Publications by authors named "Guo Ding"

68 Publications

High-quality chromosome-level genome assembly and full-length transcriptome analysis of the pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis.

Gigascience 2020 Dec;9(12)

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China.

Background: Ants with complex societies have fascinated scientists for centuries. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses across ant species and castes have revealed important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying ant caste differentiation. However, most current ant genomes and transcriptomes are highly fragmented and incomplete, which hinders our understanding of the molecular basis for complex ant societies.

Findings: By hybridizing Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, and Hi-C sequencing technologies, we de novo assembled a chromosome-level genome for Monomorium pharaonis, with a scaffold N50 of 27.2 Mb. Our new assembly provides better resolution for the discovery of genome rearrangement events at the chromosome level. Analysis of full-length isoform sequencing (ISO-seq) suggested that ∼15 Gb of ISO-seq data were sufficient to cover most expressed genes, but the number of transcript isoforms steadily increased with sequencing data coverage. Our high-depth ISO-seq data greatly improved the quality of gene annotation and enabled the accurate detection of alternative splicing isoforms in different castes of M. pharaonis. Comparative transcriptome analysis across castes based on the ISO-seq data revealed an unprecedented number of transcript isoforms, including many caste-specific isoforms. We also identified a number of conserved long non-coding RNAs that evolved specifically in ant lineages and several that were conserved across insect lineages.

Conclusions: We produced a high-quality chromosome-level genome for M. pharaonis, which significantly improved previous short-read assemblies. Together with full-length transcriptomes for all castes, we generated a highly accurate annotation for this ant species. These long-read sequencing results provide a useful resource for future functional studies on the genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution of social behaviors and organization in ants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giaa143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736795PMC
December 2020

MCL-1 maintains neuronal survival by enhancing mitochondrial integrity and bioenergetic capacity under stress conditions.

Cell Death Dis 2020 05 5;11(5):321. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of Ottawa Brain and Mind Research Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Mitochondria play a crucial role in neuronal survival through efficient energy metabolism. In pathological conditions, mitochondrial stress leads to neuronal death, which is regulated by the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family of proteins. MCL-1 is an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein localized to mitochondria either in the outer membrane (OM) or inner membrane (Matrix), which have distinct roles in inhibiting apoptosis and promoting bioenergetics, respectively. While the anti-apoptotic role for Mcl1 is well characterized, the protective function of MCL-1 remains poorly understood. Here, we show MCL-1 and MCL-1 prevent neuronal death through distinct mechanisms. We report that MCL-1 functions to preserve mitochondrial energy transduction and improves respiratory chain capacity by modulating mitochondrial oxygen consumption in response to mitochondrial stress. We show that MCL-1 protects neurons from stress by enhancing respiratory function, and by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Taken together, our results provide novel insight into how MCL-1 may confer neuroprotection under stress conditions involving loss of mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2498-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200794PMC
May 2020

Exosomal miR-103-3p from LPS-activated THP-1 macrophage contributes to the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

FASEB J 2020 04 15;34(4):5178-5192. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Hepatic fibrosis occurs during chronic hepatic injury and is involved in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activated by several types of immune cells. Among the immune cells, hepatic macrophages and their crosstalk with HSCs play a vital role in all stages of hepatic fibrosis. Exosomes, which are 30-150 nm lipid bilayer vehicles, can transfer specific lipid, nucleic acids, proteins, and other bioactive molecules. Exosomes can act as good communication between macrophages and HSCs. Herein, we investigated the role of exosomes between THP-1 macrophage and HSCs in the progression of liver fibrosis. Exosomes originating from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated THP-1 macrophages promoted HSCs proliferation and induced the increased expression of fibrotic genes. LPS could alter the miRNA profile in exosomes secreted from THP-1 macrophages. The changed miR-103-3p in exosomes could promote HSCs proliferation and activation by targeting Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and it plays important roles in the crosstalk between THP-1 macrophages and HSCs during the progression of liver fibrosis. Moreover, miR-103-3p in serum exosomes from liver fibrosis patients could be a biomarker for liver fibrosis. Therefore, exosomes may have important roles in the crosstalk between macrophage and HSCs in the progression of chronic liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902307RRRDOI Listing
April 2020

Correction: A folate-conjugated platinum porphyrin complex as a new cancer-targeting photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

Org Biomol Chem 2020 01;18(3):569

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, 430205, P. R. China.

Correction for 'A folate-conjugated platinum porphyrin complex as a new cancer-targeting photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy' by Mengqian Yang et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2019, 17, 5367-5374.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ob90191dDOI Listing
January 2020

Research on the Oxidation Mechanism of Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Sep 25;12(19). Epub 2019 Sep 25.

School of material and chemical engineering, Xi'an Technological University, Xi'an 710032, China.

The oxidation mechanism of vermicular graphite cast iron was studied. The oxidation reaction starts from graphites and diffused slowly. Graphites in vermicular graphite are interconnected, coral-like clusters, providing the main oxidation core and channel. The worm-like graphites on the surface are mostly oxidized and form oxide affected zones. The oxide films are composed of a loose oxide layer with the phases of FeO, FeO, and FeO, and a dense passivation layer with FeO and FeSiO. After oxidation, pearlites in the vermicular graphite cast iron are decomposed into ferrite and cementite at high temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12193130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804170PMC
September 2019

A triazole-based fluorescence probe for detecting Hg ions and its biological application.

Luminescence 2020 Feb 8;35(1):129-137. Epub 2019 Sep 8.

College of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan, People' Republic of China.

A new compound, ethyl 5-phenyl-2-(p-tolyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate was successfully introduced and synthesized as a novel rhodamine B derivative named REPPC, and characterized by H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), C NMR, and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). It showed an obvious fluorescence and UV-visible light absorption enhancement towards Hg ion without interference from common metal ions in N,N-dimethylformamide-H O (pH 7.4). The spirolactam ring moiety of rhodamine in REPPC was converted to the open-ring form generating a 1:1 complex with the intervention of a mercury ion, verified by electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy testing and density functional theory calculation. REPPC was used to visualize the level of mercury ions in living HeLa cells with encouraging results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.3705DOI Listing
February 2020

[Epidemiological analysis of malaria prevalence in Jiangsu Province in 2017].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2019 Apr;31(2):178-181

Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases; Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention; Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Control, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2017, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the targeted strategy of malaria elimination.

Methods: The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2016 were collected from China's Routine Diseases Surveillance Information System (CRDSIS).

Results: Totally, 239 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2017, and the cases decreased by 22.40% compared to 308 cases in 2015. Except 2 malaria case caused by blood transfusion, the rest patients were all imported. Among them, there were 163 falciparum malaria cases, 21 vivax malaria cases, 11 quartan malaria cases, 43 ovale malaria cases, and 1 mixed infection case ( and ). The numbers of imported cases of Nantong (39 cases, 16.32%), Suzhou (26 cases, 10.88%), Taizhou (25 cases, 10.46%), Huai'an (24 cases, 10.04%), and Lianyungang (22 cases, 9.21%) ranked in the top 5 cities across Jiangsu Province, the malaria cases in the five cities accounted for 56.90% (136/239). The infection source areas of the imported malaria cases included Africa (225 cases), Asia (8 cases), Oceania (2 cases), and South America (2 cases).

Conclusions: Jiangsu Province has no local malaria cases for 6 consecutive years. Despite the imported cases in 2017 decreased some-what compared to that in 2016, it is still necessary to strengthen the surveillance of imported malaria cases and improve malaria diagnosis and treatment in the whole province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2019016DOI Listing
April 2019

A folate-conjugated platinum porphyrin complex as a new cancer-targeting photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

Org Biomol Chem 2019 05;17(21):5367-5374

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, 430205, P. R. China.

A new folate-conjugated platinum porphyrin complex (Por 4) was synthesized and characterized. The singlet oxygen production of the conjugates was evaluated through a 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran method. The targeting ability and subcellular localization of Por 4 were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy in HeLa cells (overexpression of FR) as well as in A549 cells (low expression of FR). The results suggested that the modification of the carboxyl group with a porphyrin compound did not decrease the binding affinity of folic acid to FR positive cancer cells. Moreover, the MTT assay using HeLa cells and A549 cells verified the low cytotoxicity of Por 4 in the dark. Upon irradiation, Por 4 showed noticeable improvement in toxicity against cancer cells with the overexpression of FR. Upon the treatment of Por 4 at the concentration of 20 μM, the cell viability was determined as 22% and 75% for HeLa and A549 cells, respectively, indicating that the folate-conjugated platinum porphyrin complex could be a promising PDT agent for cancer with overexpression of the folate receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ob00698bDOI Listing
May 2019

Manganese-doped carbon quantum dots for fluorometric and magnetic resonance (dual mode) bioimaging and biosensing.

Mikrochim Acta 2019 04 30;186(5):315. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, 430205, People's Republic of China.

Manganese-doped carbon quantum dots (MnCQDs) were prepared through one-step hydrothermal method using citric acid and manganese tetraphenyl porphyrin as carbon sources in aqueous media. The structure of MnCQDs was confirmed by TEM, XRD, and XPS. The MnCQDs display a typical excitation-dependent emission behavior and exhibit bright green luminescence (with a peak at 482 nm) under UV irradiation (365 nm) and a fluorescence quantum yield of 13%. The MnCQDs can be used as a fluorescent probe for ferric ion in aqueous solution with a 220 nM detection limit. The MTT assay demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of MnCQDs towards HeLa cells. Due to the excitation-dependent emission properties, MnCQDs can be used as a multi-color (blue, green, and red) bioimaging agent in cancer cells and in living zebrafish. The application of MnCQDs as selective biosensing probe for Fe was also realized in cells and zebrafish mode. Because of the existence of paramagnetic ions, MnCQDs demonstrate an enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) signal. Thus, the MnCQDs can serve as a positive contrast agent for MR imaging. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of the preparation of luminescent manganese-doped carbon quantum dots (MnCQDs). MnCQDs showed good magnetic resonance effect and can be used as a fluorescence probe for the detection of Fe in HeLa cells and zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3407-8DOI Listing
April 2019

[Progress and challenges of global malaria elimination].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2019 Mar;31(1):19-22

WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Malaria Elimination, Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Recently, the global malaria control has achieved remarkable results, and the epidemic map of malaria has gradually shrinked. However, in the past two years, the number of malaria deaths remained at a high level, and the incidence of malaria has even risen, leading to the stagnant of malaria elimination. The main reasons include lacking of the well monitoring and response system, sensitivity declining of antimalarial drugs, the spread of insecticide resistance, and the reduction of financial support. This paper introduces the progress and challenges of global malaria elimination, summarizes the current strategies and major interventions, and provides the corresponding response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2019006DOI Listing
March 2019

Stoichiometric characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaf-litter-soil system of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Mar;30(3):743-750

Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration on Soil and Water Conservation, School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Fore-stry University, Beijing 100083, China.

To reveal the allocation pattern and stoichiometric characteristics of N and P in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation, we selected three P. sylvestris plantation with different stand ages (middle-aged, near-mature, mature) in the Hulunbuir, Horqin, and Mu Us sandy land as objects, and analyzed the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and the N:P stoichiometry ratios in the leaf, litter, and soil. The results showed that the contents of N, P and N/P ratios in leaf, litter and soil varied in the range of 0.17-49.02, 0.11-3.01 g·kg and 0.51-19.74, respectively, with the order of leaf>litter>soil. The content of N and N:P ratio were significantly different between leaf, litter and soil; the P content in leaf was significantly higher than that in litter and soil. The different areas and stand ages affected N, P content and N/P stoichiometry ratio, but the interaction of area and stand age had no significant effect on N/P stoichiometry ratio. The N, P contents in leaf, litter and soil increased with stand age, and were highest in the mature forest. The contents of N, P and N/P ratios were significantly positively correlated among the leaf, litter and soil. In the Hulunbuir and Horqin sandy land, the N/P ratros of leaf were between 14.53 to 15.57, which indicated that the P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations was restricted by both N and P availability. In Mu Us sand land, the N:P ratios of leaf were between 18.56 to 19.71, which indicated P limitation. The stand age had no significant influence on soil N and P limitation. To improve the productivity of P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations, we could appropriately add N or P fertilization in the plantation tending management based on local conditions. Our findings could contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism of interactions and constraints between N and P in the leaf-litter-soil system of P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations, and provide a scientific guidance for the management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201903.040DOI Listing
March 2019

[Results analysis of Jiangsu Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in 2017].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Nov;30(6):630-634

Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To analyze the results of samples testing of Jiangsu Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in 2017, so as to provide the evidence for improving the malaria diagnostic performance in this province.

Methods: The samples of reported malaria cases in Jiangsu were collected by the provincial reference laboratory (PRL) in 2017. The microscopy and nucleic acid test were performed to confirm the infection of species of each case, while antigen tests (rapid diagnostic test, RDT) were performed as well. The detection results were analyzed among different areas and different species.

Results: Totally 242 malaria cases were reported and the samples were collected by PRL in 2017. A total of 239 cases were confirmed infections, including 163 cases of infection, 21 cases of infection, 11 cases of infection, 43 cases of infection, and 1 case of and mixed-infection. The diagnostic coincidence rates of reported malaria case in 13 prefectures with districts were all > 80%, and the total coincidence rate was 88.8%. The species diagnostic coincidence rates of , , , and were 98.8%, 57.1%, 63.6%, and 81.4% respectively, and the detection rates by RDT to those four species infections were 95.7%, 85.0%, 63.6% and 79.1% respectively.

Conclusions: In 2017, the malaria diagnostic quality of medical technicians is generally high in Jiangsu Province. However, the diagnostic capacity is slightly different among different regions, and the ability to identify non- parasites remains to be improved. RDT is not ideal for the detection of non- infection. In the current stage of malaria elimination, the malaria diagnostic capacity of technicians in all the sectors should be strengthened and maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018267DOI Listing
November 2018

Contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland on the Loess Plateau, China.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jun 6;627:1209-1217. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, College of Pastoral Agricultural Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730000, China; Dept. Natural Resources Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.

Using the trenching method, a study was conducted in a grassland on the Loess Plateau of northern China in 2008 and 2009 to partition total soil respiration (Rt) into microbial respiration (Rm) and root respiration (Rr). Using the measurements of soil CO diffusivity and soil CO production, an analytical model was applied to correct the data, aiming to quantify the method-induced error. The results showed that Rm and Rr responded differently to biotic and abiotic factors and exhibited different diurnal and seasonal variations. The diurnal variation of Rm was strongly controlled by soil temperature, while Rr might be mainly controlled by photosynthesis. The combination of soil temperature and moisture could better explain the seasonal variation in Rm (r=0.76, P<0.001). The seasonal variation of Rr was influenced mainly by the plant activity. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration (Rr/Rt ratio) also exhibited substantial diurnal and seasonal variations, being higher at nighttime and lower at daytime. In the different growing stages, the Rr/Rt ratios ranged from 15.0% to 62.0% in 2008 and 14.5% to 63.6% in 2009. The mean values of the Rr/Rt ratio in the growing season and the annual mean Rr/Rt ratio were 41.7% and 41.9%, respectively, during the experiment period. Different precipitation distributions in the two years did not change the yearly Rr/Rt ratio. Corrected with the analytical model, the trenching method in small root-free plots led to an underestimation of Rr and Rr/Rt ratio by 4.2% and 1.8%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.313DOI Listing
June 2018

Heavy grazing reduces grassland soil greenhouse gas fluxes: A global meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 7;654:1218-1224. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Grazing degrades worldwide grasslands and possibly suppresses soil greenhouse gas (GHG: CO, CH and NO) fluxes. However, the global patterns of these three gas fluxes in response to grazing and the general mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of 63 independent grazing studies that measured soil GHG fluxes across global grasslands. Our results revealed that light and moderate grazing had no significant effect on soil CH uptake, NO and CO emission, but heavy grazing consistently reduced them. The magnitudes of their responses to grazing were regulated by grazing duration and precipitation. In comparison with CO emission, soil CH uptake and NO emission were reduced much more under heavier grazing, longer grazing duration or less precipitation. The decrease in soil CO emission was possibly caused by grazing-induced reduction in root biomass and soil moisture, while the decline in soil CH uptake and NO emission was due to decreased soil moisture and substrate availability. Overall, this study provides the first large-scale evaluation on three main soil GHG fluxes in response to grazing, highlighting grazing inhibition of GHG emission but at the cost of plant productivity and soil fertility. We call for future efforts to identify an appropriate grazing intensity that is optimal to balance these complicated impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.082DOI Listing
March 2019

Fast screening of aflatoxins in dairy cattle feeds with CE-LIF method combined with preconcentration technique of vortex assisted low density solvent-microextraction.

Electrophoresis 2019 02 3;40(4):499-507. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, P. R. China.

Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products poses a great threat to humans and livestock. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and inexpensive method for the simultaneous detection of aflatoxin B , B , G , and G in agricultural products. We used a vortex assisted low density solvent-microextraction (VALDS-ME) technique for sample preconcentration and sample detection was achieved with a CE-LIF method. Aflatoxins were separated in an uncoated fused-silica capillary with the MEKC mode and were excited by a 355 nm UV laser to produce native fluorescence for detection. The obtained LOD and LOQ for the four aflatoxins were in the range of 0.002-0.075 and 0.007-0.300 μg/L, respectively, and the analysis time was within 6.5 min. Using the established method, aflatoxins were screened in naturally contaminated dairy cattle feed samples including alfalfa, bran, and corn kernel. The result shows that the alfalfa and bran samples were contaminated with aflatoxins to varying degrees. Compared with other analytical techniques for aflatoxin screening in agricultural products, this CE-LIF method combined with VALDS-ME preconcentration technique is simple, rapid, highly efficient, and inexpensive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201800339DOI Listing
February 2019

Epidemiological Analysis on Reported Hepatitis C Cases in China from 2012 to 2016.

Biomed Environ Sci 2018 Oct;31(10):773-776

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2018.103DOI Listing
October 2018

[Challenges for maintaining achievements of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province, China].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Aug;30(4):460-464

Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Malaria Elimination, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To analyze the situation of malaria elimination, identify the current main challenges and difficulties of maintaining the achievements of malaria elimination, and find out feasible solutions in Jiangsu Province.

Methods: Through randomized grouping, the subject discussion and questionnaires were conducted by malaria control staffs from centers for diseases control and prevention of 13 cities of Jiangsu Province and Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases. The basic characteristics of participants and the effect of the discussion were analyzed through questionnaires.

Results: Twenty-seven professional participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Totally 27 questionnaires were released and 24 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Among the 24 participants, 79.1% (19/24) of them were with mid-level and senior professional titles, and 66.7% (16/24) of them had worked for more than 10 years. Before the group discussion, only 16.7% (4/24) of the participants were aware of the current main challenges and difficulties in Jiangsu Province. After the discussion, 87.5% (21/24) of them thought the discussion increased their understanding of the challenges and difficulties. Through the subject discussion, the expert group summarized the current challenges and difficulties as well as the solutions in malaria prevention in Jiangsu Province in 4 aspects, namely the management guarantee of prevention work, diagnosis and treatment of the cases, field epidemiological investigation and others. Finally, a framework about these discussion results was established.

Conclusions: During the post-stage of malaria elimination, Jiangsu Province still faced many challenges and difficulties, such as management guarantee, case diagnosis and treatment, epidemiology survey and focus disposals, and malaria surveillance sustainability. The feasible solutions of these challenges may provide examples for other provinces and regions which are undergoing malaria elimination or in post-stage of malaria elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018163DOI Listing
August 2018

[Construction and application of malaria biobank].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Aug;30(4):455-459

Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Malaria Elimination, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To establish a systemized malaria biobank with well-rounded epidemiologic data and a computer-aid management system, thus to provide qualified sources for malaria elimination and human malaria research.

Methods: The malaria biobank was based on the platform of Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases. The blood smear samples, dried blood samples, whole blood samples and parasite strains isolated from patients (from both local and imported cases) were collected since 2011 according to a standardized operational procedure. The biobank management software was applied to input of the epidemiological data and samples, and the quality of samples was monitored regularly.

Results: A standard malaria biobank was established. The Information Management System was applied to input, storage and output of samples. Totally 99.42% (2 223/2 236) of the blood smear samples, 92.58% (2 070/2 236) of the dried blood samples, 94.50% (2 113/2 236) of whole blood, and 2.06% (46/2 236) of the isolated stains in 2 236 reported cases were included in the malaria biobank in Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2017. Based on the malaria biobank, 99.42% (2 223/2 236) of the blood smears and 82.74% (1 850/2 236) of DNA (from dried blood and whole blood samples) from malaria patients in Jiangsu Province were re-checked. Moreover, the samples in the malaria biobank were used in the studies of the mechanism of parasite drug resistance, malaria molecular epidemiology, and diagnosis technology development and evaluation.

Conclusions: The establishment of malaria biobank provides a guarantee for malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province and also provides a qualified resource for malaria research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018167DOI Listing
August 2018

[Vector surveillance in Jiangsu Province during the stage of malaria elimination].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Aug;30(4):390-395

Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To analyze the vector surveillance results during the stage of malaria elimination, so as to provide the evidence for assessing the local transmission risk of imported malaria and carrying out the surveillance work after malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province.

Methods: From 2011 to 2017, the mosquito population was monitored and human biting rates were calculated by the half overnight human baiting trapping method and overnight lamp trapping method in 7 surveillance sites from June to October. The insecticide resistance level was tested by the force contact method recommended by WHO.

Results: A total of 5 106 mosquitoes were captured by the half over-night human baiting trapping method in the 7 sites from 2011 to 2017, and all the mosquitoes were identified as . The annual human biting rates were 1.075, 0.786, 1.057, 0.787, 0.790, 1.797 and 1.185 mosquitoes/ (human·hour), respectively. Totally 28 186 mosquitoes were caught by the overnight lamp trapping method, and all the mosquitoes were . The densities of mosquitoes were 57.950, 50.932, 14.800, 4.405, 58.070, 72.406, and 17.145 mosquitoes/ (night·lamp), respectively. In 2012, the resistance indexes of to deltamethrin, DDT and malathion were at R level in Jiangsu Province.

Conclusions: The major vector is and no is found in Jiangsu Province. has a high level of resistance to deltamethrin, DDT and malathion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018158DOI Listing
August 2018

[Evaluation of an optimization strategy for use and management of malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) in Jiangsu Province].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Sep;30(4):383-389

Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, China.

Objective: To evaluate the implementation effect of the optimization strategy for the use and management of malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) technology in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the empirical evidence and suggestions for promoting the standardized use of RDT technology.

Methods: Questionnaire surveys of primary-level health professionals' RDT-related knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and work satisfaction were conducted in 4 pilot cities in Jiangsu Province before and after the intervention.

Results: After the implementation of the intervention, 13.9% of surveyed laboratory technicians, 21.9% of surveyed clinicians and 4.1% of surveyed staff of the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) had significant improvements in RDT-related knowledge. About 10.9% of the surveyed laboratory technicians and 25.6% of the surveyed CDC staff improved their attitudes toward RDT technology. About 38.4% of the surveyed laboratory technicians and 10.0% of the surveyed clinicians improved the standardized use of RDT technology. All types of primary-level health professionals had high evaluation in the satisfaction and effectiveness of the optimization strategy. However, the evaluation of the surveyed clinicians was slightly lower than that of the laboratory technicians and CDC staff.

Conclusions: The optimization strategy in this project can effectively improve the knowledge, attitude and behavior of all types of primary-level health professionals and help to promote the standardized use of RDT technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018141DOI Listing
September 2018

[Investigation on malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) - related knowledge, attitude and practice in primary healthcare professionals of Jiangsu Province].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Sep;30(4):378-382

Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, China.

Objective: To investigate the malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) - related knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) of primary healthcare professionals in Jiangsu Province and analyze the corresponding influencing factors.

Methods: Four cities in Jiangsu Province were selected as the study sites by the typical sampling method to conduct a survey for the RDT related KAP and work satisfaction of primary healthcare professionals, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to explore the relevant influencing factors.

Results: Totally 1 150 questionnaires were issued and 949 valid questionnaires were collected with the recovery rate of 82.52%. The valid questionnaires included 453 questionnaires from laboratory technicians, 466 from clinicians, and 30 from malaria prevention and control workers. Totally 83.98% of the surveyed professionals had a low mastering level of essential RDT-related knowledge. A total of 52.17% of the surveyed laboratory technicians recognized that the application of RDT technology could effectively improve the current primary-level microscopy work, and the degree of recognition of RDT technological advantage in the laboratory technicians was higher than that in the clinicians. Totally 79.25% of the surveyed laboratory technicians regarded themselves to be capable of conducting the standardized RDT operation, and 84.55% of the surveyed clinicians regarded themselves to be capable of conducting the qualified malaria clinical diagnostic practice. The key influencing factors of RDT-related KAP of primary healthcare professionals included the laboratory technicians' gender, educational level, employer's institutional level, professional title, and working years, and the employer's institutional level of clinicians.

Conclusions: The primary healthcare professionals in Jiangsu Province exhibita good acceptability towards RDT technology. However, their essential knowledge on RDT remains to be improved. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a specific training and educational system for primary healthcare professionals to better guarantee the advantageous impact of RDT technology on the consolidation of the malaria elimination work achievements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018004DOI Listing
September 2018

[Analysis of blood smear examination results of fever patients in Jiangsu Province from 2010 to 2016].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Apr;30(4):374-377

Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control; Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasites and Vector Control Technology; Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To analyze the working conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of blood smear examinations in fever patients after the start of national malaria elimination program (NMEP), and explore the suitable strategy for malaria diagnosis and surveillance in NMEP, so as to provide the evidence for the development and adaptation of malaria elimination strategies and measures in Jiangsu Province.

Methods: The data of malaria epidemic situation reported by network, fever patients' blood test tables, and epidemiological surveys of malaria cases were collected and statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 in Jiangsu Province from 2010 to 2016.

Results: A total of 2 367 cases of malaria cases were reported from 2010 to 2016. Among the 3 691 188 person-times of fever patients tested, there were 2 252 positives (0.06%). The number of blood tests of fever patients decreased from 742 900 in 2010 to 277 000 in 2016. At the same time, the positive rate increased from 0.04% in 2010 to 0.16% in 2016. The positive rate of blood tests of fever patients in 2016 was significantly higher than that in 2010 ( = 161.61, < 0.01). From 2010 to 2016 in Jiangsu province, the centers for disease control and prevention of cities and counties, that completed the blood review within 3 days, deleted 273 negative cases. In 2010, the centers for disease control and prevention of cities and counties deleted 61 negative cases, but in 2016, the centers deleted only 14 negative cases, and the negative rate of blood review in 2010 was significantly higher than that in 2016 ( = 22.99, < 0.01).

Conclusions: A large number of blood smear examinations have been tested in fever patients in Jiangsu Province. It not only conforms to the strong monitoring system requirements issued by World Health Organization (WHO) in malaria elimination, but also provides the evidence for no local malaria case in Jiangsu since 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2017194DOI Listing
April 2018

[Quality analysis of malaria microscopic examinations in Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2017].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Aug;30(4):369-373

Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To understand the quality of production of blood slides and laboratory personnel's ability to microscopically examine at Jiangsu Province clinic inspection stations at all levels, so as to provide the evidence for the construction of malaria diagnostic laboratories and the evaluation of malaria elimination effect.

Methods: After the reexamination of the negative blood slides of the examination stations of the malaria center in each county (district), the negative blood slides of the outpatient inspection station in the district and all the positive blood slides of the direct report of the network from 2011 to 2017, the staining and cleanliness of the blood smears, microscopic examination results and the coincidence rate of positive blood species were comprehensively analyzed.

Results: A total of 19 109 checked blood samples were examined. The qualified rates of blood preparation, dyeing and cleanliness were 87.5%, 89.3% and 87.6%, respectively. The quality of reexamined blood slides in different years showed statistically significant difference (all < 0.05), by using chi-square trend test, and there was a trend of increasing year by year. There was a significant difference in the quality of the reexamined blood slides among the different cities with districts ( < 0.05). In addition, there were 1 860 blood samples from 2012 to 2017, and the total coincidence rate was 87.4% and the coincidence rate of positive blood smear examinations was 98.9%. The species coincidence rates of , , , and mixed infection were 95.4%, 33.3%, 56.0%, 76.5% and 9.1%, respectively ( < 0.05). The total coincidence rates of blood smear reexaminations in different years were 85.0%, 90.1%, 86.0%, 85.3%, 90.0% and 87.6% from 2012 to 2017, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: The quality of blood slides at the primary clinic inspection stations in Jiangsu Province conforms to the standard established by the provincial malaria reference laboratory; however, the ability of species identification is insufficient and needs to be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018156DOI Listing
August 2018

[Progress of malaria elimination of Jiangsu Province, China].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Aug;30(4):364-368

Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases; Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention; Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Parasite Molecular Biology, Wuxi 214064, China.

There were vivax malaria, falciparum malaria, and malariae malaria epidemic in Jiangsu Province, and vivax malaria was the dominant disease. and were malaria-transmitted vectors. Since the founding of People's Republic of China, there have been two major malaria outbreaks in Jiangsu Province, when the highest annual malaria incidence reached up to 24.95%. According to prevention and control principles of "adjusting measures to local conditions, giving different guidance to different categories and highlighting key points", during the epidemic outbreak stage, the largescale malaria prevention and control measures were implemented for all the residents who were target population in Jiangsu malaria-endemic areas. During the basic eradication stage, the targeted prevention and control measures had been carried out according to the different epidemic features to gradually consolidate the achievement of prevention and control in Jiangsu Province. In the malaria elimination stage, Jiangsu Province focused on controlling of the source of infection and malaria surveillance. According to the "1-3-7 targeted elimination" work model, the management of infectious sources and investigation and disposal of foci were carried out for each epidemic focus to block the malaria transmission. By the end of 2017, there had been no indigenous malaria cases for the six consecutive years in Jiangsu Province. All the 13 cities have passed the assessment of malaria elimination of Jiangsu Province. Although Jiangsu Province has achieved the goal of malaria elimination, it is urgent and necessary to maintain and improve malaria surveillance capabilities to prevent malaria reintroduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018165DOI Listing
August 2018

[Study on expression characteristics of cytochrome P450 genes in ].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Apr;30(2):149-154

Key Laboratory of National Health and Family Planning Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To explore the expression characteristics of cytochrome P450 (CYP) candidate genes (CYP6M3, CYP6Y1, CYP6P5, CYP4H14, CYP4G17, CYP12F16) in .

Methods: The samples were collected from different developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes (females and males) ), and different tissues (salivary glands, malpighian tubes, midguts, ovaries, and fat bodies) of and the female adult mosquitoes exposed by different insecticide doses (0, 1.25, 3.75, 6.25, 12.5 μg/bottle) and time points (0, 5, 15, 30, 60 minutes), then the total RNA was extracted. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) assay was used to analyze the relative expressions of six CYP genes in at different developmental stages, tissues and different insecticide exposure doses and time.

Results: The expressions of CYP6M3 and CYP6Y1 in the male adult mosquitoes were the highest, the expression of CYP6M3 gene in the males was 35.1 times higher than that in the females, the expression of CYP6Y1 in the males was 61.4 times higher than that in the females; the expression level of CYP4H14 in the larvae was the lowest, the expression of CYP4H14 in the females was 22.5 times higher than that in the fourth instar larvae. The expressions of candidate CYP genes in different tissues of were significantly different, the expression of CYP6M3 in the malpighian tubule was 38.9 times higher than that in the ovary, the expression of CYP6Y1 in the fatbody was 9.1 times higher than that in the ovary, the expression of CYP4G17 was 4.6 times higher than that in the ovary, and the expression of CYP12F16 was 4.4 times higher thanthat in the ovary. The exposure to different insecticide doses and time showed some induction effects in the expressions of candidate CYP genes, which affected the expressions of candidate CYP genes in .

Conclusions: The expression of candidate CYP genes varies significantly in different developmental stages and various tissues of , and exposure to deltamethrin at various doses and time points affects CYP genes expression in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018017DOI Listing
April 2018

[Effects of tree species transition on soil microbial community composition and functions in subtropical China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2017 Nov;28(11):3751-3758

3 College of Geographical Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China.

We employed a comparative study to examine the effects of tree species transition on soil microbial biomass, community composition and enzymes activities under Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook, Eucalyptus grandis and a N-fixing species, Acacia melanoxylon in subtropical China. Results showed that the effect of tree species on soil microbial community and enzymes activities was significant only in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Reforestation with N-fixing species A. melanoxylon on the C. lanceolata harvest site significantly increased the total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), fungal PLFAs, Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, Gram-negative bacterial PLFAs and actinomycetes biomasses in the 0-10 cm soil layer. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil microbial community composition in A. melanoxylon soil differed significantly from that in C. lanceolata and E. grandis soils. N-fixing species (A. melanoxylon) significantly enhanced the percent abundance of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and actinomycetes. Activities of cellobiohydrolase, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher under A. melanoxylon than under C. lanceolata and E. grandis plantations. Our results suggested that reforestation with N-fixing species, A. melanoxylon on C. lanceolata harvest site could increase soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and soil organic matter content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201711.039DOI Listing
November 2017

[Epidemiological analysis of malaria prevalence in Jiangsu Province in 2016].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Feb;30(1):32-36

Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Key Laboratory of National Health and Family Planning Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Parasite Molecular Biology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Objective: To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting the strategy and measures for malaria elimination.

Methods: The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2016 were collected from China's Routine Diseases Surveillance Information System (CRD-SIS) and analyzed statistically.

Results: Totally, 308 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2016, and the cases decreased by 23.95% compared to 405 malaria cases in 2015. Except for 1 malaria case that was caused by blood transfusion, the rest patients were all imported. Among the 308 cases, 237 were infected with , 11 were infected with , 8 were infected with , 51 were infected with , and 1 was mixed infection. Among all the cities in Jiangsu Province, the numbers of imported cases of Nantong (53 cases), Huai'an (41 cases), Taizhou (40 cases), Lianyungang (36 cases) and Yangzhou (29 cases) ranked in the top 5, and the total malaria cases in the five cities accounted for 64.61%.

Conclusions: There were no local malaria cases in Jiangsu Province for 5 consecutive years up to 2016. Although the imported cases decreased slightly compared to those in 2015, we still should strengthen the surveillance of imported malaria cases as well as improve malaria diagnosis and treatment abilities for related personnel at all levels of medical institutions. Also we should focus on the check, focus survey and disposal to realize the aim of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province in time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2017236DOI Listing
February 2018

[Control of imported mosquito-borne diseases under the Belt and Road Initiative].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Dec;30(1):9-13

Key Laboratory of National Health and Family Planning Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, China.

Mosquito is a vector of many infectious diseases, and it is recognized a leading killer of human in the world. After the Belt and Road Initiative launches, more are countries involved and the international communication and cooperation are significantly growing in China. Therefore, the risk of imported infectious diseases is increasing as well, some mosquito-borne diseases which have been well controlled or seldom seen in China, will be more risky to cause locally transmission from imported cases and become the threat to people's health in China. This paper reviews the risk of major imported mosquito borne-diseases to China, and discusses the control strategy as well, so as to provide the suggestion for entry-exit inspection and control of imported mosquito-borne diseases in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2017208DOI Listing
December 2017

[Diagnostic knowledge and skills of parasitic diseases based on competition of professional personnel in Jiangsu Province, China].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Mar;29(4):508-511

Key Laboratory of National Health and Family Planning Commission on Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

To understand the integrated ability of parasitic disease prevention and control of professional personnel of Jiangsu Province through the contest. Totally 56 players from the whole province were selected, and all the players participated in the contest. The theory knowledge and skill scores were collected and the statistical analyses were conducted. The average theoretical score of the participants was 88.86±15.56 and the passing rate was 91.1%. The average skill operating score was 69.16±16.01 and the passing rate was 67.9%. The average microscopy score was 16.54±8.09 and the passing rate was 50%. The average helminth egg microscopy score was 34.27±10.66 and the passing rate was 67.9%. There were statistical differences among the age groups and different levels of schistosomiasis endemic situation ( = 5.10, 6.39, both < 0.01). The theoretical knowledge including schistosomiasis, malaria, hydatid disease and others and the score rates were 91.07%, 90.94%, 85.83% and 90.93%, respectively. The hydatid disease score rate was lower ( = 19.17, < 0.01). The radar chart displayed that the score rates of tabletting and microscopy test in Kato-Katz film production, malaria blood film production and microscopy test were all low. In Jiangsu Province, the participants have higher score in the theory test. However, they have lower skill test score, especially in the parasite species identification. The operational skills still need to be strengthened for center for disease control (CDC) participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2016212DOI Listing
March 2017

[Epidemiological analysis of malaria prevalence in Jiangsu Province in 2015].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Aug;29(4):441-444

Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Key Laboratory of Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention (Ministry of Health), and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Parasite Molecular Biology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2015, so as to provide the evidence for malaria elimination. The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2015 were collected from China's routine diseases surveillance information system. Totally 405 imported cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2015, and the cases increased by 14.08% compared with those in 2014. All the malaria cases were imported, and 5 cases (1.23%) were from Southeast Asia and 400 (98.77%) were from 25 African countries or regions. The imported malaria cases were reported in 13 cities across Jiangsu Province, where Taizhou, Lianyungang, Nantong, Huaian and Yangzhou cities accounted for 68.64% of all the cases in the province. Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases (JIPD) reference lab checked all the cases and classified 299 falciparum malaria cases, 13 vivax malaria cases, 18 quartan malaria cases, 71 ovale malaria cases, and 4 mixed Plasmodium infection cases. In Jiangsu Province, there are no local malaria cases for 4 consecutive years, but the imported cases are on the rise. Compared to 2014, the imported vivax cases increased significantly in 2015. It should be the key points to strengthen the surveillance of imported malaria cases, improve malaria diagnosis and treatment abilities for all levels of medical institutions, and promote the abilities of Plasmodium check, and focus survey and disposal of all Center for Disease Control (CDC) staffs across Jiangsu Province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2017029DOI Listing
August 2017