Publications by authors named "Guihua Jiang"

100 Publications

A 4-day-old newborn with an isolated sternal cleft: A rare case and literature review.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

An isolated sternal cleft is an orphan congenital defect of the sternum that presents from birth to adulthood. We report the case of a 4-day-old newborn with an isolated congenital cleft sternum. We also reviewed the related literature and operative options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25677DOI Listing
October 2021

Rapid synthesis of monodispersed Au-Ag alloy nanosponges using selective laser melting and dealloying for sensitive near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Nanotechnology 2021 Oct 22;33(2). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

The Department of Medical Imaging Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, 518037, People's Republic of China.

We developed a rapid synthesis method for monodispersed Au-Ag alloy nanosponges (NSs) with high density of 'hotspots' for near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) by a selective laser-irradiation melting and chemical dealloying process. [email protected] core-shell nanocubes were firstconverted into solid alloyed Au-Ag nanospheres by a rapid laser irradiation igniting quick fusion and quenching process within two minutes. The alloyed Au-Ag nanospheres transformed into Au-Ag alloy NSs after treated by a chemical dealloying process. Different from traditional thermal annealing, it thus can effectively avoid the heat fusion between nanoparticles, and maintain the alloyed Au-Ag nanospheres and NSs in high monodispersity. Importantly, due to the strong plasmonic coupling in nanopores (pore size less than 10 nm), the obtained Au-Ag alloy NSs show a broad and intense localized surface plasmon resonances absorption ranging from visible to near-Infrared region (500-1200 nm). The accessibly open structures for absorbing targets and high-density of 'NIR-hotspots' endow the Au-Ag alloy NSs substrate with superior sensitivity in NIR-SERS detection of 4-aminothiophenol with an enhancement factor of ∼10. This work not only provides a simple pathway for rapid preparation of NIR-SERS substrate for biosensing, but also might open up a new horizon for fabricating spongy nanostructures with other elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac2a82DOI Listing
October 2021

Image-guided selection of [email protected] as sensitizers to improve radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Sep 22;19(1):284. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Radiology, Biomedical Research Imaging Center, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 125 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: Recently, gadolinium-intercalated carbon dots ([email protected]) have demonstrated potential advantages over traditional high-Z nanoparticles (HZNPs) as radiosensitizers due to their high stability, minimal metal leakage, and remarkable efficacy.

Results: In this work, two [email protected] formulations were fabricated which bore carboxylic acid ([email protected]) or amino group ([email protected]), respectively, on the carbon shell. While it is critical to develop innovative nanomateirals for cancer therapy, determining their tumor accumulation and retention is equally important. Therefore, in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) was performed, which found that Cu-labeled [email protected] demonstrated significantly improved tumor retention (up to 48 h post injection) compared with [email protected] Indeed, cell uptake of [email protected] reached close to 60% of total dose compared with ~ 5% of [email protected] [email protected] was therefore further evaluated as a new radiosensitizer for non-small cell lung cancer treatment. While single dose radiation plus intratumorally injected [email protected] did lead to improved tumor suppression, the inhibition effect was further improved with two doses of radiation. The persistent retention of [email protected] in tumor region eliminates the need of reinjecting radiosensitizer for the second radiation.

Conclusions: PET offers a simple and straightforward way to study nanoparticle retention in vivo, and the selected [email protected] hold great potential as an effective radiosensitizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-01018-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8456633PMC
September 2021

Diagnostic classification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other pneumonias using radiomics features in CT chest images.

Sci Rep 2021 09 9;11(1):17885. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, 510317, People's Republic of China.

We propose a classification method using the radiomics features of CT chest images to identify patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other pneumonias. The chest CT images of two groups of participants (90 COVID-19 patients who were confirmed as positive by nucleic acid test of RT-PCR and 90 other pneumonias patients) were collected, and the two groups of data were manually drawn to outline the region of interest (ROI) of pneumonias. The radiomics method was used to extract textural features and histogram features of the ROI and obtain a radiomics features vector from each sample. Then, we divided the data into two independent radiomic cohorts for training (70 COVID-19 patients and 70 other pneumonias patients), and validation (20 COVID-19 patients and 20 other pneumonias patients) by using support vector machine (SVM). This model used 20 rounds of tenfold cross-validation for training. Finally, single-shot testing of the final model was performed on the independent validation cohort. In the COVID-19 patients, correlation analysis (multiple comparison correction-Bonferroni correction, P < 0.05/7) was also conducted to determine whether the textural and histogram features were correlated with the laboratory test index of blood, i.e., blood oxygen, white blood cell, lymphocytes, neutrophils, C-reactive protein, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The final model showed good discrimination on the independent validation cohort, with an accuracy of 89.83%, sensitivity of 94.22%, specificity of 85.44%, and AUC of 0.940. This proved that the radiomics features were highly distinguishable, and this SVM model can effectively identify and diagnose patients with COVID-19 and other pneumonias. The correlation analysis results showed that some textural features were positively correlated with WBC, and NE, and also negatively related to SPO2H and NE. Our results showed that radiomic features can classify COVID-19 patients and other pneumonias patients. The SVM model can achieve an excellent diagnosis of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97497-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429652PMC
September 2021

Values of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Lesion-to-Spinal Cord Signal Intensity in Diagnosing Solitary Pulmonary Lesions: Turbo Spin-Echo versus Echo-Planar Imaging Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

Biomed Res Int 2021 10;2021:3345953. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou, China 510120.

Objective: This study is aimed at comparing the image quality and diagnostic performance of mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and lesion-to-spinal cord signal intensity ratio (LSR) derived from turbo spin-echo diffusion-weighted imaging (TSE-DWI) and echo-planar imaging- (EPI-) DWI in patients with a solitary pulmonary lesion (SPL).

Methods: 33 patients with SPL underwent chest imaging using EPI-DWI and TSE-DWI with = 600 s/mm in free breathing. A comparison of the distortion ratio (DR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was drawn between the two techniques using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The interprotocol reproducibility between quantitative parameters of EPI-DWI and TSE-DWI was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. ADCs and LSRs derived from EPI-DWI and TSE-DWI were calculated and compared between malignant and benign groups using the Mann-Whitney test.

Results: TSE-DWI had similar SNR and CNR compared with EPI-DWI. DR was significantly lower on TSE-DWI than EPI-DWI. ADC and LSR showed slightly higher values with TSE-DWI, while the Bland-Altman analysis showed unacceptable limits of agreement between the two sequences. ADC and LSR of both DWI techniques differed significantly between lung cancer and benign lesions ( < 0.05). The LSR showed the highest area under the curve (AUC = 0.818), followed by ADC (AUC = 0.789), ADC (AUC = 0.781), and LSR (AUC = 0.748), respectively. Among these parameters, the difference in diagnostic accuracy was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: TSE-DWI provides significantly improved image quality in patients with SPL as compared with EPI-DWI. However, there was no difference in diagnostic efficacy between these two techniques, according to ADC and LSR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3345953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382531PMC
October 2021

Regional Neural Activity Changes in Parkinson's Disease-Associated Mild Cognitive Impairment and Cognitively Normal Patients.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 17;17:2697-2706. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) patients with respect to normal controls (NC) and those with cognitively normal PD (PD-CN). Further, the study investigated the relationship between ReHo changes in PD patients and neuropsychological variation.

Patients And Methods: Thirty PD-MCI, 19 PD-CN, and 21 NC subjects were enrolled. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of all subjects were collected, and regional brain activity was measured for ReHo. Analysis of covariance for ReHo was determined between the PD-MCI, PD-CN, and NC groups. Spearman rank correlations were assessed using the ReHo maps and data from the neuropsychological tests.

Results: In comparison with NC, PD-CN patients showed significantly higher ReHo values in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and lower ReHo values in the left supramarginal gyrus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and the right postcentral gyrus (PCG). In comparison with PD-CN patients, PD-MCI patients displayed significantly higher ReHo values in the right PCG, left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and IPL. No significant correlation between ReHo indices and the neuropsychological scales was observed.

Conclusion: Our finding revealed that decreases in ReHo in the default mode network (DMN) may appear before PD-related cognitive impairment. In order to preserve executive attention capacity, ReHo in the right MFG in PD patients lacking cognition impairment increased for compensation. PD-MCI showed increased ReHo in the left MOG, which might have been caused by visual and visual-spatial dysfunction, and increased ReHo in the left IPL, which might reflect network disturbance and induce cognition deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S323127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380131PMC
August 2021

Cortical thickness, gyrification and sulcal depth in trigeminal neuralgia.

Sci Rep 2021 08 11;11(1):16322. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

The Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong , People's Republic of China.

Neuroimaging studies have documented brain structural alterations induced by chronic pain, particularly in gray matter volume. However, the effects of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), a severe paroxysmal pain disorder, on cortical morphology are not yet known. In this study, we recruited 30 TN patients and 30 age-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). Using Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12), we calculated and compared group differences in cortical thickness, gyrification, and sulcal depth with two-sample t tests (p < 0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Relationships between altered cortical characteristics and pain intensity were investigated with correlation analysis. Compared to HCs, TN patients exhibited significantly decreased cortical thickness in the left inferior frontal, and left medial orbitofrontal cortex; decreased gyrification in the left superior frontal cortex; and decreased sulcal depth in the bilateral superior frontal (extending to anterior cingulate) cortex. In addition, we found significantly negative correlations between the mean cortical thickness in left medial orbitofrontal cortex and pain intensity, and between the mean gyrification in left superior frontal cortex and pain intensity. Chronic pain may be associated with abnormal cortical thickness, gyrification and sulcal depth in trigeminal neuralgia. These morphological changes might contribute to understand the underlying neurobiological mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95811-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357824PMC
August 2021

Association of Reduced Tract Integrity with Social Communication Deficits in Preschool Autism Children: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 18;17:2003-2010. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To analyze the changes in white matter tracts in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the correlation between these changes and social communication deficits.

Methods: Diffuse tensor imaging was used to assess white matter integrity using tract-based spatial statistics in a sample of 50 right-handed children with ASD aged 2-6 years vis a reference sample of 46 typically developing children aged 2-6 years. We then correlated these significant different fiber tracts between groups with communication and social interaction scores using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Assessment (ADI-R) Scale.

Results: We observed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in tracts including the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the splenium of the corpus callosum (splCC), the left corticospinal tracts, and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in children with ASD. Specifically, there was reduced white matter integrity of these tracts in the left cerebral hemisphere. In addition, we found that the decreased FA of left SLF and ILF was negatively associated with the ADI-R scores in children with ASD.

Conclusion: The structural integrity of some white matter tracts in the five-level anatomical model for the social communication was reduced. The reduced integrity white matter that we observed primarily in the left cerebral hemisphere may be a neural substrate of social communication deficits in preschool children with ASD, and we speculate that the reduction is associated with the severity of social interaction. The reduced FA of the splCC might be a substantial biomarker for children with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S306596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219119PMC
June 2021

A dual-model "on-super off" photoelectrochemical/ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for ultrasensitive and accurate detection of microRNA-224.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 14;188:113337. Epub 2021 May 14.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China; College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China. Electronic address:

A dual-model "on-super off" photoelectrochemical (PEC)/ratiometric electrochemical (EC) biosensor based on signal enhancing and quenching combining three-dimensional (3D) DNA walker strategy was designed for the ultrasensitive and accurate detection of microRNA-224 (miRNA-224). The "signal on" PEC state was achieved by methylene blue labeled hairpin DNA (MB-DNA) for sensitizing CdS QDs. Then numerous transformational ferrocene labeled DNAs (Fc-DNAs) converted by target-induced 3D DNA walker amplification with the help of Ag nanocubes (NCs) label DNA (Ag-DNA) were introduced to open hairpin MB-DNA. Such configuration change would relocate the sensitizer MB and the quencher Fc, whereas energy transfer placed between Ag NCs and CdS QDs, thereby significantly quenching the PEC signal to obtain "super off" state. Meanwhile, these changes resulted in a decreased oxidation peak current of MB (I) and an increased that of Fc (I). MiRNA-224 was also detected on basis of the dual-signaling EC ratiometric method for complementary PEC detection. Benefiting from different mechanisms and relatively independent signal transduction, this approach not only avoided interference from difficult assembly but also outstandingly increased sensitivity by distance-controllable signal enhancing and quenching strategies. As a result, the detection ranges of 0.1-1000 fM with a low detection limit of 0.019 fM for PEC, and 0.52 to 500 fM with a low detection limit of 0.061 fM for EC, were obtained for miRNA-224, which opens a new avenue for designing numerous elegant biosensors with potential utility in bioanalysis and early disease diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113337DOI Listing
September 2021

Alterations of Regional Homogeneity in Preschool Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:644543. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: The study was aimed at investigating the alterations of local spontaneous brain activity in preschool boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

Methods: Based on regional homogeneity (ReHo), the acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data sets, which included 86 boys with ASD and 54 typically developing (TD) boys, were used to detect regional brain activity. Pearson correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between abnormal ReHo value and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), developmental quotient, and age.

Results: In the ASD group, we found increased ReHo in the right calcarine as well as decreased ReHo in the opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus, the left angular gyrus, and the right medial orbital frontal cortex ( < 0.05, false discovery rate correction). We did not find a correlation between the results of brain regions and the CARS, ABC, and age.

Conclusions: Our study found spontaneous activity changes in multiple brain regions, especially the visual and language-related areas of ASD, that may help to further understand the clinical characteristics of boys with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.644543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019812PMC
March 2021

Three-dimensional pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling and intravoxel incoherent motion imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: correlations with Ki-67 proliferation status.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1394-1405

Pathology Department, The First People's Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, China.

Background: Recurrence and distant metastasis are still the main problems affecting the long-term prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, and may be related to the Ki-67 proliferation status. We therefore explored the potential correlation between Ki-67 proliferation status in NPC with the parameters derived from two imaging techniques: three-dimensional pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (3D pCASL) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM).

Methods: Thirty-six patients with pathologically confirmed NPC were included, and the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was measured by immunohistochemistry. All patients underwent plain and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), IVIM, and 3D pCASL examination. The mean, maximum, and minimum of blood flow (BF), minimum of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) parameters were all measured, and Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between these parameters and the Ki-67 LI. According to the Ki-67 values, the patients were divided into two groups: high (>50%) and low (≤50%). The rank-sum test (Mann-Whitney U test) was then used to compare the differences in quantitative parameters between the high and low Ki-67 groups.

Results: Ki-67 LI was positively correlated with BF and BF (r=0.415 and 0.425). D* and D* did have positive correlation with Ki-67, but this was not significant (P=0.082 and 0.072). BF was significantly different between the high and low Ki-67 groups (P=0.028).

Conclusions: 3D pCASL and IVIM are noninvasive functional MR perfusion imaging techniques that can evaluate perfusion information and perfusion parameters. Our study suggests that 3D pCASL is more effective than IVIM for assessing the proliferation status of NPC, which is beneficial for evaluating the prognosis of patients. Furthermore, BF is the best biomarker for distinguishing high from low Ki-67 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930700PMC
April 2021

Plasmonic [email protected] NPs//CdS QDs photocurrent-direction switching system for ultrasensitive and selective photoelectrochemical biosensing with cathodic background signal.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Apr 7;1153:338283. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China. Electronic address:

An ultrasensitive and selective photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor with cathodic background signal was developed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) based on innovative plasmonic [email protected] nanoparticles//CdS quantum dots ([email protected] NPs//CdS QDs) photocurrent-direction switching system, coupling with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for the signal amplification. Firstly, innovative [email protected] NPs were successfully fabricated through in situ ascorbic acid-reduction of Au NPs dispersed on TiO surface, and [email protected] NPs as the photoactive material showed a cathodic background signal. When target CEA existed, a sandwich-type reaction was performed in capture CEA aptamer-modified [email protected] NPs and trigger CEA aptamer. Interestingly, after HCR triggered by target CEA, a mass of CdS QDs were introduced into the biosensing platform, resulting in the formation of [email protected] NPs//CdS QDs system, along with the switch of photocurrents from cathodic to anodic. The obtained remarkable anodic photocurrent was depended on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Au between TiO and CdS. Under the optimal conditions, plasmonic [email protected] NPs//CdS QDs photocurrent-direction switching PEC biosensing platform with cathodic background signal exhibited ultrasensitive for the determination of CEA with a low limit of detection of 18.9 fg/mL. Importantly, the proposed PEC biosensor can eliminate the interferences of the initial photocurrent and background signal, and has high-efficiency anti-interference ability, satisfactory stability and excellent reproducibility, which may have great potentials in bioanalysis and disease diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338283DOI Listing
April 2021

Progressive gray matter hypertrophy with severity stages of insomnia disorder and its relevance for mood symptoms.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 3;31(8):6312-6322. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the gray matter (GM) alterations in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) at different severity stages and the relationship between GM alterations and sleep, mood, and cognitive measures.

Methods: One hundred one ID patients and 63 healthy controls (HC) were included. Each patient underwent structural MRI and completed sleep-, mood-, and cognitive-related questionnaires. The ID patients were further grouped into subthreshold insomnia (SI) group and clinical insomnia (CI) group. We investigated changes in GM volumes in ID patients via diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra voxel-based morphometry (DARTEL-VBM). We first compared voxel-wise differences in GM volumes between the HC group and the ID group. Analysis of variance was performed on individual GM maps in the SI, CI, and HC groups to further investigate the effects of different stages of ID severity on GM volumes. Multiple regression was used to model the relationship between altered GM volumes in SI and CI groups and clinical measures.

Results: GM hypertrophies in the left anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, right middle and inferior temporal gyrus, and right cerebellum Crus II were detected in ID. Increased GM volume in the right middle temporal gyrus was detected in the SI group, whereas all three regions in the CI group. Regression analysis showed that mood- and cognitive-related measures had a positive correlation with GM volumes, while sleep-related measures had a negative correlation with GM volumes in the CI group.

Conclusions: Our findings of the progressively increased GM volumes in ID suggest that a hypertrophic cortical morphological mechanism may underlie the altered neuroanatomy induced by insomnia.

Key Points: • Insomnia-induced GM hypertrophies in the cingulate gyrus, temporal gyrus, and cerebellum Crus II. • The middle temporal gyrus was early detectable in the SI group. • The increased GM volumes in the CI group were correlated with clinical measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07701-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Correlation between CT findings and outcomes in 46 patients with coronavirus disease 2019.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1103. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Traditional Medical and Sports Injury Rehabilitation Research Institute, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Haizhu District, Shiliugang Rd, Guangzhou, 510317, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study was to analyze initial chest computed tomography (CT) findings in COVID-19 pneumonia and identify features associated with poor prognosis. Patients with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection were assigned to recovery group if they made a full recovery and to death group if they died within 2 months of hospitalization. Chest CT examinations for ground-glass opacity, crazy-paving pattern, consolidation, and fibrosis were scored by two reviewers. The total CT score comprised the sum of lung involvement (5 lobes, scores 1-5 for each lobe, range; 0, none; 25, maximum). 40 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and six patients who died were enrolled. The initial chest CTs showed 27 (58.7%) patients had ground-glass opacity, 19 (41.3%) had ground glass and consolidation, and 35 (76.1%) patients had crazy-paving pattern. None of the patients who died had fibrosis in contrast to six (15%) patients who recovered from COVID-19. Most patients had subpleural lesions (89.0%) as well as bilateral (87.0%) and lower (93.0%) lung lobe involvement. Diffuse lesions were present in four (67%) patients who succumbed to coronavirus but only one (2.5%) patient who recovered (p < 0.001). In the death group of patients, the total CT score was higher than that of the recovery group (p = 0.005). Patients in the death group had lower lymphocyte count and higher C-reactive protein than those in the recovery group (p = 0.011 and p = 0.041, respectively). A high CT score and diffuse distribution of lung lesions in COVID-19 are indicative of disease severity and short-term mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79183-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806649PMC
January 2021

Increased Left Putamen Volume Correlates With Pain in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients.

Front Neurol 2020 30;11:607646. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) mainly affects the axial skeleton and is an important factor leading to chronic lower back pain in young individuals. However, few studies have explored alterations of brain gray matter volume in AS patients. The purpose of the present study was to describe brain gray matter abnormalities associated with AS pain. A total of 61 AS patients and 52 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. Using voxel-based morphometrics, we detected abnormal gray matter volume in AS patients. Based on the voxel-wise analysis, the gray matter volume in the left putamen of the AS group was increased significantly compared with that of the HC group. In addition, we found that the gray matter volume of the left putamen was positively correlated with the duration of AS and total back pain scores, whereas it was not significantly correlated with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index scores, C-reactive protein, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate in AS patients. Taken together, our findings improve our understanding of the neural substrates of pain in AS and provide evidence of AS-related neurological impairment. Hence, further investigation of the pathophysiology of the left putamen in AS is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.607646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734309PMC
November 2020

Therapeutic effect of berberine on metabolic diseases: Both pharmacological data and clinical evidence.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 10;133:110984. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

School of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

The increased incidence of metabolic diseases (e.g., diabetes and obesity) has seriously affected human health and life safety worldwide. It is of great significance to find effective drugs from natural compounds to treat metabolic diseases. Berberine (BBR), an important quaternary benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, exists in many traditional medicinal plants. In recent years, BBR has received widespread attention due to its good potential in the treatment of metabolic diseases. In order to promote the basic research and clinical application of BBR, this review provides a timely and comprehensive summary of the pharmacological and clinical advances of BBR in the treatment of five metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, and gout. Both animal and clinical studies have proved that BBR has good therapeutic effects on these five metabolic diseases. The therapeutic effects of BBR are based on regulating various metabolic aspects and pathophysiological procedures. For example, it can promote insulin secretion, improve insulin resistance, inhibit lipogenesis, alleviate adipose tissue fibrosis, reduce hepatic steatosis, and improve gut microbiota disorders. Collectively, BBR may be a good and promising drug candidate for the treatment of metabolic diseases. More studies, especially clinical trials, are needed to further confirm its molecular mechanisms and targets. In addition, large-scale, long-term and multi-center clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BBR in the treatment of these metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110984DOI Listing
January 2021

White Matter Microstructure Changes and Cognitive Impairment in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease.

Front Neurosci 2020 29;14:559117. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

The Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Cognitive impairment is a well-defined complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the neural mechanisms are largely unknown.

Objectives: The study aimed to assess white matter (WM) microstructure changes and their relationship with cognitive impairment development during CKD progression.

Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets were acquired from 38 patients with CKD (19 patients were at stage 3; 19 patients were at stage 4) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was implemented to assess the differences in WM integrity among the three groups. The associations between abnormal WM integrity and clinical indicators (digit symbol test scores, the type A number connection test scores, hemoglobin, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum calcium, and serum potassium levels) were also computed.

Results: Compared with patients with CKD at stage 3 and HCs, patients with CKD at stage 4 showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in the corpus callosum (CC), anterior thalamic radiation, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Correlation analysis showed that the MD in the genu of CC was negatively associated with the digit symbol test scores ( = -0.61, = 0.01), and the FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation was positively associated with the level of serum calcium ( = 0.58, = 0.01).

Conclusion: Patients with non-end-stage CKD have multiple abnormalities in WM regions. DTI metrics change with the progression of CKD and are primarily associated with cognitive impairment. The reduced integrity of WM tracts may be related to a low level of blood calcium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.559117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550453PMC
September 2020

Aberrant Functional Connectivity of Basal Forebrain Subregions with Cholinergic System in Short-term and Chronic Insomnia Disorder.

J Affect Disord 2021 01 29;278:481-487. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, No.466 Road XinGang, Guangzhou, 510317, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Background: To systematically investigate structural and functional abnormalities in subregions of the basal forebrain (BF) using structural and resting-state fMRI, and to examine their clinical relevance in short-term and chronic insomnia disorder (ID).

Methods: Thirty-four patients with short-term ID, 41 patients with chronic ID, and 46 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Grey matter volume and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in each BF subregion (Ch1,2,3 and 4) were computed and compared among the three groups. Spearman correlation was used to estimate the relationships between MRI-based alterations and clinical variables.

Results: The short-term group exhibited lower RSFC with the bilateral striatum and bilateral Ch_4 than HCs and the chronic group. In the left Ch_4, subjects in the chronic group exhibited lower RSFC with the left middle cingulate cortex than HCs and the short-term group. The short-term group exhibited lower RSFC with the left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) than HCs and the chronic group. The chronic group exhibited the highest RSFC with the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), followed by HCs and the short-term group. In the right Ch_4, the chronic group exhibited the lowest RSFC with the right superior temporal gyrus, followed by HCs and the short-term group. Moreover, in the short-term group, negative correlations were found between the left Ch_4 and left MFG RSFC and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Ch_4 may be a key node for establishing diagnostic and categorical biomarkers of ID, which could be useful in developing more effective treatment strategies for insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.103DOI Listing
January 2021

Functional connectome fingerprint of sleep quality in insomnia patients: Individualized out-of-sample prediction using machine learning.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 18;28:102439. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Insomnia disorder has been reclassified into short-term/acute and chronic subtypes based on recent etiological advances. However, understanding the similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms underlying the two subtypes and accurately predicting the sleep quality remain challenging.

Methods: Using 29 short-term/acute insomnia participants and 44 chronic insomnia participants, we used whole-brain regional functional connectivity strength to predict unseen individuals' Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), applying the multivariate relevance vector regression method. Evaluated using both leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation, the pattern of whole-brain regional functional connectivity strength significantly predicted an unseen individual's PSQI in both datasets.

Results: There were both similarities and differences in the regions that contributed the most to PSQI prediction between the two groups. Further functional connectivity analysis suggested that between-network connectivity was re-organized between short-term/acute insomnia and chronic insomnia.

Conclusions: The present study may have clinical value by informing the prediction of sleep quality and providing novel insights into the neural basis underlying the heterogeneity of insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522804PMC
June 2021

Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived lung organoids in an ex vivo model of the congenital diaphragmatic hernia fetal lung.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Jan 19;10(1):98-114. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Three-dimensional lung organoids (LOs) derived from pluripotent stem cells have the potential to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and to enable novel therapeutic approaches in neonates with pulmonary disorders. We established a reproducible ex vivo model of lung development using transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells generated from fetuses and infants with Bochdalek congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a polygenic disorder associated with fetal lung compression and pulmonary hypoplasia at birth. Molecular and cellular comparisons of CDH LOs revealed impaired generation of NKX2.1 progenitors, type II alveolar epithelial cells, and PDGFRα myofibroblasts. We then subjected these LOs to disease relevant mechanical cues through ex vivo compression and observed significant changes in genes associated with pulmonary progenitors, alveolar epithelial cells, and mesenchymal fibroblasts. Collectively, these data suggest both primary cell-intrinsic and secondary mechanical causes of CDH lung hypoplasia and support the use of this stem cell-based approach for disease modeling in CDH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780804PMC
January 2021

Functional connectome-based biomarkers predict chronic codeine-containing cough syrup dependent.

J Psychiatr Res 2020 11 20;130:333-341. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Shiliugang Rd, Haizhu District, Guangzhou, 510317, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Codeine-containing cough syrup (CCS) is considered among the most popular drugs of abuse in adolescents worldwide. Accurate prediction and identification of CCS dependent (CCSD) users are crucial. This study aimed to identify a brain-connectome-based predictor of CCSD using a machine learning model based on a ten-fold cross-validation logistic regression (LR) classifier.

Methods: 40 CCSD users and 40 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to construct weight functional networks. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze relations between abnormal network metrics and clinical characteristics (BIS total scores, CCS abuse duration, and mean CCS dose) in CCSD. A ten-fold cross-validation LR classifier was used to classify CCSD users and HC subjects.

Results: The CCSD group showed significantly abnormal nodes and connections in the right posterior cingulate, right middle insula, bilateral prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. Furthermore, higher characteristic path length and lower clustering coefficient (Cp), global efficiency, and local efficiency (Eloc) were observed in the global topologies in CCSD. The abnormal global properties (Cp and Eloc) and node properties of the prefrontal cortex were significantly correlated with clinical characteristics (BIS-11 scores, CCS abuse duration) in CCSD. The LR classifier models demonstrated accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, and AUC of 82.5%, 82.5%, 82.5%, 76.8%, and 82.5%.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that abnormal functional connectome may be closely linked to clinical characteristics in CCSD. Functional connectome-based biomarkers can be a powerful tool for personalized diagnosis of CCSD in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.08.001DOI Listing
November 2020

Hydrogel and neural progenitor cell delivery supports organotypic fetal spinal cord development in an model of prenatal spina bifida repair.

J Tissue Eng 2020 Jan-Dec;11:2041731420943833. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Division of General Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Studying how the fetal spinal cord regenerates in an model of spina bifida repair may provide insights into the development of new tissue engineering treatment strategies to better optimize neurologic function in affected patients. Here, we developed hydrogel surgical patches designed for prenatal repair of myelomeningocele defects and demonstrated viability of both human and rat neural progenitor donor cells within this three-dimensional scaffold microenvironment. We then established an organotypic slice culture model using transverse lumbar spinal cord slices harvested from retinoic acid-exposed fetal rats to study the effect of fibrin hydrogel patches . Based on histology, immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays, these experiments demonstrate the biocompatibility of fibrin hydrogel patches on the fetal spinal cord and suggest this organotypic slice culture system as a useful platform for evaluating mechanisms of damage and repair in children with neural tube defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2041731420943833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7383650PMC
July 2020

Elucidation of the active ingredients of against hemorrhage based on network pharmacology and tail snipping model in mice.

Pharmazie 2020 08;75(8):381-384

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing; ; Email:

This study aimed to elucidate the active ingredients of (LH), the overground part of (Benth.) Kudo, against hemorrhage based on network pharmacology and tail snipping model in mice. A total of 118 hemorrhage-related target genes were identified by retrieving public databases, and 39 genes were identified as the hub genes of hemorrhage based on protein-protein interaction and module analyses. The interactions between 67 potentially active ingredients in LH and 7 genes in the 39 hub genes were established and analyzed through molecular docking and Cytoscape. A total of 21 ingredients were involved in the interactions, and were divided into three categories: iridoid (15 ingredients), flavonoid (2 ingredients) and other category (4 ingredients). Based on the "multi-ingredient, multi-target" characteristic of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), the results of network pharmacology indicated that iridoid might be the key active ingredient group of LH against hemorrhage. The contribution of iridoid to the hemostatic effect of LH was investigated by the tail snipping model in mice. The results showed that iridoid was the key active ingredient group of LH against hemorrhage, which confirmed the prediction in network pharmacology. Additionally, the previous reports also supported this prediction. In conclusion, the finding of the present study indicates that iridoid is the key hemostatic ingredient group of LH. This work provides valuable references for investigation of the hemostatic ingredients of LH based on the holistic theory of TCMs. Meanwhile, this work also provides further insight into the development of hemostatic drugs based on LH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2020.0507DOI Listing
August 2020

Convergent and divergent functional connectivityalterations of hippocampal subregions between short-term and chronic insomnia disorder.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Apr;15(2):986-995

The Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, No.63 Road Duobao, 510150, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Insomnia disorder (ID) is reclassified into short-term and chronic subtypes based on recent etiological advances, however, neural mechanisms underlying the subtypes are rarely examined. In this study, we investigated gray matter volume and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) alterations of hippocampal subregions in short-term and chronic ID using multimodal MRI. We found convergent and divergent alterations between both ID groups in specific hippocampal subregions [right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), subicular complex (Subc), and caudal hippocampus, (cHipp)] with prefrontal cortex [bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and right middle frontal gyrus] and limbic/paralimbic regions (bilateral middle cingulate cortex and left parahippocampal gyrus). Intriguingly, the RSFC of the right CA1/cHipp, particularly the intersection between these two subregions, with bilateral MPFC exhibited gradual increases from healthy controls to short-term ID and from short-term ID to chronic ID. Moreover, a negative correlation between the right CA1-left parahippocampal gyrus RSFC and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores, and a positive correlation between the right CA1-bilateral MPFC RSFC and Insomnia Severity Index scores were found in the chronic ID group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest convergent and divergent RSFC alterations of specific hippocampal subregions with the prefrontal cortex and limbic/paralimbic regions between short-term and chronic ID. These findings suggest that the hippocampus is a key node in establishing diagnostic and categorical biomarkers in ID and developing more effective treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-020-00306-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Increased Dynamic Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation in Primary Insomnia.

Front Neurol 2020 30;11:609. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

The physiological mechanism underlying primary insomnia (PI) is poorly understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as a powerful tool to explore PI. However, previous studies ignore the dynamics of the brain activity. In the current study, we aimed to explore altered dynamic intrinsic brain activity in PI. Fifty-nine patients with PI and 47 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI. The variance of dynamic amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (dALFF) maps across time was calculated to measure the temporal variability of intrinsic brain activity and then compared between patients with PI and HCs. As a result, patients with PI presented increased variance of dALFF in the bilateral hippocampus extending to the parahippocampus, the right putamen and the right anterior insula cortex. In addition, the variance of dALFF in the right putamen was positively correlated with Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) score in PI. Our results revealed increased instability of intrinsic activity in PI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344192PMC
June 2020

Applying Amide Proton Transfer-Weighted Imaging (APTWI) to Distinguish Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas and Predominantly Solid Adenomatous Nodules: Comparison With Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

Front Oncol 2020 19;10:918. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

The Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Amide proton transfer-weighted (ATPw) imaging is a novel MRI technique that has been used to identify benign and malignant tumors. The present study evaluated the role of APTw imaging in differentiating papillary thyroid carcinoma from predominantly solid adenomatous nodule. This study included 24 cases of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma, and 20 cases of solid adenomatous nodules. Normal thyroid tissues were examined in 12 healthy subjects. The healthy subjects, eight cases of adenomatous nodule with cystic degeneration, and 12 cases of thyroid goiter, were only considered in the descriptive analysis, not included in our statistical analysis. The mean APTw value and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of papillary thyroid carcinoma and solid adenomatous nodule were compared via a Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve analyses. The adenomatous nodule (3.3 ± 1.3%) exhibited significantly higher APTw value ( < 0.05) than that of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (1.8 ± 0.7%). The optimal cut-off value of the mean APTw value in differentiating papillary thyroid carcinoma from adenomatous nodule was 3.15%, with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100%. The mean ADC of papillary thyroid carcinoma (1.2 ± 0.2 × 10 mm/) was significantly lower than that of adenomatous nodule (2.0 ± 0.4 × 10 mm/s). The optimal cut-off value of the mean ADC was 1.35 × 10 mm/s, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 75%. Based on the ROC-curve analysis of APT and ADC, the ADC showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) than that of APT (AUC = 0.84, AUC = 0.95). APTw imaging may be as useful as DWI for the differentiation of papillary thyroid carcinoma from predominantly solid adenomatous nodule. Although the sensitivity of ADC was greater than that of APT, APT had greater specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317983PMC
June 2020

Abnormal Rich Club Organization of Structural Network as a Neuroimaging Feature in Relation With the Severity of Primary Insomnia.

Front Psychiatry 2020 23;11:308. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep complaint in the general population but is often intractable due to uncertainty regarding the underlying pathomechanisms. Sleep is regulated by a network of neural structures interconnected with the core nodes of the brain connectome referred to as the "rich club". We examined alterations in brain rich-club organization as revealed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the statistical relationships between abnormalities in rich-club metrics and the clinical features of primary insomnia (PI).

Methods: This study recruited 43 primary insomnia (PI) patients and 42 age-, sex-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs). Differences in global and regional network parameters between PI and healthy control groups were compared by nonparametric tests, and Spearman's correlations were calculated to assess associations of these network metrics with PI-related clinical features, including disease duration and scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and Self-Rating Depression Scale.

Results: Weighted white matter networks exhibited weaker rich-club organization in PI patients than HCs across different thresholds (50%, 75%, and 90%) and parcellation schemes [automated anatomical labeling (AAL)-90 and AAL-1024]. Aberrant rich-club organization was found mainly in limbic-cortical-basal ganglia circuits and the default-mode network.

Conclusions: Abnormal rich-club metrics are a characteristic feature of PI-related to disease severity. These metrics provide potential clues to PI pathogenesis and may be useful as diagnostic markers and for assessment of treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190795PMC
April 2020

Evaluation of the silkworm mutant as an invertebrate animal model for human sepiapterin reductase deficiency.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Mar 25;7(3):191888. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Key Laboratory of Sericulture Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, People's Republic of China.

Human sepiapterin reductase (SR) deficiency is an inherited disease caused by gene mutations and is a monoamine neurotransmitter disorder. Here, we investigated whether the silkworm mutant could serve as a model of SR deficiency. A point mutation in the gene led to a five amino acid deletion at the carboxyl terminus in the mutant. In addition, classical phenotypes seen in SR deficient patients were observed in the mutant, including a normal phenylalanine level, a decreased dopamine and serotonin content, and an increased neopterin level. A recovery test showed that the replenishment of l-dopa significantly increased the dopamine level in the mutant. The silkworm mutant also showed negative behavioural abilities. These results suggest that the silkworm mutant has an appropriate genetic basis and meets the biochemical requirements to be a model of SR deficiency. Thus, the silkworm mutant can serve as a candidate animal model of SR deficiency, which may be helpful in facilitating accurate diagnosis and effective treatment options of SR deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137946PMC
March 2020

The strawberry transcription factor FaRAV1 positively regulates anthocyanin accumulation by activation of FaMYB10 and anthocyanin pathway genes.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 11 13;18(11):2267-2279. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The RAV (related to ABI3/viviparous 1) group of transcription factors (TFs) play multifaceted roles in plant development and stress responses. Here, we show that strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) FaRAV1 positively regulates anthocyanin accumulation during fruit ripening via a hierarchy of activation processes. Dual-luciferase assay screening of all fruit-expressed AP2/ERFs showed FaRAV1 had the highest transcriptional activation of the promoter of FaMYB10, a key activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FaRAV1 could directly bind to the promoter of FaMYB10. Transient overexpression of FaRAV1 in strawberry fruit increased FaMYB10 expression and anthocyanin production significantly. Correspondingly, transient RNA interference-induced silencing of FaRAV1 led to decreases in FaMYB10 expression and anthocyanin content. Transcriptome analysis of FaRAV1-overexpressing strawberry fruit revealed that transcripts of phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes were up-regulated. Luciferase assays showed that FaRAV1 could also activate the promoters of strawberry anthocyanin biosynthetic genes directly, revealing a second level of FaRAV1 action in promoting anthocyanin accumulation. These results show that FaRAV1 stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in strawberry both by direct activation of anthocyanin pathway gene promoters and by up-regulation of FaMYB10, which also positively regulates these genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589338PMC
November 2020

Abnormal white matter within brain structural networks is associated with high-impulse behaviour in codeine-containing cough syrup dependent users.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Aug 2;271(5):823-833. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Shiliugang Rd, Haizhu District, Guangzhou, 510317, People's Republic of China.

Codeine-containing cough syrup (CCS) is considered as one of the most popular drug of dependence among adolescents because of its inexpensiveness and easy availability. However, its relationship with neurobiological effects remains sparsely explored. Herein, we examined how high-impulse behaviours relate to changes in the brain structural networks. Forty codeine-containing cough syrup dependent (CCSD) users and age-, gender-, and number of cigarettes smoked per day -matched forty healthy control (HC) subjects underwent structural brain imaging via MRI. High-impulse behaviour was assessed using the 30-item self-rated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and structural networks were constructed using diffusion tensor imaging and AAL-90 template. Between-group topological metrics were compared using nonparametric permutations. Benjamin-Hochberg false discovery rate correction was used to correct for multiple comparisons (P < 0.05). The relationships between abnormal network metrics and clinical characteristics of CCS dependent (BIS-11 total score, CCS- dependent duration and mean dose) were examined by Spearman's correlation. Structural networks of the CCSD group demonstrated lower small-world properties than those of the HC group. Abnormal changes in nodal properties among CCSD users were located mainly in the frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe and olfactory cortex. NBS analysis further indicated disrupted structural connections between the frontal gyrus and multiple brain regions. There were significant correlations between abnormal nodal properties of the frontal gyrus and clinical characteristics (BIS-11 total score, CCS dependent duration and mean dose) in the CCSD group. These findings suggest that the high-impulse behavioural expression in CCS addiction is associated with widespread brain regions, particularly within those in the frontal cortex. Aberrant brain regions and disrupted connectivity of structural network may be the bases of neuropathology for underlying symptoms of high-impulse behaviours in CCSD users, which may provide a novel sight to better treat and prevent codeine dependency in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-020-01111-4DOI Listing
August 2021
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