Publications by authors named "Guilherme Gomes Silva"

10 Publications

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Shifts in bacterial communities and antibiotic resistance genes in surface water and gut microbiota of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the upper Rio Uberabinha, Brazil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 25;211:111955. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Anthropogenic activities especially water pollution can affect the diversity and composition of microbial communities and promote the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, water samples and guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were sampled from six sampling sites along the Uberabinha River in southeastern Brazil, both microbial communities and ARGs of surface waters and intestinal microbiota of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were detected. According to the results of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were dominant phyla in both water and intestinal microbiota, but the abundance of putative pathogens was higher at heavily polluted sites. Up to 83% of bacteria in intestinal microbiota originated from water microbiota; this proportion was relatively higher in less polluted compared to polluted environments. ARGs providing resistance of tetracyclines and quinolones were dominant in both water and gut microbiota. The relative abundances of class I integrons and ARGs were as high as 1.74 × 10/16S rRNA copies and 3.61 × 10/16S rRNA copies, respectively, at heavily polluted sites. Correlation analysis suggests that integrons and bacteria play key roles in explaining the widespread occurrence of ARGs in the surface, but not in intestinal microbiota. We could rule out the class I integrons a potential intermediary bridge for ARGs between both types of microbiomes. Our results highlight the tight link in microbial communities and ARGs between ambient microbiota of stream ecosystems and intestinal microbiota of fish. Our study could have far-reaching consequences for fisheries and consumer safety and calls for investigations of gut microbiota of target species of both commercial fisheries and recreational (hobby) angling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111955DOI Listing
March 2021

Water pollution affects fish community structure and alters evolutionary trajectories of invasive guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 28;730:138912. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Xinong Road 22, Yangling, PR China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Molecular Biology in Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, PR China. Electronic address:

Anthropogenic habitat alterations have the potential to affect both, ecological dynamics of communities and populations, as well as evolutionary processes within populations. Invasive species may benefit from anthropogenic disturbance, such as water pollution, to which they sometimes seem more resistant than native ones. They also allow investigating evolutionary divergence among populations occurring along pollution gradients. We assessed fish communities at 55 sampling sites in the degraded and heavily overstocked Mutara Rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda (upper Nile drainage), which receive pollution from domestic wastewater and cattle dung. Diverse fish communities became apparent that included invasive guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Poeciliidae), and canonical correspondence analyses found significant differentiation of community structures along several environmental parameters (condensed into principal components), including pollution-effects. As predicted, generalized linear models found guppies to have a higher likelihood of occurrence at polluted sites. Local abundances of guppies, however, decreased at polluted sites. Since guppies are color-polymorphic, and color patterns have a heritable basis, they allow inferences regarding both pollution-induced suppression of male ornamentation (e.g., through xenestrogens) and evolutionary population divergence. We thus quantified different ornament types (numbers and percent body surface cover). ANCOVAs uncovered several weak (based on effect strengths), but statistically significant pollution-effects and interactions with other environmental parameters. The direction of several interaction effects was similar for blue/black and red/orange ornaments, while white/iridescent ornaments responded dissimilarly. As responses differed between ornament types, they likely reflect evolutionary divergence due to site-specific alterations of selective regimes rather than developmental inhibition of male secondary sexual characters. We propose that pollution affects local fitness landscapes resulting, e.g., from predation and mate competition (as a function of local abundances), altogether driving evolutionary divergence of sexually selected traits. This study highlights how human activities not only impact ecological dynamics, but-mediated by altered Eco-Evo dynamics-might change the evolutionary trajectories of populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138912DOI Listing
August 2020

Using native and invasive livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) for the integrated biological assessment of pollution in urban streams.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jan 6;698:134336. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, PR China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Molecular Biology in Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, PR China. Electronic address:

Invasive species are increasingly replacing native species, especially in anthropogenically transformed or polluted habitats. This opens the possibility to use invasive species as indicator taxa for the biological assessment of pollution. Integrated biological assessment, however, additionally relies on the application of multiple approaches to quantify physiological or cytogenetic responses to pollution within the same focal species. This is challenging when species are restricted to either polluted or unpolluted sites. Here, we make use of a small group of neotropical livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) for the integrated biological assessment of water quality. Comparing urban and suburban stream sections that receive varying degrees of pollution from industrial and domestic waste waters in and around the Brazilian city of Uberlândia, we demonstrate that two members of this family may indeed serve as indicators of water pollution levels. The native species Phalloceros caudimaculatus appears to be replaced by invasive guppies (Poecilia reticulata) at heavily polluted sites. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that both species could be used for the assessment of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Cr). Ambient (sediment) concentrations predicted concentrations in somatic tissue across species (R-values between 0.74 and 0.96). Moreover, we used cytogenetic methods to provide an estimate of genotoxic effects of water pollution and found pollution levels (multiple variables, condensed into principal components) to predict the occurrence of nuclear abnormalities (e.g., frequencies of micro-nucleated cells) across species (R between 0.69 and 0.83). The occurrence of poeciliid fishes in urban and polluted environments renders this family a prime group of focal organisms for biological water quality monitoring and assessment. Both species could be used interchangeably to assess genotoxic effects of water pollution, which may facilitate future comparative analyses over extensive geographic scales, as members of the family Poeciliidae have become invasive in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134336DOI Listing
January 2020

Assessment of genotoxic effects on elderly populations exposed to high traffic areas: Results for supporting public health surveillance.

Environ Res 2019 12 18;179(Pt A):108752. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Federal University of Minas Gerais, Institute of Biological Sciences, Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

In urban areas with intense vehicular traffic, particulate matter in suspension, especially the fraction of particles with ultra-fine diameter, has been regarded as the main problem of chronic diseases in susceptible populations, such as the elderly. This study aimed to determine the genotoxic effects of exposure to air pollution evaluating the association between the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells in exfoliated oral mucosa cells of elderly population and exposure conditions, considering the influence of traffic and concentration of PM in different aerodynamic diameters. Traffic of passenger vehicles, heavy duty trucks and environmental concentrations of Particulate Matter were measured twice a day during 28 days before biological sampling of oral mucosa from 154 participants living in areas of distinct levels of urban traffic. Data from this study showed that the group of participants living near road traffic exhibited higher MN cell frequency, when compared to the other groups of subjects. In addition, a canonical correlation analysis between environmental and genotoxicity variables analysis revealed that high concentrations of the particulate matter were correlated with intense traffic and the genotoxicity in exfoliated oral cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108752DOI Listing
December 2019

Predator-induced changes of male and female mating preferences: innate and learned components.

Curr Zool 2019 Jun 6;65(3):305-316. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Zoology, University of Basel, Switzerland.

While many mating preferences have a genetic basis, the question remains as to whether and how learning/experience can modify individual mate choice decisions. We used wild-caught (predator-experienced) and F laboratory-reared (predator-naïve) invasive Western mosquitofish from China to test whether mating preferences (assessed in a first mate choice test) would change under immediate predation threat. The same individuals were tested in a second mate choice test during which 1 of 3 types of animated predators was presented: 1) a co-occurring predator, 2) a co-evolved but not currently co-occurring predator, and 3) a non-piscivorous species as control. We compared preference scores derived from both mate choice tests to separate innate from experiential effects of predation. We also asked whether predator-induced changes in mating preferences would differ between sexes or depend on the choosing individual's personality type and/or body size. Wild-caught fish altered their mate choice decisions most when exposed to the co-occurring predator whereas laboratory-reared individuals responded most to the co-evolved predator, suggesting that both innate mechanisms and learning effects are involved. This behavior likely reduces individuals' risk of falling victim to predation by temporarily moving away from high-quality (i.e., conspicuous) mating partners. Accordingly, effects were stronger in bolder than shyer, large- compared with small-bodied, and female compared with male focal individuals, likely because those phenotypes face an increased predation risk overall. Our study adds to the growing body of literature appreciating the complexity of the mate choice process, where an array of intrinsic and extrinsic factors interacts during decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cz/zoz003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595919PMC
June 2019

Biological water quality assessment in the degraded Mutara rangelands, northeastern Rwanda.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Feb 8;191(3):139. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali Campus, P.O. Box 3373, Kigali, Rwanda.

Rwanda is a heavily overpopulated country that also suffers from overstocking with livestock, especially following the return of war refuges after the civil war (1991-1995). At present, approximately 20% of the human population in Nyagatare District in northeastern Rwanda has no access to clean drinking water and sanitation. We used a biotic index based on the presence of selected families of aquatic macroinvertebrates, derived from the "Tanzania River Scoring System" (TARISS), to assess water quality at N = 55 sites in the Mutara grasslands in Nyagatare District. Poor water quality became evident across most sampling sites both in the Muvumba (mean ± SE TARISS score 5.25 ± 0.10) and Karangazi Rivers (4.79 ± 0.12). Using a general linear model, we asked whether direct effects of land use forms and input of anthropogenic wastewater have an impact on water quality. Our results found no immediate effects of both forms of disturbance/pollution, probably because overall water quality was already poor. Our study is intended to serve as a starting point for continuous monitoring of water quality in the Mutara rangelands in NE Rwanda. The method applied here is cost-efficient, requires only basic equipment, and training local students to apply this technique can provide a solid basis for its implementation in future surveys related to public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7226-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373534PMC
February 2019

Personality differentially affects individual mate choice decisions in female and male Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

PLoS One 2018 15;13(5):e0197197. Epub 2018 May 15.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, P.R. China.

Consistent individual differences in behavioral tendencies (animal personality) can affect individual mate choice decisions. We asked whether personality traits affect male and female mate choice decisions similarly and whether potential personality effects are consistent across different mate choice situations. Using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as our study organism, we characterized focal individuals (males and females) twice for boldness, activity, and sociability/shoaling and found high and significant behavioral repeatability. Additionally, each focal individual was tested in two different dichotomous mate choice tests in which it could choose between computer-animated stimulus fish of the opposite sex that differed in body size and activity levels, respectively. Personality had different effects on female and male mate choice: females that were larger than average showed stronger preferences for large-bodied males with increasing levels of boldness/activity (i.e., towards more proactive personality types). Males that were larger than average and had higher shoaling tendencies showed stronger preferences for actively swimming females. Size-dependent effects of personality on the strength of preferences for distinct phenotypes of potential mating partners may reflect effects of age/experience (especially in females) and social dominance (especially in males). Previous studies found evidence for assortative mate choice based on personality types or hypothesized the existence of behavioral syndromes of individuals' choosiness across mate choice criteria, possibly including other personality traits. Our present study exemplifies that far more complex patterns of personality-dependent mate choice can emerge in natural systems.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197197PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953439PMC
July 2018

Genotoxic effects following exposure to air pollution in street vendors from a high-traffic urban area.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Mar 14;190(4):215. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Environmental Health, Laboratory of Environmental Health, Federal University of Uberlândia, Santa Mônica Campus, Avenida João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, 38408-100, Brazil.

Workers in several occupational environments are exposed to pollutants. Street vendors, for example, typically work in a high-traffic urban environment and are exposed to numerous air pollutants, including genotoxic substances emitted by motor vehicles. This study examined the genotoxic effects of exposure to air pollution. We conducted cytological analyses to assess frequencies of micronucleated (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells in a sample of exfoliated oral mucosa cells. We compared street vendors and control subjects in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and also collected quantitative information on exposure conditions of all test subjects, including concentrations of particulate matter. We found street vendors to exhibit higher frequencies of MN cells compared to the control group. We evaluated the effects of possible confounding variables on MN frequencies, namely the body mass index (BMI), age, as well as smoking and alcohol habits. Multiple linear regression analysis found no significant effects of any of those variables. Our results suggest that continued exposure to air pollution from traffic represents a major source of genotoxicity and raises concerns regarding disease prevention not only in street vendors but also other groups of people working in urban environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6598-2DOI Listing
March 2018

Predation risk and abiotic habitat parameters affect personality traits in extremophile populations of a neotropical fish ().

Ecol Evol 2017 08 18;7(16):6570-6581. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

College of Animal Science and Technology Northwest A&F University Yangling China.

Understanding whether and how ambient ecological conditions affect the distribution of personality types within and among populations lies at the heart of research on animal personality. Several studies have focussed on only one agent of divergent selection (or driver of plastic changes in behavior), considering either predation risk or a single abiotic ecological factor. Here, we investigated how an array of abiotic and biotic environmental factors simultaneously shape population differences in boldness, activity in an open-field test, and sociability/shoaling in the livebearing fish from six ecologically different lagoons in southeastern Brazil. We evaluated the relative contributions of variation in predation risk, water transparency/visibility, salinity (ranging from oligo- to hypersaline), and dissolved oxygen. We also investigated the role played by environmental factors for the emergence, strength, and direction of behavioral correlations. Water transparency explained most of the behavioral variation, whereby fish from lagoons with low water transparency were significantly shyer, less active, and shoaled less than fish living under clear water conditions. When we tested additional wild-caught fish from the same lagoons after acclimating them to homogeneous laboratory conditions, population differences were largely absent, pointing toward behavioral plasticity as a mechanism underlying the observed behavioral differences. Furthermore, we found correlations between personality traits (behavioral syndromes) to vary substantially in strength and direction among populations, with no obvious associations with ecological factors (including predation risk). Altogether, our results suggest that various habitat parameters simultaneously shape the distribution of personality types, with abiotic factors playing a vital (as yet underestimated) role. Furthermore, while predation is often thought to lead to the emergence of behavioral syndromes, our data do not support this assumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574810PMC
August 2017

Integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment related to the genotoxic effects of vehicular pollution in Uberlândia, Brazil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jan 8;24(3):2572-2577. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Science and Technology Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Uberlândia, Santa Mônica Campus, Avenida João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, 38.408-100, Brazil.

The development of parameters to explore the link between air-related diseases and their significant driving forces is an important aim in terms of national economics and public health. In this study, we did an integrated analysis involving multiple environmental health indicators from Uberlândia, Brazil, registered before and during a period when the Brazilian government reduced taxes on new cars in a bid to bolster local manufacturing. In addition, the present study utilized Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) frameworks to evaluate correlations in environmental health indicators over 10 years (2004-2013), in which the Brazilian government reduced vehicle production taxes beginning in 2008. Significant correlations in all indicators selected were found from 2008 to 2013, corresponding to the tax reduction on new vehicles. The frequency of micronuclei (MN) was significantly higher in the city center compared to the reference site, with the highest MN levels observed during the period of reduced taxes. Results reinforced the need to adopt air quality monitoring programs in major cities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8039-5DOI Listing
January 2017
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