Publications by authors named "Guillermo M Denegri"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development of an improved anesthesia protocol to increase CF1 mice survival in a portal vein infection with sensu lato protoscoleces.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 18;7(3):e06496. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción Sanidad y Ambiente (IIPROSAM), CONICET-UNMdP, Centro de Asociación Simple CIC PBA, Argentina.

In order to optimize the survival rate of animals, the purpose of this study was to evaluate an injectable anesthesia protocol for the development of a murine model of hepatic cystic echinococcosis in female CF-1 mice. Three protocols of injectable anesthesia were evaluated during the infection of mice with sensu lato protoscoleces via the portal vein. The use or not of pre-anesthesia [atropine (0.4 mg/kg) and tramadol (2 mg/kg)] and the incorporation or not of yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg) (a reverser of xylazine) in mice anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine 80/8 mg/kg were evaluated. Most mice treated only with ketamine/xylazine 80/8 mg/kg did not achieve a deep surgical anesthetic plane. All mice treated with pre-anesthetic drugs achieved a deep surgical anesthetic plane after the administration of the anesthetic cocktail. Pre-anesthetic drugs application significantly reduced time induction of animals compared with those that received only anesthetic cocktail. Recovery time was significantly faster in the group that received yohimbine. Mice underwent laparotomy that did not receive yohimbine after surgery had a survival rate of 67%, whereas in the group treated with yohimbine the survival was 100 %. We recommend the protocol that applied pre-anesthetic drugs + ketamine/xylazine 80/8 mg/kg + yohimbine, as safe and reliable for the portal vein infection of mice with protoscoleces of sensu lato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005768PMC
March 2021

Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) new intermediate host of Sarcocystis svanai (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

Parasitol Int 2017 Jun 3;66(3):214-218. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, UNLP, Calle 60 y 118, La Plata, Argentina.

Several Sarcocystis spp. have carnivores as definitive host and sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores (intermediate host). However, sarcocysts have been found in muscles of wild and domestic carnivores suggesting they are intermediate host for some Sarcocystis spp. Here, we report mature sarcocysts in the muscles of Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus). A total of 36 free-living foxes were analyzed. Different skeletal muscles were assessed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cysts and/or DNA of Sarcocystis sp. were detected in 61.1% (22/36) foxes. Histopathology revealed the presence of sarcocysts in 52.8% (19/36) foxes. The tongue and masseter were the muscles more frequently infected. Of all the samples processed by homogenization of pooled muscles of each animal, 45.4% (10/22) evidenced muscle cysts and 68.2% (15/22) resulted positives by PCR. Individual cysts obtained from the ten positive samples in direct microscopic examination were all positive by PCR. Five amplicons from individual cysts from different samples were selected for sequencing together with four PCR products obtained from the pooled muscles. All nine sequences shared a high identity among them (99.8-100%) and showed the highest identity by BLAST (99%) with a S. svanai sequence (KM362428) from a North American dog. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (<1μm), had minute undulations, with tiny evaginations and without evident villar protrusions. The cyst wall type is referred as "type 1". Sarcocystis svanai infects L. gymnocercus with a high prevalence and the presence of mature sarcocysts suggests the role of the Pampas fox as natural intermediate host. The definitive host of S. svanai remains unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2017.01.021DOI Listing
June 2017

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of carvacrol against Echinococcus granulosus.

Acta Trop 2016 Dec 17;164:272-279. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, 7600, Mar del Plata, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina. Electronic address:

Currently, benzimidazoles are used as chemotherapeutic agents and as a complement to surgery and PAIR in the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE). They are generally applied at high doses causing side effects and, 50% of cases do not respond favorably to such chemotherapy. The use of essential oils obtained by distillation from aromatic plants would be an effective alternative or complementary to the synthetic compounds, because would not bring the appearance of side effects. Carvacrol and his isomer thymol are the main phenolic components from essential oils of Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of carvacrol against Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes. For the in vitro assay, protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus were incubated with carvacrol at the following final concentrations: 10, 5 and 1μg/ml of carvacrol. The maximum protoscolicidal effect was found with 10μg/ml of carvacrol. Results of viability tests were consistent with the structural and ultrastructural damage observed in protoscoleces. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the germinal layer of cysts treated with carvacrol lost the multicellular structure feature. In the clinical efficacy study, a reduction in cyst weight was observed after the administration of 40mg/kg of carvacrol during 20days in mice with cysts developed during 4 months, compared to that of those collected from control mice. Given that the in vivo effect of carvacrol was comparable with the treatment of reference with ABZ and the fact that is a safe compound, we postulated that carvacrol may be an alternative option for treatment of human CE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.09.001DOI Listing
December 2016

In vitro and in vivo effects of tamoxifen against larval stage Echinococcus granulosus.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 Sep 16;58(9):5146-54. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Mar del Plata, Argentina Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Mar del Plata, Argentina

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Chemotherapy currently employs benzimidazoles; however, 40% of cases do not respond favorably. With regard to these difficulties, novel therapeutic tools are needed to optimize treatment in humans. The aim of this work was to explore the in vitro and in vivo effects of tamoxifen (TAM) against E. granulosus. In addition, possible mechanisms for the susceptibility of TAM are discussed in relation to calcium homeostasis, P-glycoprotein inhibition, and antagonist effects on a putative steroid receptor. After 24 h of treatment, TAM, at a low micromolar concentration range (10 to 50 μM), inhibited the survival of E. granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes. Moreover, we demonstrated the chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive pharmacological effects of the drug. At a dose rate of 20 mg/kg of body weight, TAM induced protection against the infection in mice. In the clinical efficacy studies, a reduction in cyst weight was observed after the administration of 20 mg/kg in mice with cysts developed during 3 or 6 months, compared to that of those collected from control mice. Since the collateral effects of high TAM doses have been largely documented in clinical trials, the use of low doses of this drug as a short-term therapy may be a novel alternative approach for human cystic echinococcosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02113-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4135819PMC
September 2014

Identification and pharmacological induction of autophagy in the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus: an active catabolic process in calcareous corpuscles.

Int J Parasitol 2014 Jun 1;44(7):415-27. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, Nivel Cero, (7600) Mar del Plata, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina; Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, Nivel 2, (7600) Mar del Plata, Argentina. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a fundamental catabolic pathway conserved from yeast to mammals, but which remains unknown in parasite cestodes. In this work, the pharmacological induction of autophagy was cellularly and molecularly analysed in the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. Metacestode sensitivity to rapamycin and TORC1 expression in protoscoleces and metacestodes were shown. Ultrastructural studies showed that treated parasites had an isolation membrane, autophagosomes and autolysosomes, all of which evidenced the autophagic flux. Genes coding for key autophagy-related proteins were also identified in the Echinococcus genome. These genes were involved in autophagosome formation and transcriptional over-expression of Eg-atg5, Eg-atg6, Eg-atg8, Eg-atg12, Eg-atg16 and Eg-atg18 was shown in presence of rapamycin or arsenic trioxide. Thus, Echinococcus autophagy could be regulated by non-transcriptional inhibition through TOR and by transcription-dependent up-regulation via FoxO-like transcription factors and/or TFEB proteins. An increase in the punctate pattern and Eg-Atg8 polypeptide level in the tegument, parenchyma cells and excretory system of protoscoleces and in vesicularised parasites was detected after rapamycin treatment. This suggests the occurrence of basal autophagy in the larval stages and during vesicular development. In arsenic-treated protoscoleces, high Eg-Atg8 polypeptide levels within the free cytoplasmic matrix of calcareous corpuscles were observed, thus verifying the occurrence of autophagic events. These experiments also confirmed that the calcareous corpuscles are sites of arsenic trioxide accumulation. The detection of the autophagic machinery in this parasite represents a basic starting point to unravel the role of autophagy under both physiological and stress conditions which will allow identification of new strategies for drug discovery against neglected parasitic diseases caused by cestodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.02.007DOI Listing
June 2014

P-glycoprotein expression and pharmacological modulation in larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus.

Parasitol Int 2014 Feb 8;63(1):1-8. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, Nivel Cero, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina.

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-dependent transporter involved in the efflux of a wide variety of lipophilic substrates, such as toxins and xenobiotics, out of cells. Pgp expression level is associated with the ineffective therapeutic treatment of cancer cells and microbial pathogens which gives it high clinical importance. Research on these transporters in helminths is limited. This work describes for the first time the Echinococcus granulosus Pgp (Eg-Pgp) expression, in a model cestode parasite and an important human pathogen. Based on calcein efflux assays in the presence of common Pgp modulators, we demonstrated the occurrence of active Eg-Pgp in protoscoleces and metacestodes. Eg-Pgp, which showed a molecular mass of ~130 kDa in western blots, is localized in the suckers and the tegument of control protoscoleces as well as in the subtegument or all parenchymatous cells of protoscoleces treated with Pgp-interfering agents. We also identified five genes encoding Pgp which are constitutively expressed in protoscoleces and metacestodes. We showed that the Eg-pgp1 and Eg-pgp2 transcripts were up-regulated in response to in vitro drug treatment with amiodarone and loperamide, in agreement with the increased polypeptide levels. Finally, in vitro treatment of protoscoleces and metacestodes with trifluoperazine and loperamide was lethal to the parasites. This indicates that both drugs as well as cyclosporine A negatively modulate the E. granulosus Pgp efflux activity, favoring the retention of these drugs in the larval tissue. These events could be associated with the reduction in protoscolex and metacestode viability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2013.09.017DOI Listing
February 2014

Could thymol have effectiveness on scolices and germinal layer of hydatid cysts?

Acta Trop 2013 Mar 19;125(3):251-7. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes, Mar del Plata, Argentina.

Scolicidal solutions remain indispensable in the treatment of hydatid cyst disease. Properties of an ideal solution would be inexpensiveness and the promotion of a rapid and complete scolicidal effect with an absence of local and systemic side effects. From this point of view, no ideal solution and agents have been described yet. The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of high concentrations of thymol against protoscoleces, microcyst and cyst of Echinococcus granulosus and to evaluate its possible role as a scolicidal agent during surgery or PAIR. After short exposure times, a rapid effect was observed depending on the parasitic material. After 2 min of exposure to thymol, viability of protoscoleces was approximately 1.3% at a concentration of 250 μg/ml. The protoscolicidal effect is dose and time dependent. The results of the in vitro treatment with thymol were similar in both microcysts and secondary murine cysts. The employment of SEM and TEM allowed us to examine, at an ultrastructural level, the effects induced by thymol on E. granulosus protoscoleces, microcysts and murine cysts. In conclusion, the data obtained clearly demonstrated that thymol caused severe damages to the parasite even after short incubation times. This fact and the lack of toxicity at the evaluated concentrations, allow us to propose it as a possible scolicidal agent during hydatid cysts surgery and/or PAIR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2012.12.007DOI Listing
March 2013

Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes.

Parasitol Res 2012 Mar 16;110(3):1103-12. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina.

The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of Mentha piperita and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Echinococcus granulosus and to compare the effectiveness of both oils according to the exposure time and concentration. Although both treatments had a protoscolicidal effect, M. pulegium had a considerably stronger effect than M. piperita. Essential oil of M. pulegium produced dose- and time-dependent effects. Maximal protoscolicidal effect was observed after 12 days of incubation and reached 0% after 18 days. This lack of viability was proved during the determination of infectivity into mice. Essential oil of M. piperita produced only a time-dependent effect. At 24 days p.i., the viability of protoscoleces decreased to approximately 50%. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) demonstrated the drug-induced ultrastructural damage. On the other hand, a loss of turgidity was detected in all M. pulegium-treated cysts respective of the drug concentration. There was a correlation between the intensity of damage and the concentration of the essential oil assayed. Studies by SEM revealed that the germinal layer of treated cysts lost the feature multicellular structure. M. pulegium essential oil showed piperitone oxide as main compound in their composition, and we suggest that this component could be responsible of the markedly anthelmintic effect detected. Our data suggest that essential oils of Mentha spp. can be a promising source of potential protoscolicidal agents. The isolation of active anthelmintic constituents is in progress and may lead to the discovery of compounds with improved therapeutic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2595-xDOI Listing
March 2012

Primary cell culture of Echinococcus granulosus developed from the cystic germinal layer: biological and functional characterization.

Int J Parasitol 2010 Sep 10;40(11):1269-75. Epub 2010 Apr 10.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel Cero, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina.

Cell cultures of parasitic helminths are an invaluable tool for investigations of basic biological processes, as well as for development of improved chemotherapeutic agents and molecular interactions between host and parasite. We carried out a simple and efficient methodology to isolate Echinococcus granulosus germinal cells which were maintained for at least 4 months while cultivated in the presence of reducing agents and hormones. Microscopic analysis of the primary cell culture revealed the presence of cells with similar Echinococcus germinal cell morphology and behaviour. Population doubling time was estimated at 48 h, showing a rapid division rate. To discard possible host contamination, the specificity of the primary culture was tested by nested PCR, analyzing mdh gene expression and obtaining only one product with the expected size. We also studied the expression of specific E. granulosus proteins in primary cell culture. The novel and systematized method described here constitutes a powerful tool for investigations in cystic echinococcosis on biochemical and biological aspects related to the life cycle of the parasite and mechanisms of host-parasite interactions. This method also constitutes a powerful tool for the design of more efficient therapeutic alternatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.03.008DOI Listing
September 2010

Identification of functional FKB protein in Echinococcus granulosus: its involvement in the protoscolicidal action of rapamycin derivates and in calcium homeostasis.

Int J Parasitol 2010 May 22;40(6):651-61. Epub 2009 Dec 22.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, Nivel Cero, (7600) Mar del Plata, Argentina.

FK506 (tacrolimus) and polyketide macrolides such as rapamycin and its derivates bind to FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs). These proteins display a peptidyl-prolyl rotamase function that is believed to catalyze protein folding and they are well-validated anti-proliferative drug targets in certain pathogenic microorganisms, and their functions have been characterized in parasitic protozoa. However, much less is known in helminths and trials with rapalogs on cestoda have not yet been reported. Due to a growing need for new treatment options for human cystic echinococcosis, the in vitro efficacy of rapalogs in Echinococcus granulosus was investigated. We determined the effect of ramapycin, FK506 and everolimus against this cestode, demonstrating their protoscolicidal ability. Also, we observed synergic scolicidal actions during combined therapy with rapalogs plus cyclosporine A, proposing dual administration of drugs to improve pharmacological effects in vivo. We have identified an E. granulosus (Eg)-fkb1 gene that encodes Eg-FKBP, an archetypal protein of the FKBP family, which includes all residues implicated in the binding of pharmacological ligands, in the enzymatic activity and in interactions with possible target proteins. Levels of Eg-fkb1 mRNA are over-expressed by acid but not rapalog treatment. We also described the presence of receptor-operated calcium channels in the larval stage, suggesting that exogenous ligands may dissociate the interaction of Eg-FKBP from these intracellular channels, enhancing the activity of the Ca(2+) release and interfering with their normal regulatory functions. As rapamycin sensitivity is the major criterion used to detect targets of rapamycin kinase, we identified and analyzed in silico critical residues of putative homologs in the Echinococcus genome. These preliminary results will allow us to continue subsequent studies that could reveal the precise intracellular functions of Eg-FKBP, providing greater knowledge for further identification of downstream target proteins, a promising target for chemotherapy of cystic echinococcosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.11.011DOI Listing
May 2010

Flubendazole interferes with a wide spectrum of cell homeostatic mechanisms in Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

Parasitol Int 2009 Sep 29;58(3):270-7. Epub 2009 Mar 29.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, Nivel Cero, (7600) Mar del Plata, Argentina.

The problem of chemotherapeutic treatments for human echinococcosis has not been completely solved. The benzimidazole-methylcarbamates (BZD), broad-spectrum antihelminthic agents, such as mebendazole and albendazole are the only drugs licensed for treatment of hydatid cysts. These drugs bind directly to beta-tubulin causing the disruption of microtubule-based processes in helminths. However, the molecular bases of their multiple biological activities are poorly understood. Recently, the effect of halogenated derivative flubendazole (FLBZ), against E. granulosus larvae has been conclusively demonstrated. The comparative effectiveness of FLBZ, among other BZDs, was shown by means of vitality tests and time of appearance of morphological damage of larvae. In the present study, we examined biochemical and molecular changes on protoscoleces treated with FLBZ. We show that FLBZ induces: 1) an increase in cytosolic free calcium, 2) a decrease in tubulin transcripts, 3) a reduction of mMDH expression and 4) a significant decrease in glycogen levels. These results are consistent with the existence of multiple targets for FLBZ, such as calcium signaling and energy metabolism, and contribute to the understanding of the pharmaceutical properties of FLBZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2009.03.005DOI Listing
September 2009

Capillaria spp. eggs in Patagonian archaeological sites: statistical analysis of morphometric data.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2008 Feb;103(1):104-5

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Discriminant analysis was used to identify eggs of Capillaria spp. at specific level found in organic remains from an archaeological site in Patagonia, Argentina, dated of 6,540 +/- 110 years before present. In order to distinguish eggshell morphology 149 eggs were measured and grouped into four arbitrary subsets. The analysis used on egg width and length discriminated them into different morphotypes (Wilks' lambda = 0.381, p < 0.05). The correlation analysis suggests that width was the most important variable to discriminate among the Capillaria spp. egg morphotypes (Pearson coefficient = 0.950, p < 0.05). The study of eggshell patterns, the relative frequency in the sample, and the morphometric data allowed us to correlate the four morphotypes with Capillaria species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762008000100016DOI Listing
February 2008

The role of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in the life cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in urban environments.

Vet Parasitol 2004 Jun;122(1):27-33

Laboratorio de Ecofisiología, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Casilla de Correo 1245, 7600 Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

This work is the first report of subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis in urban areas of Mar de Cobo (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and to experimentally reproduce in domestic dogs the adult stage of this parasite. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae in the liver and peritoneal cavity of C. talarum were 64%, 15.3 and 9.8, respectively. Ten adults of T. taeniaeformis were obtained from experimentally infected dogs. Information about the role of subterranean rodents in the life cycle of this parasite is also given. The above mentioned data indicate that T. taeniaeformis is a frequent parasite of this species of rodents, at least within the study area. Also explanations for the high prevalence of larval forms of this parasite in C. talarum populations are given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.03.001DOI Listing
June 2004

Oribatid mites as intermediate hosts of Thysanosoma actinioides (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae): a preliminary study.

Vet Parasitol 2002 Jan;103(3):267-71

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3250, 7600 Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Thysanosoma actinioides Diesing, 1834 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) parasitizes domestic and wild herbivores, and its life cycle has not yet been completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of oribatid mites as intermediate hosts of T. actinioides. The work was carried out at a Merino sheep breeding farm situated in the Pre-Cordillera region near Bariloche City, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The proglottids of T. actinioides were obtained from feces of infected sheep. In the laboratory, they were placed in the plastic wells with oribatid mites. The species of oribatids used in this experimental trial were Zygoribatula striassima Hammer, 1962 (Family Oribatulidae) and Oribatella spp. Banks, 1895 (Family Oribatellidae). Both species became infected with larval stages of T. actinioides. However, the infective cysticercoid stage did not develop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0304-4017(01)00599-4DOI Listing
January 2002