Publications by authors named "Guiqin Liu"

36 Publications

First detection and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus 3 in female donkeys with reproductive disorders.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Sep 18;17(1):308. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Research Institute of Donkey High-efficiency Breeding and Ecological Feeding, College of Agronomy, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

Background: PCV3 is a pathogen associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS)-like clinical signs, reproductive failure, and cardiac and multiorgan inflammation, which was newly identified in 2016 in sows in USA. Recently, PCV3 has also been identified from several non-porcine species like (cattle, dog, wild boar, deer, mice and ticks). However, PCV3 infection in donkey is not well established. Since 2019, 300 blood samples were collected from female donkey, which was characterized by abortion and sterility, in Liaocheng city of China.

Results: In the present study, an investigation of PCV3 in donkey blood samples was undertaken employing by real time PCR. Positive rates of PCV3 in donkeys reach to 21.0 %. In addition, one full-length PCV3 genome sequence was obtained, and it had a highest identity with porcine circovirus 3 PCV3/CN/Nanjing2017 strain and is clustered to PCV3a genotype based on ORF2 sequences.

Conclusions: This is the first report of detection of PCV3 from female donkeys presenting reproductive failure in large-scale donkey farms, China. In addition, the PCV3 strain identified in this study shared the closest relationship with those from porcine, suggesting that PCV3 may be transmitted from pigs to donkeys. Totally, PCV3 infection in donkey should be concerned although the association between it and reproductive failure are not better understood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-03013-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8449920PMC
September 2021

Effects of donkey milk on oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

J Food Biochem 2021 Sep 14:e13935. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

College of Agronomy, Shandong Engineering Technology Research Center for Efficient Breeding and Ecological Feeding of Black Donkey, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

Donkey milk is gaining interest as a natural nutritional and medicinal product, mainly because its composition is similar to that of human milk, and it has some potential biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiaging, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. Considering the increasing prevalence of several chronic diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation and the multiple beneficial properties and nutritional value of donkey milk, an up-to-date review of the current studies related to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory abilities of donkey milk is necessary. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the relationship between inflammation and oxidative stress; and to further systematically review the progress of recent research on donkey milk, mainly including its nutritional value and functional properties. Particularly, we highlighted the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of donkey milk using in vitro model, animal model, and the potential role of donkey milk in alleviating some chronic diseases related to inflammation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This paper was conducted on anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities of donkey milk and its related products, in addition to a summary of the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation and the value of donkey milk. Donkey milk and its related products have been shown to scavenge reactive oxygen species, activate the antioxidant system, enhance immune function, and maintain the balance of intestinal flora in in vitro and in vivo models. This paper should provide a better understanding of the influences of oxidative stress and inflammation on host health and the biological functions and application of donkey milk, and will provide a certain basis for the nutritional regulation of several chronic diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In addition, few clinical studies have been performed to establish its multiple benefits in humans. Further research is warranted to evaluate its impacts on health at molecular levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13935DOI Listing
September 2021

Cloning, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the donkey (Equus asinus) oligopeptide transporter 2.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Liaocheng Research Institute of Donkey High-Efficiency Breeding and Ecological Feeding, College of Agriculture, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

Oligopeptide transporter 2 (PepT2) is an important transporter of oligopeptides. In the present study, we describe the molecular cloning, tissue distribution and functional characterization of a donkey (Equus asinus) PepT2. The cloned cDNA sequence was 2202 bp at full length, encoding a 733 amino acid peptide with a molecular weight of 81.9 kDa and a theoretical pI of 8.92. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the deduced peptide sequence possessed all the characteristic features of PepT2. The expression of PepT2 in the kidney and lung was significantly higher than that observed in the ileum, duodenum, jejunum, spleen, liver, heart and stomach. Functional characterization by heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that the uptake of β-Ala-Lys-N-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (β-Ala-Lys-AMCA) by donkey PepT2-Chinese hamster ovary cells was dependent on time, pH and substrate concentration, with a low Km value of 91.51 ± 14.14 μM and a maximum velocity of 41.37 ± 2.193 pmol/min/mg protein. In the present study, for the first time, the expression and functional characteristics of donkey PepT2 were evaluated, the results of which provide new insights and a better understanding of its crucial role in oligopeptide transport in donkeys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13615DOI Listing
July 2021

Study on Microbial Community Succession and Protein Hydrolysis of Donkey Meat during Refrigerated Storage Based on Illumina NOVA Sequencing Technology.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2021 Jul 1;41(4):701-714. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

College of Agronomy, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

In this study, the microbial community succession and the protein hydrolysis of donkey meat during refrigerated (4°C) storage were investigated. 16S rDNA sequencing method was used to analyze the bacteria community structure and succession in the level of genome. Meanwhile, the volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) was measured to evaluate the degradation level of protein. After sorting out the sequencing results, 1,274,604 clean data were obtained, which were clustered into 2,064 into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), annotated to 32 phyla and 527 genus. With the prolonging of storage time, the composition of microorganism changed greatly. At the same time, the diversity and richness of microorganism decreased and then increased. During the whole storage period, Proteobacteria was the dominant phyla, and the , and were the dominant genus. According to correlation analysis, it was found that the abundance of these dominant bacteria was significantly positively correlated with the variation of TVB-N. And might play an important role in the production of TVB-N during refrigerated storage of donkey meat. The predicted metabolic pathways, based on PICRUSt analysis, indicated that amino metabolism in refrigerated donkey meat was the main metabolic pathways. This study provides insight into the process involved in refrigerated donkey meat spoilage, which provides a foundation for the development of antibacterial preservative for donkey meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2021.e30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277172PMC
July 2021

Quantitative Label-Free Proteomic Analysis of Milk Fat Globule Membrane in Donkey and Human Milk.

Front Nutr 2021 22;8:670099. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

National Engineering Research Center for Gelatin-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dong-E E-Jiao Co., Ltd, Liaocheng, China.

Previous studies have found donkey milk (DM) has the similar compositions with human milk (HM) and could be used as a potential hypoallergenic replacement diet for babies suffering from cow's milk allergy. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are involved in many biological functions, behaving as important indicators of the nutritional quality of milk. In this study, we used label-free proteomics to quantify the differentially expressed MFGM proteins (DEP) between DM (in 4-5 months of lactation) and HM (in 6-8 months of lactation). In total, 293 DEP were found in these two groups. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that the majority of DEP participated in regulation of immune system process, membrane invagination and lymphocyte activation. Several significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were determined for the DEP, such as lysosome, galactose metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Our study may provide valuable information in the composition of MFGM proteins in DM and HM, and expand our knowledge of different biological functions between DM and HM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.670099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258387PMC
June 2021

Comparative proteomic analysis of seminal plasma proteins in relation to freezability of Dezhou donkey semen.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Aug 11;231:106794. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Engineering Research Center for Gelatin-based Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dong-E-E-Jiao Co. Ltd., No. 78, E-jiao Street, Dong'e Country, Shandong Province, 252201, China. Electronic address:

Variation in donkey sperm freezability (capacity to withstand freeze-thawing) between ejaculates is a limitation for sperm cryopreservation. Seminal plasma proteins are essential for sperm function and also related to individual differences in sperm freezability. A Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) peptide labeling combine with a LC-MS/MS approach was conducted to quantitatively identify the seminal plasma proteins differentially abundant in ejaculates with optimal freezability characteristics (GFE) compared with those with suboptimal freezability characteristics (PFE). A total of 866 proteins were identified, and 99 ejaculates were in larger abundance in GFE samples. Differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were subjected to intensive bioinformatic analysis. The majority of DAPs were involved in metabolic processes, oxidation-reduction processes and biological regulation. Results from functional protein analysis suggested that proteins functioned in oxidoreductase activity and acid phosphatase activity. This is the first report where there were analyses of the proteome of seminal plasma from donkey ejaculates with different freezability and to identify candidate proteins that could be used to explore the molecular mechanism related to donkey sperm cryotolerance. In this study, there also was elucidation of biomarkers for the early identification and selection of donkeys with optimal semen freezability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2021.106794DOI Listing
August 2021

A Fast PCR Test for the Simultaneous Identification of Species and Gender in Horses, Donkeys, Mules and Hinnies.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 07 27;102:103458. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of animal science, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Equine Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Equine Research Center, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China. Electronic address:

Having considered that the current methods are costly and time-consuming, we designed an only 3 pairs primer-based PCR test to accurately identify the species and gender in horses, donkeys, mules and hinnies. Through a thorough sequence comparison between horse and donkey's highly similar genomes, and a vast amount of preliminary confirmation, we found that three fragments, CNGB3 gene on an autosome, displacement loop region on mitochondrial DNA and SRY genes on chromosome Y, within these equine DNA, are enough to enable us achieving our goal. The PCR test described here would be an economical, fast and accurate alternative for the most commonly-used methods, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, microsatellite assay, and sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2021.103458DOI Listing
July 2021

A Decade's Review of miRNA: a Center of Transcriptional Regulation of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters Under Hypoxia.

Curr Drug Metab 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Medical college, Qinghai University, Xining, China.

Background: Hypoxia has a negative effect on the cardiovascular system, nervous system, and metabolism, which contributes to potential changes in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). However, hypoxia can also alter the expression of microRNA (miRNA), thereby regulating drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and ADME genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor, inflammatory cytokine, nuclear receptor, etc. Therefore, it is crucial to study the role of miRNA in the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters under hypoxia.

Methods: A systematic review of published studies was carried out to investigate the role of miRNA in the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters under hypoxia. Data and information on expression changes in miRNA, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and transporters under hypoxia were analyzed and summarized.

Results: Hypoxia can up- or down-regulate the expression of miRNA. The effect of hypoxia on Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is still a subject of debate. The widespread belief is that hypoxia decreased the activity and expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A1 and increased those of CYP3A6 and CYP2D1 in rats. Hypoxia increased the expression of a multidrug resistance-associated protein, breast cancer resistance protein, peptide transporter, organic cation transporter, and organic anion transporter. miRNA negatively regulated the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

Conclusion: The findings of this review indicated that miRNA plays a key role in the expression changes of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters under hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200222666210514011313DOI Listing
May 2021

Transdermal Delivery of Adipocyte Phospholipase A2 siRNA using Microneedles to Treat Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy-Related Proptosis.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:9636897211010633

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, 26451The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease occurring in patients with thyroid disease. Patients with TAO-related proptosis is largely due to excessive orbital adipose tissue Adipocyte phospholipase A2 (AdPLA) is one of the most important regulatory factors in adipocyte lipolysis, which may be associated with TAO-related proptosis. Thus, silencing AdPLA by RNA interference may be beneficial for the treatment of TAO. In this study, we sought to evaluate the efficiency of two types of microneedles to deliver siRNAs for silencing AdPLA. Our results showed that AdPLA mRNA was up-regulated in the orbit adipose tissues from TAO patients. Silence of AdPLA by siRNA can reduce lipid accumulation in both human and mouse adipocyte cell lines. Moreover, silence effects of silicon microneedle array patch-based and injectable microneedle device-based siRNA administration were examined at the belly site of the mice, and injectable microneedle device showed higher knockdown efficiency than silicon microneedle array patch. This study sets the stage not only for future treatment of TAO-related proptosis using AdPLA siRNA, but also provides the foundation for targeted siRNA delivery by using microneedles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09636897211010633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072820PMC
April 2021

MicroRNA-137 targets EZH2 to exert suppressive functions in uveal melanoma via regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

J BUON 2021 Jan-Feb;26(1):173-181

Department of Ophthalmology, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang 261041,China.

Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) is one of the primary intraocular malignancies. Emerging studies have confirmed dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA/miR) in UM. The present study focused on the biofunctions of miR-137 in UM.

Methods: MiR-137 expressions in tissue samples were analyzed by qRT-PCR. MTT and transwell assays were applied to investigate the impacts of miR-137 on UM cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Luciferase assay was carried out to explore the downstream target of miR-137. Western blot was used to analyze the roles of miR-137 in UM cells, Wnt/β-catenin pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

Results: qRT-PCR showed that miR-137 expressions were lower in UM tissue samples than para-carcinoma tissues, whereas EZH2 was simultaneously upregulated. MiR-137 overexpression evidently suppressed UM cell proliferation, invasion and migration. The findings also indicated that miR-137 restoration could block Wnt/β-catenin pathway and EMT in UM cells thus resulting in downregulation of malignant behaviors. EZH2 was a downstream target of miR-137 as demonstrated by luciferase assay.

Conclusion: The present study indicated that EZH2 participated in the anti-UM functions of miR-137. Taken together, the data in our study established miR-137/EZH2 axis in regulating UM progression, suggesting that miR-137 may function as a novel therapeutic biomarker for UM patients.
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March 2021

A reassortant G3P[12] rotavirus A strain associated with severe enteritis in donkeys (Equus asinus).

Equine Vet J 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Veterinary Medical Science, Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College, Weifang, China.

Background: In contrast to horses, the only evidence suggesting gastrointestinal disease in neonatal donkeys is associated with Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) is the detection of viral antigens by ELISA in just 1 of 82 symptomatic donkey foals. No additional, more comprehensive investigations have been conducted, and RVAs if circulating in donkey populations have not been molecularly characterised.

Objectives: To investigate if RVAs are associated with an outbreak of severe enteritis in neonatal donkeys and if associated determine the genotype(s) along with the phylogenetic relationship to RVA strains circulating in horses.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Methods: RT-PCR-based techniques were used for RVA diagnosis and gene amplification. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square and Fisher's exact two-sided tests. Genotyping was performed by RotaC and phylogenetic analysis by neighbour joining.

Results: In 2019, acute enteritis occurred in 119 of 206 donkey foals (≤4 months) at two intensive donkey farms in the Shandong province of China. The highest morbidity (68.1%), mortality (29.5%) and fatality levels (45.5%) occurred in foals in the 30-89 day, 30-59 day and 0-29 day age groups respectively. RVA gene sequences were detected in 107 (89.9%) of the symptomatic individuals while further analysis demonstrated the outbreak was associated with the same G3P[12] RVA strain designated RVA/Donkey-wt/CHN/Don01/2019/G3P[12]. Although the VP4 gene of Don01 exhibited close phylogenetic relationships with equivalent RVA sequences commonly circulating in horses, encoding VP7 was more closely associated with sequences isolated from bats suggesting this new donkey strain arose via an intergenogroup reassortment event.

Main Limitations: Actual prevalence not determined because <7% of asymptomatic donkey foals were included in this study. The complete genomic sequence of RVA/Donkey-wt/CHN/Don01/2019/G3P[12] remains to be determined.

Conclusions: Valuable new information about the molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses in different equid species is provided by isolation and molecular characterisation of a novel RVA strain from neonatal donkeys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13425DOI Listing
January 2021

Validation of CT radiomics for prediction of distant metastasis after surgical resection in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma: exploring the underlying signaling pathways.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 13;31(7):5032-5040. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1068, Xueyuan Avenue, Shenzhen, 518055, Guangdong Province, China.

Objectives: To develop a radiomics model using preoperative multiphasic CT for predicting distant metastasis after surgical resection in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and to identify key biological pathways underlying the predictive radiomics features using RNA sequencing data.

Methods: In this multi-institutional retrospective study, a CT radiomics metastasis score (RMS) was developed from a radiomics analysis cohort (n = 184) for distant metastasis prediction. Using a gene expression analysis cohort (n = 326), radiomics-associated gene modules were identified. Based on a radiogenomics discovery cohort (n = 42), key biological pathways were enriched from the gene modules. Furthermore, a multigene signature associated with RMS was constructed and validated on an independent radiogenomics validation cohort (n = 37).

Results: The 9-feature-based RMS predicted distant metastasis with an AUC of 0.861 in validation set and was independent with clinical factors (p < 0.001). A gene module comprising 114 genes was identified to be associated with all nine radiomics features (p < 0.05). Four enriched pathways were identified, including ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, protein digestion and absorption, and PI3K-Akt pathways. Most of them play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. A 19-gene signature was constructed from the radiomics-associated gene module and predicted metastasis with an AUC of 0.843 in the radiogenomics validation cohort.

Conclusions: CT radiomics features can predict distant metastasis after surgical resection of localized ccRCC while the predictive radiomics phenotypes may be driven by key biological pathways related to cancer progression and metastasis.

Key Points: • Radiomics features from primary tumor in preoperative CT predicted distant metastasis after surgical resection in patients with localized ccRCC. • CT radiomics features predictive of distant metastasis were associated with key signaling pathways related to tumor progression and metastasis. • Gene signature associated with radiomics metastasis score predicted distant metastasis in localized ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07590-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Protection against X-Ray Irradiation Injury by Chinese Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes) Polysaccharides in Mice.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2020 ;22(8):815-827

Department of Pharmacy, Medical College, Qinghai University, Xining 810001, P.R. China; State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, P.R. China.

Polysaccharides are one of the main active ingredients of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of O. sinensis polysaccharides (CSPs) against X-ray irradiation in mice. The results indicated that CSPs improved survival rates and times in radiation-injured mice, accelerated the recovery of white blood cells, increased the organ index of thymus and spleen, and increased the DNA content in bone marrow cells. CSPs also increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, decreased the production of malondialdehyde, and reversed the increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity induced by irradiation. Treatment with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight CSPs caused a significant decrease in the protein and messenger RNA expression of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) after irradiation. Our results demonstrate that CSPs protect mice from injury after exposure to X-ray irradiation, and that this effect may be exerted via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These findings may provide a basis for the use of CSPs as an effective radioprotector or an alternative strategy in reducing irradiation-induced injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020035696DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of mono-exponential, bi-exponential, kurtosis, and fractional-order calculus models of diffusion-weighted imaging in characterizing prostate lesions in transition zone.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 06 3;46(6):2740-2750. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Purpose: To compare various models of diffusion-weighted imaging including mono-exponential, bi-exponential, diffusion kurtosis (DK) and fractional-order calculus (FROC) models in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in transition zone (TZ) and distinguish the high-grade PCa [Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7] lesions from the total of low-grade PCa (GS ≤ 6) lesions and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in TZ.

Methods: 80 Patients with 103 lesions were included in this study. Nine metrics [including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from mono-exponential model, slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast diffusion coefficient (D),, and f (the fraction of fast diffusion) from bi-exponential model; mean diffusivity (MD) and mean kurtosis (MK) from DK model; diffusion coefficient (D), fractional-order derivative in space (β), and spatial metric (μ) from FROC model] were calculated. Comparisons between BPH and PCa lesions as well as between clinically significant PCa (CsPCa) (GS ≥ 7, n = 31) and clinically insignificant lesions (Cins) (GS ≤ 6 and BPH, n = 72) of these metrics were conducted. Mann-Whitney U-test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used for statistical evaluations.

Results: The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) values of β derived from FROC model were 0.778 and 0.853 in differentiating PCa from BPH and in differentiating CS (GS ≥ 7) from Cins (GS ≤ 6 and BPH), both were the highest compared to other metrics. The AUC value of β was significantly higher than that of ADC (P = 0.009) in differentiating CS from Cins, while the differentiation between BPH and PCa did not reach the statistical significance when comparing with ADC (P = 0.089).

Conclusion: Although no significant difference was found in distinguishing PCa from BPH, the metric β derived from FROC model was superior to other diffusion metrics in differentiation between CS and Cins in TZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-020-02903-xDOI Listing
June 2021

The Composition and Predictive Function of the Fecal Microbiota Differ Between Young and Adult Donkeys.

Front Microbiol 2020 3;11:596394. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Equine Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science, Equine Research Center, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

The community of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of monogastric herbivores played critical roles in the absorption of nutrients and keeping the host healthy. However, its establishment at different age groups has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. The knowledge of microbial colonization and its function in the intestinal tract of different-age donkeys is still limited. By applying the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and functional prediction on fecal samples from different-age donkeys, we characterized the gut microbiota during the different age groups. In contrast to the adult donkeys, the gut microbiota diversity and richness of the young donkeys showed significantly less resemblance. The microbial data showed that diversity and richness increased with age, but a highly individual variation of microbial composition was observed at month 1. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed a significant difference across five time points in the feces. The abundance of , , and tended to decrease, while the proportion of was significantly increased with age. For functional prediction, the relative abundance of pathways had a significant difference in the feces across different age groups, for example, Terpenoids and Polyketides and Folding, Sorting, and Degradation ( < 0.05 or < 0.01). The analysis of beta diversity (PCoA and LEfSe) and microbial functions predicted with PICRUSt (NSTIs) clearly divided the donkeys into foals (≤3 months old) and adults (≥7 months old). Microbial community composition and structure had distinctive features at each age group, in accordance with functional stability of the microbiota. Our findings established a framework for understanding the composition and function of the fecal microbiota to differ between young and adult donkeys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.596394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744375PMC
December 2020

Donkey genomes provide new insights into domestication and selection for coat color.

Nat Commun 2020 12 8;11(1):6014. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

BGI-Qingdao, BGI-Shenzhen, Qingdao, 266555, China.

Current knowledge about the evolutionary history of donkeys is still incomplete due to the lack of archeological and whole-genome diversity data. To fill this gap, we have de novo assembled a chromosome-level reference genome of one male Dezhou donkey and analyzed the genomes of 126 domestic donkeys and seven wild asses. Population genomics analyses indicate that donkeys were domesticated in Africa and conclusively show reduced levels of Y chromosome variability and discordant paternal and maternal histories, possibly reflecting the consequences of reproductive management. We also investigate the genetic basis of coat color. While wild asses show diluted gray pigmentation (Dun phenotype), domestic donkeys display non-diluted black or chestnut coat colors (non-Dun) that were probably established during domestication. Here, we show that the non-Dun phenotype is caused by a 1 bp deletion downstream of the TBX3 gene, which decreases the expression of this gene and its inhibitory effect on pigment deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19813-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723042PMC
December 2020

Human leucocyte antigen alleles confer susceptibility and progression to Graves' ophthalmopathy in a Southern Chinese population.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Oct 21;105(10):1462-1468. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Shenzhen Eye Institute, Shenzhen Eye Hospital Affiliated to Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

Purpose: To evaluate the contributions of human leucocyte antigen () class I and II genes in the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) in a Southern Chinese population.

Methods: Eight HLA loci were genotyped and analysed in 272 unrelated patients with Graves' disease (GD) or the proptosis and myogenic phenotypes of GO, and 411 ethnically matched control subjects.

Results: The allele frequencies of and in the GD, proptosis and myogenic groups, and in the myogenic group were significantly higher than those in the control group, respectively (all corrected p values <0.05, OR >2.5). The haplotype frequencies of and in the proptosis and myogenic groups, and and in the myogenic group were significantly higher than those in the control group respectively (all corrected p values <0.05, OR >2.5). The potential epitopes ('FLGIFNTGL' of TSHR, 'IRHSHALVS', 'ILYIRTNAS' and 'FVFARTMPA' of IGF-1R) were fitted exactly in the peptide-binding groove between heterodimer, and the epitopes ('ILEITDNPY' of THSR, 'NYALVIFEM' and 'NYSFYVLDN' of IGF-1R) were also fitted exactly in the peptide-binding groove between heterodimer.

Conclusions: The and alleles might be risk factors for GD including the proptosis and myogenic phenotypes of GO. The alleles , the HLA haplotypes consisting of and might be susceptibility risk factors for GO. Simultaneously, some epitopes of TSHR and IGF-1R tightly binding to groove of or heterodimers might provide some hints on presenting the pathological antigen in GO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-317091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479741PMC
October 2021

Effects of long-distance transportation on blood constituents and composition of the nasal microbiota in healthy donkeys.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Sep 15;16(1):338. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 225009, Yangzhou, P.R. China.

Background: This study aims to determine the effects of transportation on the nasal microbiota of healthy donkeys using 16S rRNA sequencing.

Results: Deep nasal swabs and blood were sampled from 14 donkeys before and after 21 hours' long-distance transportation. The values of the plasma hormone (cortisol (Cor), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)), biochemical indicators (total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), creatinine (CREA), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), blood urea (UREA), plasma glucose (GLU)) and blood routine indices (white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB)) were measured. 16S rRNA sequencing was used to assess the nasal microbiota, including alpha diversity, beta diversity, and phylogenetic structures. Results showed that levels of Cor, ACTH, and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) after long-distance transportation. Several biochemical indicators (AST, CK) and blood routine indices (Neu, RBC, and HGB) increased markedly (p < 0.05), but the LYM decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Nine families and eight genera had a mean relative abundance over 1%. The predominant phyla in nasal microbiota after and before transportation were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Transportation stress induced significant changes in terms of nasal microbiota structure compared with those before transportation based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) coupled with analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) (p < 0.05). Among these changes, a notably gain in Proteobacteria and loss in Firmicutes at the phylum level was observed.

Conclusions: These results suggest transportation can cause stress to donkeys and change the richness and diversity of nasal microbiota. Further studies are required to understand the potential effect of these microbiota changes on the development of donkey respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02563-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493398PMC
September 2020

miR-494 promotes progression of retinoblastoma via PTEN through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Oncol Lett 2020 Aug 17;20(2):1952-1960. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Maternity and Child Health Care of Zaozhuang, Zaozhuang Ophthalmological Hospital, Zaozhuang, Shandong 277100, P.R. China.

Increasing evidence has indicated that the dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) occur in the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma (RB). Aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of miR-494 (miR-494-3p) in RB. It was demonstrated that miR-494 expression was increased in RB tissue samples and cell lines. Also, it was prominently associated with clinicopathological features. Functional assays showed that RB cell proliferation, invasion and migration can be promoted by miR-494 overexpression. Besides, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was verified as a possible target of miR-494 by a luciferase assay, western blot and qRT-PCR assay in RB. miR-494 and PTEN expression was negatively related in a correlation analysis on tumor tissues of 66 patients. In addition, PTEN was proved to reverse miR-494 effect on RB cell progression. Moreover, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was validated to take part in RB progression. Taken together, the current study proposes that miR-494 might function as a tumor promoter and regulates RB progression through targeting PTEN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377044PMC
August 2020

Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments of Mongolian horses.

Microbiologyopen 2020 06 9;9(6):1085-1101. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Equine Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Equine Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Equine Research Centre, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the health and metabolism of the host. Next-generation sequencing technology has enabled the characterization of the gut microbiota of several animal species. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota in six different parts of the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of five Mongolian horses by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 hypervariable region. All horses were kept in the natural habitat of the Inner Mongolia grassland. Significant differences were observed among the microbiota compositions of the distinct GIT regions. In addition, while the microbial community structures of the small and large intestine were significantly different, those of the cecum and colon were similar. In the foregut, Firmicutes (65%) and Proteobacteria (23%) were the most abundant, while Firmicutes (45%) and Bacteroidetes (42%) were the most common in the hindgut. At the level of family, Ruminococcaceae (p = .203), Lachnospiraceae (p = .157), Rikenellaceae (p = .122), and Prevotellaceae (p = .068) were predominant in the hindgut, while the relative abundance of the Akkermansia genus (5.7%, p = .039) was higher in the ventral colon. In terms of the putative functions, the ratio of microbial abundance in the different parts of the GIT was similar, the result can help characterize the gut microbial structure of different animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.1020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294312PMC
June 2020

Microbial diversity within the digestive tract contents of Dezhou donkeys.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(12):e0226186. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Equine Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Equine Research Center, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

Gastrointestinal microbiota has significant impact on the nutrition and health of monogastric herbivores animals including donkey. However, so far the microbiota in different gastrointestinal compartments of healthy donkey has not been described. Therefore, we investigated the abundance and function of microbiota at different sites of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (foregut: stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum; hindgut: cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and rectum) of healthy adult donkeys mainly based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis. Collectively, our results showed that donkey has a rich, diverse and multi-functional microbiota along the GIT. In general, the richness and diversity of the microbiota are much higher in the hindgut relative to that in the foregut; at phylum level, the Firmicutes is dominant in the foregut while both Firmicutes and Bacteroides are abundant in the hindgut; at the genus level, Lactobacillus was dominant in the foregut while Streptococcus was more dominant in the hindgut. Our further PICRUSt analysis showed that varying microbiota along the GIT is functionally compatible with the corresponding physiological function of different GIT sites. For example, the microbes in the foregut are more active at carbohydrate metabolism, and in the hindgut are more active at amino acid metabolism. This work at the first time characterized the donkey digestive system from the aspects of microbial composition and function, provided an important basic data about donkey healthy gastrointestinal microbiota, which may be utilized to evaluate donkey health and also offer clues to further investigate donkey digestive system, nutrition, even to develop the microbial supplements.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226186PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910686PMC
April 2020

Combining DWI radiomics features with transurethral resection promotes the differentiation between muscle-invasive bladder cancer and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Eur Radiol 2020 Mar 26;30(3):1804-1812. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Radiology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.1630, Dongfang road, Pudong, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Purpose: To investigate the value of radiomics features from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) from non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

Methods: This retrospective study included 218 pathologically confirmed bladder cancer patients (training set: 131 patients, 86 MIBC; validation set: 87 patients, 55 MIBC) who underwent DWI before biopsy through transurethral resection (TUR) between July 2014 and December 2018. Radiomics models based on DWI for discriminating state of muscle-invasive were built using random forest (RF) and all-relevant (AR) methods on the training set and were tested on validation set. Combination models based on TUR data were also built. Discrimination performances were evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and F1 and F2 scores. Qualitative MRI evaluation based on morphology was performed for comparison.

Results: No significant difference was found between RF and AR models. RF model was more sensitive than TUR (0.873 vs 0.655, p = 0.019) for discriminating muscle-invasive bladder cancer. When combining RF with TUR, the sensitivity increased to 0.964, significantly higher than TUR (0.655, p < 0.001), MRI evaluation (0.764, p = 0.006), and the combination of TUR and MRI (0.836, p = 0.046). Combining RF and TUR achieved the highest accuracy of 0.897 and F2 score of 0.946.

Conclusion: Combining DWI radiomics features with TUR could improve the sensitivity and accuracy in discriminating the presence of muscle invasion in bladder cancer for clinical practice. Multicenter, prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

Key Points: • Twenty-seven to 51% of superficial bladder cancers diagnosed by transurethral resection are upstaged to muscle-invasive at radical cystectomy, suggesting its poor sensitivity for discriminating muscle-invasive bladder cancer. • A small subset of selected all-relevant radiomics features exhibited an equivalent performance compared to that of all the extracted features, confirming that radiomics data contained redundant or irrelevant features and that feature selection should be performed in building radiomics models. • Combining DWI radiomics features with transurethral resection could improve in clinical practice the sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of muscle invasion in bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06484-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Comparison of Monoexponential, Biexponential, Stretched-Exponential, and Kurtosis Models of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Differentiation of Renal Solid Masses.

Korean J Radiol 2019 05;20(5):791-800

Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To compare various models of diffusion-weighted imaging including monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), biexponential (fast diffusion coefficient [D], slow diffusion coefficient [D], and fraction of fast diffusion), stretched-exponential (distributed diffusion coefficient and anomalous exponent term [α]), and kurtosis (mean diffusivity and mean kurtosis [MK]) models in the differentiation of renal solid masses.

Materials And Methods: A total of 81 patients (56 men and 25 women; mean age, 57 years; age range, 30-69 years) with 18 benign and 63 malignant lesions were imaged using 3T diffusion-weighted MRI. Diffusion model selection was investigated in each lesion using the Akaike information criteria. Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used for statistical evaluations.

Results: Goodness-of-fit analysis showed that the stretched-exponential model had the highest voxel percentages in benign and malignant lesions (90.7% and 51.4%, respectively). ADC, D, and MK showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions ( < 0.05) and between low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) ( < 0.05). α was significantly lower in the benign group than in the malignant group ( < 0.05). All diffusion measures showed significant differences between ccRCC and non-ccRCC ( < 0.05) except D and α ( = 0.143 and 0.112, respectively). α showed the highest diagnostic accuracy in differentiating benign and malignant lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.923, but none of the parameters from these advanced models revealed significantly better performance over ADC in discriminating subtypes or grades of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: Compared with conventional diffusion parameters, α may provide additional information for differentiating benign and malignant renal masses, while ADC remains the most valuable parameter for differentiation of RCC subtypes and for ccRCC grading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2018.0474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470087PMC
May 2019

Effects of Radiation on Drug Metabolism: A Review.

Curr Drug Metab 2019 ;20(5):350-360

College of Ecological and Environment Engineering, Qinghai University, Xining, China.

Background: Radiation is the fourth most prevalent type of pollution following the water, air and noise pollution. It can adversely affect normal bodily functions. Radiation alters the protein and mRNA expression of drugmetabolizing enzymes and drug transporters and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of drugs, thereby affecting drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Therefore, it is important to study the pharmacokinetic changes in drugs under radiation.

Methods: To update data on the effects of ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation caused by environmental pollution or clinical treatments on the protein and mRNA expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Data and information on pharmacokinetic changes in drugs under radiation were analyzed and summarized.

Results: The effect of radiation on cytochrome P450 is still a subject of debate. The widespread belief is that higherdose radiation increased the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 of rat, zebrafish or human, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP3A1 of rat, and CYP2E1 of mouse or rat, and decreased that of rat's CYP2C11 and CYP2D1. Radiation increased the expression of multidrug resistance protein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein. The metabolism of some drugs, as well as the clearance, increased during concurrent chemoradiation therapy, whereas the half-life, mean residence time, and area under the curve decreased. Changes in the expression of cytochrome P450 and drug transporters were consistent with the changes in the pharmacokinetics of some drugs under radiation.

Conclusion: The findings of this review indicated that radiation caused by environmental pollution or clinical treatments can alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of drugs. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of drugs should be rechecked and the optimal dose should be re-evaluated after radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200220666190405171303DOI Listing
December 2019

Multiparameter diffusion-weighted imaging for characterizing pathological patterns in lupus nephritis patients: A preliminary study.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 10 18;50(4):1075-1084. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Pudong, Shanghai, China.

Background: Microstructural changes of lupus nephritis (LN) kidney such as inflammatory cell infiltration or fibrosis could influence water molecular movement or diffusion, which indicates that diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) may become a valuable tool in evaluation of this disease.

Purpose: To explore whether multiparameter diffusion-weighted imaging (mDWI) could contribute to characterize pathological patterns in LN patients.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Population: Twenty-two patients with LN.

Field Strength/sequence: Multi-b value DWI was performed with a 3.0 T scanner.

Assessment: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) , perfusion-related diffusion coefficient (D ), molecular diffusion coefficient (D ), perfusion fraction (f), ADC , α, ADC , and mean kurtosis (MK) were calculated by monoexponential, biexponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models fits, respectively.

Statistical Tests: Independent sample t-test, Pearson analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC).

Results: In the whole group, the activity index (AI) correlated significantly with alpha values in the medulla (rho = -0.54, P = 0.03). The chronicity index (CI) correlated significantly with D values in the medulla (rho = -0.61, P = 0.02). No significant association was found between any other diffusion parameter and histologic grade with all P > 0.05. For differentiating proliferative LN (Class III or IV) from Class V, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of alpha in the medulla was 0.833 (P = 0.023). DATA CONCLUSION: mDWI might be used for the characterization of pathological patterns in LN patients.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:1075-1084.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26657DOI Listing
October 2019

Differentiation of clear cell and non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas by all-relevant radiomics features from multiphase CT: a VHL mutation perspective.

Eur Radiol 2019 Aug 6;29(8):3996-4007. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Objectives: To develop a radiomics model with all-relevant imaging features from multiphasic computed tomography (CT) for differentiating clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from non-ccRCC and to investigate the possible radiogenomics link between the imaging features and a key ccRCC driver gene-the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutation.

Methods: In this retrospective two-center study, two radiomics models were built using random forest from a training cohort (170 patients), where one model was built with all-relevant features and the other with minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) features. A model combining all-relevant features and clinical factors (sex, age) was also built. The radiogenomics association between selected features and VHL mutation was investigated by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. All models were tested on an independent validation cohort (85 patients) with ROC curves analysis.

Results: The model with eight all-relevant features from corticomedullary phase CT achieved an AUC of 0.949 and an accuracy of 92.9% in the validation cohort, which significantly outperformed the model with eight mRMR features (seven from nephrographic phase and one from corticomedullary phase) with an AUC of 0.851 and an accuracy of 81.2%. Combining age and sex did not benefit the performance. Five out of eight all-relevant features were significantly associated with VHL mutation, while all eight mRMR features were significantly associated with VHL mutation (false discovery rate-adjusted p < 0.05).

Conclusions: All-relevant features in corticomedullary phase CT can be used to differentiate ccRCC from non-ccRCC. Most subtype-discriminative imaging features were found to be significantly associated with VHL mutation, which may underlie the molecular basis of the radiomics features.

Key Points: • All-relevant features in corticomedullary phase CT can be used to differentiate ccRCC from non-ccRCC with high accuracy. • Most RCC-subtype-discriminative CT features were associated with the key RCC-driven gene-the VHL gene mutation. • Radiomics model can be more accurate and interpretable when the imaging features could reflect underlying molecular basis of RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5872-6DOI Listing
August 2019

Repair mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells derived from nasal mucosa in orbital fracture.

Am J Transl Res 2018 15;10(6):1722-1729. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Puai Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong Science and Technology University Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from nasal mucosa are featured by high division and differentiation capacity, with large nuclei, obvious nucleoli and weak cytoplasmic basophily. Imaging examination, typically CT scan, is the gold standard for the diagnosis of orbital fracture.

Methods: We isolated MSCs derived from goat nasal mucosa and built the calcification model so as to investigate the repair mechanism of nasal mucosa-derived MSCs in orbital fracture. Expressions of osteogenic markers Runx2, OCN, OPN and BSP were detected using western blot.

Results: Nasal mucosa-derived MSCs were successfully isolated and passaged. Nestin was detected by immunofluorescence assay in the cells of the third generation. It was further confirmed that the isolated cells were nasal mucosa-derived MSCs. As indicated by alizarin red staining, the calcification model in nasal mucosa-derived MSCs was successfully built. The relative expressions of Runx2 and OCN reached the highest level after osteogenic induction for 7 d, and the expressions of OPN and BSP were also high. But at 10 d, the expressions of all markers declined somewhat. At 14 d, the expressions of OPN and BSP reached the peak, but without significant differences compared with those at 7 d.

Conclusion: The present study suggested that the repair effect of nasal mucosa-derived MSCs in orbital fracture is achieved by facilitating the expressions of osteogenic markers Runx2, OCN, OPN and BSP. However, the pathways of actions are unknown and further studies are required to elucidate the concrete mechanism.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038081PMC
June 2018

The value of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging in evaluating post-operative renal function outcomes after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 12;28(12):5035-5043. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Urinary Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 200120, China.

Objectives: To assess the ability of renal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI metrics to predict post-operative renal function.

Methods: We studied 152 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and renal MRI examination including BOLD. Short-term and long-term renal function was evaluated using the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) derived from renal scintigraphy. Renal function decline was assessed as the absolute decline (AD), percentage decline (PD) and optimal renal function preservation (OP). T2* values were analysed in the renal cortex and medulla ipsilateral and contralateral to the tumour. Clinical characteristics and imaging metrics were evaluated using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. Risk factors obtained using BOLD metrics (determined by multivariate regression) were then combined and compared with RENAL scores to predict OP.

Results: Increasing warm ischaemia time (WIT), resected and ischaemic volume (RAIV), larger tumour size, higher RENAL score and lower preoperative GFR were short-term risk factors for AD, while increasing WIT and lower preoperative GFR were significant for long-term outcomes. Increasing WIT, RAIV, lower T2* value in the cortex and higher T2* value in the medulla on the ipsilateral side were short-term risk factors for PD, while all of the above factors (except WIT and RAIV) were significant for long-term outcomes. The performance of the combination of T2* values in the cortex and medulla on the ipsilateral side to tumour in predicting OP was better than RENAL score (AUC 0.762 vs 0.634, p = 0.013).

Conclusions: Renal BOLD-MRI metrics could provide useful information to the clinician in predicting post-operative renal function outcomes.

Key Points: • Renal fMRI metrics may be useful for prediction of renal functional outcomes and merit further study. • Renal fMRI metrics may reflect degree of baseline disease and ability to tolerate warm ischaemia. • Combination of T2* values was better than RENAL score for predicting OP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5525-9DOI Listing
December 2018

The Study of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with MR Diffusion Kurtosis Tensor Imaging and Its Histopathologic Correlation.

Acad Radiol 2018 04 29;25(4):430-438. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

MR Collaboration, United Imaging Healthcare, Shanghai, China.

Rationale And Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in the characterization of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and their correlations with tumor histopathology.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-one patients diagnosed with ccRCC who underwent diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging were included in this study. Fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, axial diffusivity, mean kurtosis (MK), radial kurtosis (Krad), and axial kurtosis (Kax) data were produced. A nuclear grade of 1-4 (G1-4) was assigned for each case based on the Fuhrman grading system, whereas tumor histopathology was characterized by the nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio, the cell nuclei count, and the cell volume fraction.

Results: All of the metric values except for Kax and fractional anisotropy could be used to discriminate G1 vs G3, G1 vs G4, G2 vs G3, and G2 vs G4, whereas MK and Kax could be used to discriminate G3 vs G4 (P <0.05). Moreover, the MK and Krad values exhibited better performance in differentiating G2 from G3 (P < 0.04 compared to the other metrics). The nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio was positively correlated with the MK, Krad, and Kax values (P <0.001) and negatively correlated with the mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity values (P <0.001), whereas the cell volume fraction and the cell nuclei count did not correlate with any metric examined.

Conclusion: The kurtosis metrics were superior to the diffusion metrics in grading ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2017.10.016DOI Listing
April 2018
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