This study is carried to explore the surgical manipulation and complications of Nd:YAG laser coagulation for venous malformations in parotid gland region.

Methods: The study included 84 cases of venous malformations in the parotid gland region, who underwent laser therapy after surgical approach three years ago. The results were evaluated by CT or MRI. Postoperative facial nerve function and intraoperative bleeding were analyzed.

Results: Five cases had temporary facial nerve paralysis, which recovered spontaneously two months postoperatively. One case developed permanent nerve paralysis, which accounted for 1.19% in this group. The mean amount of blood loss was 200 ml. Four cases received blood transfusion.

Conclusion: Careful surgical dissection and correct laser irradiation is the key to successful treatment, which could preserve facial nerve from injury and decrease bleeding.
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April 2004

[Surgical laser treatment for base cell carcinoma of maxillofacial region].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2004 Apr;13(2):144-6

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Stomatology, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200011, China.

Purpose: Base cell carcinoma is a common skin malignancy involved in the facial area. Present surgical removal, cryosurgery and laser evaporation are the effective modalities. Following the development of laser technology, we used fine focused carbon dioxide laser surgery to treat basal cell carcinoma of the maxillofacial region.

Methods: Six cases of base cell carcinoma were included in this study. Tumors were removed by CO2 laser scalpel under local anesthesia. Intra-operative laser biopsy and post-operative follow up was carried out.

Results: six cases had radical result with a follow up of two years post-operatively with satisfactory contour.

Conclusion: Laser scalpel excision can get radical result for basal cell carcinoma with advantages of safety, simple and less bleeding. It is recommended to be used.
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April 2004
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