Publications by authors named "Guillermo Gallardo"

10 Publications

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Nocturnal Hypoxemia and CT Determined Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Smokers.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 30;10(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Pulmonary Division, Kingston General Hospital, Queen's University, 76 Stuart St., Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada.

Background: Pulmonary artery enlargement (PAE) detected using chest computed tomography (CT) is associated with poor outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether nocturnal hypoxemia occurring in smokers, with or without COPD, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or their overlap, may be associated with PAE assessed by chest CT.

Methods: We analysed data from two prospective cohort studies that enrolled 284 smokers in lung cancer screening programs and completing baseline home sleep studies and chest CT scans. Main pulmonary artery diameter (PAD) and the ratio of the PAD to that of the aorta (PA:Ao ratio) were measured. PAE was defined as a PAD ≥ 29 mm in men and ≥27 mm in women or as a PA:Ao ratio > 0.9. We evaluated the association of PAE with baseline characteristics using multivariate logistic models.

Results: PAE prevalence was 27% as defined by PAD measurements and 11.6% by the PA:Ao ratio. A body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.06-3.78), lower % predicted of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV) (OR 1.03; 95%CI 1.02-1.05) and higher % of sleep time with O saturation < 90% (T90) (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.03), were associated with PAE as determined by PAD. However, only T90 remained significantly associated with PAE as defined by the PA:Ao ratio (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01-1.03). In the subset group without OSA, only T90 remains associated with PAE, whether defined by PAD measurement (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01-1.03) or PA:Ao ratio (OR 1.04; 95%CI 1.01-1.07).

Conclusions: In smokers with or without COPD, nocturnal hypoxemia was associated with PAE independently of OSA coexistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866508PMC
January 2021

Microstructural organization of human insula is linked to its macrofunctional circuitry and predicts cognitive control.

Elife 2020 06 4;9. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Parietal, Inria Saclay Île-de-France, CEA Université Paris Sud, Palaiseau, France.

The human insular cortex is a heterogeneous brain structure which plays an integrative role in guiding behavior. The cytoarchitectonic organization of the human insula has been investigated over the last century using postmortem brains but there has been little progress in noninvasive in vivo mapping of its microstructure and large-scale functional circuitry. Quantitative modeling of multi-shell diffusion MRI data from 413 participants revealed that human insula microstructure differs significantly across subdivisions that serve distinct cognitive and affective functions. Insular microstructural organization was mirrored in its functionally interconnected circuits with the anterior cingulate cortex that anchors the salience network, a system important for adaptive switching of cognitive control systems. Furthermore, insular microstructural features, confirmed in Macaca mulatta, were linked to behavior and predicted individual differences in cognitive control ability. Our findings open new possibilities for probing psychiatric and neurological disorders impacted by insular cortex dysfunction, including autism, schizophrenia, and fronto-temporal dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.53470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308087PMC
June 2020

Primate auditory prototype in the evolution of the arcuate fasciculus.

Nat Neurosci 2020 05 20;23(5):611-614. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Newcastle University Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

The human arcuate fasciculus pathway is crucial for language, interconnecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal areas. Whether a monkey homolog exists is controversial and the nature of human-specific specialization unclear. Using monkey, ape and human auditory functional fields and diffusion-weighted MRI, we identified homologous pathways originating from the auditory cortex. This discovery establishes a primate auditory prototype for the arcuate fasciculus, reveals an earlier phylogenetic origin and illuminates its remarkable transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-0623-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195223PMC
May 2020

Low-cost customized cranioplasty using a 3D digital printing model: a case report.

3D Print Med 2018 12;4(1). Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Plastic Surgery Institute, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Cranial defects usually occur after trauma, neurosurgical procedures like decompressive craniotomy, tumour resections, infection and congenital defects. The purpose of cranial vault repair is to protect the underlying brain tissue, to reduce any localized pain and patient anxiety, and improve cranial aesthetics. Cranioplasty is a frequent neurosurgical procedure achieved with the aid of cranial prosthesis made from materials such as: titanium, autologous bone, ceramics and polymers. Prosthesis production is often costly and requires complex intraoperative processes. Implant customized manufacturing for craniopathies allows for a precise and anatomical reconstruction in a shorter operating time compared to other conventional techniques. We present a simple, low-cost method for prosthesis manufacturing that ensures surgical success.

Case Presentation: Two patients with cranial defects are presented to describe the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique for cranial reconstruction. A digital prosthesis model is designed and manufactured with the aid of a 3D computed tomography. Both the data of large sized cranial defects and the prosthesis are transferred to a 3D printer to obtain a physical model in poly-lactic acid which is then used in a laboratory to cast the final customised prosthesis in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).

Conclusions: A precise compliance of the prosthesis to the osseous defect was achieved. At the 6 month postoperative follow-up no complications were observed i.e. rejection, toxicity, local or systemic infection, and the aesthetic change was very significant and satisfactory. Customized 3D PMMA prosthesis offers cost advantages, a great aesthetic result, reduced operating time and good biocompatibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41205-018-0026-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954791PMC
April 2018

Subfascial Gluteal Implant Augmentation.

Clin Plast Surg 2018 Apr;45(2):225-236

Plastic Surgery Institute, Hospital Ángeles Lomas, Vialidad de la Barranca s/no consultorio 490 Col. Valle de las Palmas Huixquilucan, Mexico City 52763, Mexico.

Gluteal augmentation has gained popularity. It might be the only option to increase volume for lean patients without donor tissue for grafting. Subfascial augmentation is a safe treatment with low morbidity when performed in an appropriate setting with the right equipment. It is an anatomically based procedure. It is very important that pocket dissection is limited to the anatomic landmarks. Implants should be placed vertically to allow for proper contouring. The wound should never be closed with tension. One of the most important steps is postoperative care, which should avoid any pressure on the buttocks and stress on the wound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cps.2017.12.012DOI Listing
April 2018

Groupwise structural parcellation of the whole cortex: A logistic random effects model based approach.

Neuroimage 2018 04 1;170:307-320. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Université Côte d'Azur, Inria, France.

Current theories hold that brain function is highly related to long-range physical connections through axonal bundles, namely extrinsic connectivity. However, obtaining a groupwise cortical parcellation based on extrinsic connectivity remains challenging. Current parcellation methods are computationally expensive; need tuning of several parameters or rely on ad-hoc constraints. Furthermore, none of these methods present a model for the cortical extrinsic connectivity of the cortex. To tackle these problems, we propose a parsimonious model for the extrinsic connectivity and an efficient parceling technique based on clustering of tractograms. Our technique allows the creation of single subject and groupwise parcellations of the whole cortex. The parcellations obtained with our technique are in agreement with structural and functional parcellations in the literature. In particular, the motor and sensory cortex are subdivided in agreement with the human homunculus of Penfield. We illustrate this by comparing our resulting parcels with the motor strip mapping included in the Human Connectome Project data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.01.070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5538957PMC
April 2018

Genetic admixture and diversity estimations in the Mexican Mestizo population from Mexico City using 15 STR polymorphic markers.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2008 Jun 17;2(3):e37-9. Epub 2007 Oct 17.

Epidemiological Research and Health Services Unit, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.

The 15 AmpFlSTR Identifiler loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA were analyzed in a sample of 378 unrelated individuals from Mexico City, Mexico. Significant deviations from HW equilibrium in 14/15 STR loci alleles were not detected. The D18S51 locus had the highest power of discrimination (0.970). Genetic admixture estimations revealed a 69% of Amerindian, 26% of European and 5% of African contribution. Comparative analyses between Mexicans and other neighboring populations reveal significant differences in genetic diversity. Our results are important for future comparative genetic studies in different Latin American ethnic groups, particularly Mexican Mestizos and Amerindians. They should also be helpful in genetics, population evolution, forensic and paternity testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2007.08.017DOI Listing
June 2008

A novel SCN5A deletion mutation in a child with ventricular tachycardia, recurrent aborted sudden death, and Brugada electrocardiographic pattern.

Arch Cardiol Mex 2007 Oct-Dec;77(4):284-7

Department of Electrophysiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, DF Mexico.

A novel SCN5A mutation was found in a child with congenital sick sinus disease, a Brugada-like electrocardiogram and recurrent aborted sudden death. The mutation (L1821fs/10) is a 4 base pair deletion (TCTG) at position 5464-5467 in exon 28 of the gene. The novel mutation is predicted to produce a frameshift leading to a premature stop codon after ten missense amino acids upstream that did not allow the generation of the complete protein, and probably producing an incomplete and therefore non functional protein. The resulting alteration in sodium current could explain the clinical phenotype observed in this patient.
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May 2008

[Molecular bases of heart failure].

Arch Cardiol Mex 2006 Oct-Dec;76 Suppl 4:S10-7

Departamento de Fisiologia y Grupo de Estudio en Genómica y Proteómica en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología "Ignacio Chávez".

Heart failure (HF) is a complex pathophysiologic state in which delivery of blood and nutrients is inadequate for tissue requirements. HF almost always arises in patients with previous cardiovascular disease such as acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, congenital malformations, or valvular disease. Recently, substantial progress has been made to understand the etiology, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of HF. Several inter-related mechanisms such as oxidative stress, signal transduction, abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling, mitochondrial dysfunction and inherited mutations have been proposed as the triggers of HF.
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June 2007

MHC class II genes in Mexican patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Exp Mol Pathol 2007 Feb 28;82(1):49-52. Epub 2006 Nov 28.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Disease's Genomic and Proteomic Study Group, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico City, Mexico.

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes (HLA-DR and HLA-DQB) and the genetic susceptibility to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) in Mexican patients. The HLA-DR and DQB alleles were analyzed in 53 patients with IDC and 99 ethnically matched healthy controls using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSO) technique. IDC patients showed increased frequencies of HLA-DR4 (pC=0.02, OR=1.87), HLA-DQB1*0301 (pC=0.02, OR=1.92) and HLA-DQB1*0302 (pC=0.02, OR=1.87) when compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, IDC patients also showed decreased frequencies of HLA-DR11 allele (pC=0.03, OR=0.26) and HLA-DQB1*0201 (pC=0.04, OR=0.41). These data suggest that variation in class II HLA alleles could be a genetic factor involved in the susceptibility to IDC of the Mexican Mestizo population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2006.10.002DOI Listing
February 2007