Publications by authors named "Guanyu Zhu"

38 Publications

Real-time removal of stimulation artifacts in closed-loop deep brain stimulation.

J Neural Eng 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433, CHINA.

Objective: Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) with neural feedback has shown great potential in improving the therapeutic effect and reducing side effects. However, the amplitude of stimulation artifacts is much larger than the local field potentials, which remains a bottleneck in developing a closed-loop stimulation strategy with varied parameters.

Approach: We proposed an irregular sampling method for the real-time removal of stimulation artifacts. The artifact peaks were detected by applying a threshold to the raw recordings, and the samples within the contaminated period of the stimulation pulses were excluded and replaced with the interpolation of the samples prior to and after the stimulation artifact duration. This method was evaluated with both simulation signals and in vivo closed-loop DBS applications in Parkinsonian animal models.

Main Results: The irregular sampling method was able to remove the stimulation artifacts effectively with the simulation signals. The relative errors between the power spectral density of the recovered and true signals within a wide frequency band (2-150 Hz) were 2.14%, 3.93%, 7.22%, 7.97% and 6.25% for stimulation at 20 Hz, 60 Hz, 130 Hz, 180 Hz, and stimulation with variable low and high frequencies, respectively. This stimulation artifact removal method was verified in real-time closed-loop DBS application in vivo, and the artifacts were effectively removed during stimulation with frequency continuously changing from 130 Hz to 1 Hz and stimulation adaptive to beta oscillations.

Significance: The proposed method provides an approach for real-time removal in closed-loop DBS applications, which is effective in stimulation with low frequency, high frequency, and variable frequency. This method can facilitate the development of more advanced closed-loop DBS strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ac3cc5DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparison of cognitive performance between patients with Parkinson's disease and dystonia using an intraoperative recognition memory test.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 20;11(1):20724. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Neuroscientific studies on the function of the basal ganglia often examine the behavioral performance of patients with movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia (DT), while simultaneously examining the underlying electrophysiological activity during deep brain stimulation surgery. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no studies comparing the cognitive performance of PD and DT patients during surgery. In this study, we assessed the memory function of PD and DT patients with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We also tested their cognitive performance during the surgery using a continuous recognition memory test. The results of the MoCA and MMSE failed to reveal significant differences between the PD and DT patients. Additionally, no significant difference was detected by the intraoperative memory test between the PD and DT patients. The intraoperative memory test scores were highly correlated with the MMSE scores and MoCA scores. Our data suggest that DT patients perform similarly to PD patients in cognitive tests during surgery, and intraoperative memory tests can be used as a quick memory assessment tool during surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99317-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8528828PMC
October 2021

Microstimulation Is a Promising Approach in Achieving Better Lead Placement in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery.

Front Neurol 2021 22;12:683532. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The successful application of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery relies mostly on optimal lead placement, whereas the major challenge is how to precisely localize STN. Microstimulation, which can induce differentiating inhibitory responses between STN and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) near the ventral border of STN, has indicated a great potential of breaking through this barrier. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of localizing the boundary between STN and SNr (SSB) using microstimulation and promote better lead placement. We recorded neurophysiological data from 41 patients undergoing STN-DBS surgery with microstimulation in our hospital. Trajectories with typical STN signal were included. Microstimulation was applied near the bottom of STN to determine SSB, which was validated by the imaging reconstruction of DBS leads. In most trajectories with microstimulation (84.4%), neuronal firing in STN could not be inhibited by microstimulation, whereas in SNr long inhibition was observed following microstimulation. The success rate of localizing SSB was significantly higher in trajectories with microstimulation than those without. Moreover, results from imaging reconstruction and intraoperative neurological assessments demonstrated better lead location and higher therapeutic effectiveness in trajectories with microstimulation and accurately identified SSB. Microstimulation on microelectrode recording is an effective approach to localize the SSB. Our data provide clinical evidence that microstimulation can be routinely employed to achieve better lead placement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.683532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493285PMC
September 2021

Application value of hand-sewn anastomosis in totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 4;19(1):229. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, No.150, Haping Road, Nangang District, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang, China.

Background: Digestive tract reconstruction in totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy can be divided into two types: instrument anastomosis and hand-sewn anastomosis. This study explored the feasibility and safety of hand-sewn sutures in esophagojejunostomy of totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy, compared with instrument anastomosis using an overlap linear cutter.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2017 to January 2020 at one institution. The clinical data of 50 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy, with an average follow-up time of 12 months, were collected. The clinicopathologic data, short-term survival prognosis, and results of patients in the hand-sewn anastomosis (n=20) and the overlap anastomosis (n=30) groups were analyzed.

Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in sex, age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor location, preoperative complications, abdominal operation history, tumor size, pTNM stage, blood loss, first postoperative liquid diet, exhaust time, or postoperative length of hospital stay. The hand-sewn anastomosis group had a significantly prolonged operation time (204±26.72min versus 190±20.90min, p=0.04) and anastomosis time (58±22.0min versus 46±15.97min, p=0.029), and a decreased operation cost (CNY 77,100±1700 versus CNY 71,900±1300, p<0.0001). Postoperative complications (dynamic ileus, abdominal infection, and pancreatic leakage) occurred in three patients (15%) in the hand-sewn anastomosis group and in four patients (13.3%) in the overlap anastomosis group (anastomotic leakage, anastomotic bleeding, dynamic ileus, and duodenal stump leakage).

Conclusion: The hand-sewn anastomosis method of esophagojejunostomy under totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy is safe and feasible and is an important supplement to linear and circular stapler anastomosis. It may be more convenient regarding obesity, a relatively high position of the anastomosis, edema of the esophageal wall, and short jejunal mesentery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-021-02249-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340376PMC
August 2021

Digestive tract reconstruction of laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a comparison of the intracorporeal overlap, intracorporeal hand-sewn anastomosis, and extracorporeal anastomosis.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Jun;12(3):1031-1041

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

Background: The application of esophagojejunostomy has certain difficulties in totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG). This is due to the higher requirement for surgical techniques and the lack of any unified standards. This study aim to explore the practicability and safety of intracorporeal overlap and intracorporeal hand-sewn anastomosis compared with extracorporeal anastomosis.

Methods: The clinical pathological data of 56 patients who underwent TLTG from March 2016 to December 2020 in the Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. According to the method of anastomosis, the patients were divided into the overlap (n=36) and the hand-sewn anastomosis (n=20). Patients who receive laparoscopic-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG; n=74) formed the control group. The basic clinical data, and intraoperative and postoperative results of the patients were assessed.

Results: Compared with the control group, the overlap anastomosis and hand-sewn anastomosis groups showed no significant differences in clinicopathological data and short-term postoperative recovery. There were no significant differences between the overlap and the control group in operation time nor anastomosis time. However, the anastomosis time of the hand-sewn anastomosis group was significantly prolonged compared to the control group (53.20±14.14 43.01±12.53 minutes, P=0.002). Compared with the control group, the operation cost was significantly higher in the overlap group (CNY 81,300±6,100 CNY 76,600±6,800, P=0.001), but significantly lower in the hand-sewn anastomosis group (CNY 71,900±1,700 CNY 76,600±6,800, P=0.003). Early postoperative complications occurred in 5 cases (13.9%) in the overlap group, 3 cases (15.0%) in the hand-sewn anastomosis group, and 11 cases (14.9%) in the control group. There were 3 cases (8.3%) of postoperative anastomotic-related complications in the overlap group. No anastomotic-related complications were observed in the hand-sewn anastomosis group.

Conclusions: The overlap anastomosis and hand-sewn anastomosis are practical and safe. Furthermore, the overlap anastomosis may be more suitable for patients with lower cardia and fundic lesions. The hand-sewn method has a wider range of indications pending advanced surgical skills, and is an effective supplementary technique for instrument anastomosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo-21-231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261309PMC
June 2021

Local field potentials in Parkinson's disease: A frequency-based review.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 07 29;155:105372. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurostimulation, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery offers a unique opportunity to record local field potentials (LFPs), the electrophysiological population activity of neurons surrounding the depth electrode in the target area. With direct access to the subcortical activity, LFP research has provided valuable insight into disease mechanisms and cognitive processes and inspired the advent of adaptive DBS for Parkinson's disease (PD). A frequency-based framework is usually employed to interpret the implications of LFP signatures in LFP studies on PD. This approach standardizes the methodology, simplifies the interpretation of LFP patterns, and makes the results comparable across studies. Importantly, previous works have found that activity patterns do not represent disease-specific activity but rather symptom-specific or task-specific neuronal signatures that relate to the current motor, cognitive or emotional state of the patient and the underlying disease. In the present review, we aim to highlight distinguishing features of frequency-specific activities, mainly within the motor domain, recorded from DBS electrodes in patients with PD. Associations of the commonly reported frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma, and high-frequency oscillations) to motor signs are discussed with respect to band-related phenomena such as individual tremor and high/low beta frequency activity, as well as dynamic transients of beta bursts. We provide an overview on how electrophysiology research in DBS patients has revealed and will continuously reveal new information about pathophysiology, symptoms, and behavior, e.g., when combining deep LFP and surface electrocorticography recordings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2021.105372DOI Listing
July 2021

Biomarkers and the Role of α-Synuclein in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 23;13:645996. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of α-synuclein (α-Syn)-rich Lewy bodies (LBs) and the preferential loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNpc). However, the widespread involvement of other central nervous systems (CNS) structures and peripheral tissues is now widely documented. The onset of the molecular and cellular neuropathology of PD likely occurs decades before the onset of the motor symptoms characteristic of PD, so early diagnosis of PD and adequate tracking of disease progression could significantly improve outcomes for patients. Because the clinical diagnosis of PD is challenging, misdiagnosis is common, which highlights the need for disease-specific and early-stage biomarkers. This review article aims to summarize useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of PD, as well as the biomarkers used to monitor disease progression. This review article describes the role of α-Syn in PD and how it could potentially be used as a biomarker for PD. Also, preclinical and clinical investigations encompassing genetics, immunology, fluid and tissue, imaging, as well as neurophysiology biomarkers are discussed. Knowledge of the novel biomarkers for preclinical detection and clinical evaluation will contribute to a deeper understanding of the disease mechanism, which should more effectively guide clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.645996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021696PMC
March 2021

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a mitochondrial membrane-associated protein Cbs2 from .

PeerJ 2021 17;9:e10901. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Anti-fibrosis Biotherapy, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, China.

Background: Mitochondria are unique organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells. The main role of the mitochondria is to produce ATP. The nuclear genome encoded proteins Cbs1 and Cbs2 are located at the mitochondrial inner membrane and are reported to be essential for the translation of mitochondrial cytochrome b mRNA. Genetic studies show that Cbs2 protein recognizes the 5' untranslated leader sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b mRNA. However, due to a lack of biochemical and structural information, this biological process remains unclear. To investigate the structural characteristics of how () Cbs2 tethers cytochrome b mRNA to the mitochondrial inner membrane, a preliminary X-ray crystallographic study was carried out and is reported here.

Methods: The target gene from was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The PCR fragment was digested by the NdeI and XhoI restriction endonucleases and then inserted into expression vector p28. After sequencing, the plasmid was transformed into C43 competent cells. The selenomethionine derivative Cbs2 protein was overexpressed using M9 medium based on a methionine-biosynthesis inhibition method. The protein was first purified to Ni-nitrilotriacetate affinity chromatography and then further purified by Ion exchange chromatography and Gel-filtration chromatography. The purified Se-Cbs2 protein was concentrated to 10 mg/mL. The crystallization trials were performed using the sitting-drop vapor diffusion method at 16 °C. The complete diffraction data was processed and scaled with the HKL2000 package and programs in the CCP4 package, respectively.

Results: Cbs2 from was cloned, prokaryotic expressed and purified. The analysis of the size exclusion chromatography showed that the Cbs2 protein peaked at a molecular weight of approximately 90 KDa. The crystal belonged to the space group C2, with unit-cell parameters of  = 255.11,  = 58.10,  = 76.37, and  = 95.35°. X-ray diffraction data was collected at a resolution of 2.7 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were estimated to be 3.22 Å 3 Da-1 and 61.82%, respectively.

Conclusions: In the present study Cbs2 from was cloned, expressed, purified, and crystallized for structural studies. The molecular weight determination results indicated that the biological assembly of Cbs2 may be a dimer.The preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies indicated the presence of two Cbs2 molecules in the asymmetric unit. This study will provide an experimental basis for exploring how Cbs2 protein mediates cytochrome b synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896505PMC
February 2021

Many-Body Chern Number from Statistical Correlations of Randomized Measurements.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Feb;126(5):050501

Joint Quantum Institute, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

One of the main topological invariants that characterizes several topologically ordered phases is the many-body Chern number (MBCN). Paradigmatic examples include several fractional quantum Hall phases, which are expected to be realized in different atomic and photonic quantum platforms in the near future. Experimental measurement and numerical computation of this invariant are conventionally based on the linear-response techniques that require having access to a family of states, as a function of an external parameter, which is not suitable for many quantum simulators. Here, we propose an ancilla-free experimental scheme for the measurement of this invariant, without requiring any knowledge of the Hamiltonian. Specifically, we use the statistical correlations of randomized measurements to infer the MBCN of a wave function. Remarkably, our results apply to disklike geometries that are more amenable to current quantum simulator architectures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.050501DOI Listing
February 2021

Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus relieves basal ganglia dysfunction in monkeys with temporal lobe epilepsy.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 03 21;27(3):341-351. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Aims: Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT-DBS) is effective in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in seizure propagation in TLE, but the effects of ANT-DBS on the basal ganglia have not been clarified.

Methods: ANT-DBS was applied to monkeys with kainic acid-induced TLE using a robot-assisted system. Behavior was monitored continuously. Immunofluorescence analysis and Western blotting were used to estimate protein expression levels in the basal ganglia and the effects of ANT stimulation.

Results: The seizure frequency decreased after ANT-DBS. D1 and D2 receptor levels in the putamen and caudate were significantly higher in the ANT-DBS group than in the epilepsy (EP) model. Neuronal loss and apoptosis were less severe in the ANT-DBS group. Glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and globus pallidus internus (GPi) increased in the EP group but decreased after ANT-DBS. γ-Aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABA -R) decreased and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) increased in the GPi of the EP group, whereas the reverse tendencies were observed after ANT-DBS.

Conclusion: ANT-DBS exerts neuroprotective effects on the caudate and putamen, enhances D1 and D2 receptor expression, and downregulates GPi overactivation, which enhanced the antiepileptic function of the basal ganglia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871793PMC
March 2021

Identification and subcellular localisation of hexokinase-2 in Nosema bombycis.

Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2020 Sep 21;67. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China.

Hexokinase (HXK) is the first key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and plays an extremely important role in energy metabolism. By searching the microsporidian database, we found a sequence (NBO_27g0008) of Nosema bombycis Nägali, 1857 with high similarity to hexokinase-2, and named it as NbHXK2. The NbHXK2 gene has 894 bp and encodes 297 amino acids with 34.241 kD molecular weight and 5.26 isoelectric point. NbHXK2 contains 31 phosphorylation sites and 4 potential N-glycosylation sites with signal peptides and no transmembrane domain. Multiple sequence alignment showed that NbHXK2 shares more than 40% amino acid identity with that of other microsporidia, and the homology with hexokinase-2 of Nosema tyriae Canning, Curry, Cheney, Lafranchi-Tristem, Kawakami, Hatakeyama, Iwano et Ishihara, 1999, Nosema pyrausta (Paillot, 1927) and Nosema ceranae Fries, Feng, da Silva, Slemenda et Pieniazek, 1996 was 89.17%, 87.82% and 69.86%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of hexokinase showed that all microsporidia cluster together in the same clade, and are far away from animals, plants and fungi, and that N. bombycis is closely related to N. tyriae; N. pyrausta; N. ceranae and Nosema apis Zander, 1909. Immunolocalisation with the prepared polyclonal antibody showed that NbHXK2 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm and plasmalemma in proliferative, sporulation stage and mature spore of N. bombycis. qRT-PCR assay showed that the NbHXK2 expressed at higher level during spore germination and at early stage of proliferation. These results indicate that N. bombycis may use its own glycolytic pathways to supply energy for infection and development, especially germination and in the early stage of proliferation, and acquire energy from the host through certain ways as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2020.023DOI Listing
September 2020

Universal Logical Gates on Topologically Encoded Qubits via Constant-Depth Unitary Circuits.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Jul;125(5):050502

Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA and Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

A fundamental question in the theory of quantum computation is to understand the ultimate space-time resource costs for performing a universal set of logical quantum gates to arbitrary precision. Here we demonstrate that non-Abelian anyons in Turaev-Viro quantum error correcting codes can be moved over a distance of order of the code distance, and thus braided, by a constant depth local unitary quantum circuit followed by a permutation of qubits. Our gates are protected in the sense that the lengths of error strings do not grow by more than a constant factor. When applied to the Fibonacci code, our results demonstrate that a universal logical gate set can be implemented on encoded qubits through a constant depth unitary quantum circuit, and without increasing the asymptotic scaling of the space overhead. These results also apply directly to braiding of topological defects in surface codes. Our results reformulate the notion of braiding in general as an effectively instantaneous process, rather than as an adiabatic, slow process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.050502DOI Listing
July 2020

Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation suppresses neuroinflammation by Fractalkine pathway in Parkinson's disease rat model.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 11 26;90:16-25. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China; Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurostimulation, Beijing 100070, China. Electronic address:

Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is widely used to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and recent studies have shown that it is more beneficial for early stages, suggesting a potential neuroprotective effect. And the neuroinflammation plays an indispensable role in progress of PD. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of STN-DBS on neuroinflammation and the potential pathway. To address this question, we established a rat PD model by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the left striatum and implanted stimulation leads into the ipsilateral STN to deliver electrical stimulation for a week. The neuroprotective effects of STN-DBS were examined by molecular biology techniques, including western blotting, immunohistochemistry and so on. We found that motor deficits were alleviated by STN-DBS, with increased survival of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, STN-DBS decreased Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1) expression. Meanwhile, the suppressed microglia activation and nuclear factor-κB expression, decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, downregulated IL-1 receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cleaved-caspase3 were also observed in SN of PD models received STN-DBS. In conclusion, we observed a significant association between the suppressed neuroinflammation and STN-DBS, which may be attributed to CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling. These results provide novel insight into the mechanistic basis of STN-DBS therapy for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.07.035DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification and subcellular localization of splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 10 in the microsporidian Nosema bombycis.

J Invertebr Pathol 2020 07 11;174:107441. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212018, Jiangsu Province, China; Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang 212018, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Splicing factors are important components of RNA editing in eukaryotic organisms and can produce many functional and coding genes, which is an indispensable step for the correct expression of corresponding proteins. In this study, we identified splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 10 protein in the microsporidian Nosema bombycis and named it NbSRSF10. The NbSRSF10 gene contains a complete ORF of 1449 bp in length that encodes a 482-amino acid polypeptide. The isoelectric point (pI) of the protein encoded by NbSRSF10 gene was 4.94. NbSRSF10 has a molecular weight of 54.6 k and has no signal peptide. NbSRSF10 is comprised of arginine (11.41%), glutamic acid (11.41%) and serine (9.54%) among the total amino acids, and 7 α-helix, 7 β-sheet and 15 random coils in secondary structure, and contains 71 phosphorylation sites, 22 N-glycosylation sites and 20 O-glycosylation sites. The three-dimensional structure of NbSRSF10 is similar to that of transformer-2 beta of Homo sapiens (hTra2-β). Indirect immunofluorescence showed that the NbSRSF10 is localized in the cytoplasm of the dormant microsporidian spore and is transferred to the nuclei when N. bombycis develops into the proliferative and sporogonic phase. qPCR revealed that the relative expression of NbSRSF10 increased in the meronts stage and was found at a relatively low level in the sporogonic phase of development of N. bombycis, and was up-regulated again during infection in the host cell and early proliferative phase of second life cycle. These results suggested that the NbSRSF10 may participate in the whole life cycle and play an important role in transcription regulation of N. bombycis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2020.107441DOI Listing
July 2020

Isolation and identification of two Serratia marcescens strains from silkworm, Bombyx mori.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2020 Sep 30;113(9):1313-1321. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

College of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212021, China.

Bacterial septicemia commonly occurs and usually cause huge losses in sericulture industry. Here, two pathogenic bacterial strains were isolated from dead silkworm and named as ZJ-1 and ZJ-2. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis results revealed that both of these two strains are closely related to Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens). The morphological as well as physiological and biochemical characteristics of ZJ-1 were accordant with S. marcescens mentioned in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, whereas ZJ-2 showed some discrepancies such as the utilization of malonate and starch, fermentation of maltose and sucrose, and tests of urease, etc. Surprisingly, ZJ-2 could produce red pigment at high temperature (37°) but ZJ-1 could not. Besides, by analyzing the lethal concentration 50 (LC) of ZJ-1 and ZJ-2, it was found that the virulence of ZJ-2 was lower than that of ZJ-1. These results revealed that ZJ-1 and ZJ-2 were two different strains of S. marcescens and that ZJ-2 was expected to be a safe (low-toxicity) and efficient strain for the production of red pigment. Nonetheless, further research in molecular level is needed to understand the regulation mechanism of pigment production and infection of ZJ-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-020-01442-1DOI Listing
September 2020

Many-body topological invariants from randomized measurements in synthetic quantum matter.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 10;6(15):eaaz3666. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Center for Quantum Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria.

Many-body topological invariants, as quantized highly nonlocal correlators of the many-body wave function, are at the heart of the theoretical description of many-body topological quantum phases, including symmetry-protected and symmetry-enriched topological phases. Here, we propose and analyze a universal toolbox of measurement protocols to reveal many-body topological invariants of phases with global symmetries, which can be implemented in state-of-the-art experiments with synthetic quantum systems, such as Rydberg atoms, trapped ions, and superconducting circuits. The protocol is based on extracting the many-body topological invariants from statistical correlations of randomized measurements, implemented with local random unitary operations followed by site-resolved projective measurements. We illustrate the technique and its application in the context of the complete classification of bosonic symmetry-protected topological phases in one dimension, considering in particular the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger spin model, as realized with Rydberg tweezer arrays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz3666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148113PMC
April 2020

Anterior thalamic nucleus stimulation protects hippocampal neurons by activating autophagy in epileptic monkeys.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 04 8;12(7):6324-6339. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT-DBS) is effective in treating temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and protects hippocampal neurons. Autophagy plays an essential role in epileptogenesis; however, the underlying effect of autophagy on ANT-DBS-mediated neuroprotection remains unclear. A monkey model of epilepsy was established by injecting kainic acid into the hippocampus and amygdala using a robot-assisted system. ANT-DBS was delivered in the chronic stage of the epileptic model and continued for 8 weeks. We found that ANT-DBS reduced the frequency of seizures and exerted neuroprotective effects via activating autophagy in hippocampal neurons. ANT-DBS increased light chain 3 (LC3) II level and co-localization of LC3 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, accompanied by decreased expression of the autophagy substrate ubiquitin-binding protein p62, suggesting increased autophagosome formation. Most importantly, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) -tropomyosin-related kinase type B (TrkB) pathway were involved in the regulation of autophagy. Both protein levels were reduced by ANT-DBS, and there was less phosphorylation of downstream regulators, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt, followed by inactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. Taken together, chronic ANT-DBS exerts neuroprotective effects on hippocampal neurons through inducing autophagy via suppressing the BDNF-TrkB pathway in a TLE monkey model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185094PMC
April 2020

Brain morphological changes in hypokinetic dysarthria of Parkinson's disease and use of machine learning to predict severity.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2020 07 20;26(7):711-719. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Up to 90% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) eventually develop the speech and voice disorder referred to as hypokinetic dysarthria (HD). However, the brain morphological changes associated with HD have not been investigated. Moreover, no reliable model for predicting the severity of HD based on neuroimaging has yet been developed.

Methods: A total of 134 PD patients were included in this study and divided into a training set and a test set. All participants underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and neuropsychological evaluation. Individual cortical thickness, subcortical structure, and white matter volume were extracted, and their association with HD severity was analyzed. After feature selection, a machine-learning model was established using a support vector machine in the training set. The severity of HD was then predicted in the test set.

Results: Atrophy of the right precentral cortex and the right fusiform gyrus was significantly associated with HD. No association was found between HD and volume of white matter or subcortical structures. Favorable and optimal performance of machine learning on HD severity prediction was achieved using feature selection, giving a correlation coefficient (r) of .7516 and a coefficient of determination (R ) of .5649 (P < .001).

Conclusion: The brain morphological changes were associated with HD. Excellent prediction of the severity of HD was achieved using machine learning based on neuroimaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298984PMC
July 2020

The morphology of thalamic subnuclei in Parkinson's disease and the effects of machine learning on disease diagnosis and clinical evaluation.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Apr 3;411:116721. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China; Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurostimulation, Beijing 100070, China. Electronic address:

In Parkinson's disease (PD), the thalamus plays an important role in pathogenesis and disease symptoms; however, the morphological changes in thalamic subnuclei have not been clearly investigated. And there are still many challenges in individual PD diagnosis, especially clinical condition evaluations. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 131 PD patients and 69 healthy controls (HC), and the volumes of 25 thalamic subnuclei were evaluated by FreeSurfer and a newly developed thalamus segment algorithm. Then, the individual PD diagnosis and clinical condition prediction were conducted on support vector machines (SVM) classification or regression. The bilateral thalami were enlarged; the volumes of 21 of 25 left thalamic subnuclei and 20 of 25 right thalamic subnuclei were increased, accompanied by 2 left nuclei atrophy. An accuracy of 95% with sensitivity of 97.44%, and specificity of 90.48% was achieved in PD diagnosis. United Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III, limb bradykinesia, and axial akinetic symptoms score prediction were obtained with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.5497, 0.5382, and 0.5911, respectively; however, the results of tremor, rigidity, and speech prediction were limited. Finally, accuracies of 76.92% were achieved in the UPDRS III improvement prediction. These findings confirmed that numerous left and right thalamic subnuclei were enlarged, accompanied by a few atrophies. The individual PD diagnosis, symptom, and clinical improvement prediction could be achieved based on morphology of thalamic subnuclei via machine learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116721DOI Listing
April 2020

Photon Pair Condensation by Engineered Dissipation.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Aug;123(6):063602

Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

Dissipation can usually induce detrimental decoherence in a quantum system. However, engineered dissipation can be used to prepare and stabilize coherent quantum many-body states. Here, we show that, by engineering dissipators containing photon pair operators, one can stabilize an exotic dark state, which is a condensate of photon pairs with a phase-nematic order. In this system, the usual superfluid order parameter, i.e., single-photon correlation, is absent, while the photon pair correlation exhibits long-range order. Although the dark state is not unique due to multiple parity sectors, we devise an additional type of dissipators to stabilize the dark state in a particular parity sector via a diffusive annihilation process which obeys Glauber dynamics in an Ising model. Furthermore, we propose an implementation of these photon pair dissipators in circuit-QED architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.063602DOI Listing
August 2019

lncRNA CCAT1 contributes to the growth and invasion of gastric cancer via targeting miR-219-1.

J Cell Biochem 2019 12 3;120(12):19457-19468. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most malignant tumors that seriously threaten human health. Increased reports have indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are associated with GC. This study aims to investigate the regulatory role of colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) in GC. The results exhibited the fact that CCAT1 was expressed higher in 57 GC tissue samples than in 57 paired adjacent normal tissue samples. The expression of CCAT1 was also increased in GC cell lines (MKN45, Hs746T, and SGC-7901) compared with the gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. Besides this, decreased cell proliferation with increased cell apoptosis was detected in SGC-7902 cells transfected with CCAT1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). At the same time, a lower cell invasion ability was measured in SCG-7901 cells transfected with CCAT1 shRNA.In addition, miR-219-1 was predicted and convinced a direct target of CCAT1. The expression of miR-219-1 was decreased in GC tissues and GC cell lines. Further studies demonstrated that the roles of CCAT1 in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were inhibited by miR-219-1. Finally, in vivo experiment indicated that tumor growth of GC was suppressed through knockdown of CCAT1. In conclusion, these results suggested that CAT1 promotes the tumorigenesis and progression of GC by negatively regulating miR-219-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29239DOI Listing
December 2019

Scale-Invariant Continuous Entanglement Renormalization of a Chern Insulator.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Mar;122(12):120502

Joint Quantum Institute, NIST/University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

The multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) postulates the existence of quantum circuits that renormalize entanglement in real space at different length scales. Chern insulators, however, cannot have scale-invariant discrete MERA circuits with a finite bond dimension. In this Letter, we show that the continuous MERA (cMERA), a modified version of MERA adapted for field theories, possesses a fixed point wave function with a nonzero Chern number. Additionally, it is well known that reversed MERA circuits can be used to prepare quantum states efficiently in time that scales logarithmically with the size of the system. However, state preparation via MERA typically requires the advent of a full-fledged universal quantum computer. In this Letter, we demonstrate that our cMERA circuit can potentially be realized in existing analog quantum computers, i.e., an ultracold atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice with light-induced spin-orbit coupling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.120502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990462PMC
March 2019

Establishment of a novel mesial temporal lobe epilepsy rhesus monkey model via intra-hippocampal and intra-amygdala kainic acid injection assisted by neurosurgical robot system.

Brain Res Bull 2019 07 4;149:32-41. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China; Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurostimulation, Beijing, 100070, China. Electronic address:

Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common type of refractory epilepsy, and non-human primate (NHP) models are important to investigate its mechanism and therapy. However, previous mTLE-NHP models have some defects.

Methods: Thirteen rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to a control group and epilepsy group. Kainic acid (KA) was injected into the left hippocampus and amygdala assisted by a neurosurgical robot system, while the control group received normal saline injection. Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes were implanted into the hippocampus in the acute and chronic stages to monitor epileptic discharges, with continuous behavior monitoring. The changes in hippocampal volume were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Transmission electron microscopy, western blotting and immunofluorescence were performed 3 months after injection to investigate neuronal ultrastructural alteration, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, neuronal loss and gliosis in multiple brain regions.

Results: In the epilepsy group, status epilepticus (SE) and spontaneously recurrent seizures (SRSs) were detected in the acute and chronic stages via video monitoring. SEEG confirmed that the epileptic zone was focused on the injection area. The hippocampal volume was significantly decreased in the chronic stage compared with baseline. Neuronal ultrastructure and BBB integrity deteriorated in the hippocampus and amygdala of epileptic monkeys. The obvious neuronal loss and gliosis in the CA1-CA4 hippocampal regions were confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence; however, the temporal cortex was not affected. Moreover, the neuronal ultrastructural deterioration was detected in other limbic system regions (orbitofrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex).

Conclusion: A novel mTLE-NHP model was induced by one-time intra-hippocampal and intra-amygdalar KA injection, with detectable SE and SRS. Severe hippocampal atrophy, neuronal ultrastructural damage, BBB disruption, neuronal loss and gliosis were confirmed in this model, with widespread limbic system damage, which are similar to the pathology of mTLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.002DOI Listing
July 2019

Interacting Qubit-Photon Bound States with Superconducting Circuits.

Phys Rev X 2019 ;9(1)

Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.

Qubits strongly coupled to a photonic crystal give rise to qubit-photon dressed bound states. These bound states, comprising the qubits and spatially localized photonic modes induced around the qubits, are the basis for many exotic physical scenarios. The localization of these states changes with qubit detuning from the photonic crystal band edge, offering an avenue of control of bound-state interaction. Here, we present experimental results from a device with two transmon qubits coupled to a superconducting microwave photonic crystal and realize tunable on-site and interbound state interactions. We observe a fourth-order two-photon virtual process between bound states indicating strong coupling between the photonic crystal and transmon qubits. Because of their localization-dependent interaction, these states offer the ability to realize one-dimensional chains of bound states with tunable and potentially long-range interactions that preserve the qubits' spatial organization. The widely tunable, strong, and robust interactions demonstrated with this system are promising benchmarks towards realizing larger, more complex systems that use bound states to build and study quantum spin models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physrevx.9.011021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047877PMC
January 2019

Comparison of Short-Term Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Interna and Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment of Primary Dystonia.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 24;123:e211-e217. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurostimulation, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the efficacy and side effects of bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the same patient with primary dystonia.

Methods: Patients with primary dystonia from the department of functional neurosurgery in Beijing Tiantan Hospital were recruited for the study. Four electrodes were bilaterally implanted in the GPi and STN. A trial stimulation was applied to determine the preliminary therapeutic effects. Five evaluations were conducted: preoperative, postoperative (before stimulation), after sham stimulation, and after stimulation for 24 hours of GPi and STN using optimal parameters, judged by the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS).

Results: The BFMDRS movement score decreased after both short-term GPi stimulation (from 15.3 ± 6.9 to 7.6 ± 4.2, P < 0.05) and short-term STN stimulation (from 15.3 ± 6.9 to 8.6 ± 5.0, P < 0.05). There were significant reductions in facial (eyes and mouth) movement scores after short-term GPi and STN DBS compared with baseline (P < 0.05), but not in cervical symptoms (P > 0.05). The cervical symptoms of tonic dystonia had an improvement after long-term DBS treatment (P < 0.05). There were more adverse events with STN DBS; however, most side effects could be ameliorated by adjusting stimulation parameters.

Conclusions: Both short-term GPi and STN stimulation improved the motor symptoms of dystonia, but there was no significant difference between GPi DBS and STN DBS. There were more side effects associated with STN stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.137DOI Listing
March 2019

Characteristics of Globus Pallidus Internus Local Field Potentials in Hyperkinetic Disease.

Front Neurol 2018 5;9:934. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Dystonia and Huntington's disease (HD) are both hyperkinetic movement disorders but exhibit distinct clinical characteristics. Aberrant output from the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is involved in the pathophysiology of both HD and dystonia, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the GPi shows good clinical efficacy in both disorders. The electrode externalized period provides an opportunity to record local field potentials (LFPs) from the GPi to examine if activity patterns differ between hyperkinetic disorders and are associated with specific clinical characteristics. LFPs were recorded from 7 chorea-dominant HD and nine cervical dystonia patients. Differences in oscillatory activities were compared by power spectrum and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC). The discrepancy band power ratio was used to control for the influence of absolute power differences between groups. We further identified discrepant frequency bands and frequency band ratios for each subject and examined the correlations with clinical scores. Dystonia patients exhibited greater low frequency power (6-14 Hz) while HD patients demonstrated greater high-beta and low-gamma power (26-43 Hz) ( < 0.0298, corrected). United Huntington Disease Rating Scale chorea sub-score was positively correlated with 26-43 Hz frequency band power and negatively correlated with the 6-14 Hz/26-43 Hz band power ratio. Dystonia and HD are characterized by distinct oscillatory activity patterns, which may relate to distinct clinical characteristics. Specifically, chorea may be related to elevated high-beta and low-gamma band power, while dystonia may be related to elevated low frequency band power. These LFPs may be useful biomarkers for adaptive DBS to treat hyperkinetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230660PMC
November 2018

Optical Lattice with Torus Topology.

Phys Rev Lett 2018 Sep;121(13):133002

Joint Quantum Institute, NIST/University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

We propose an experimental scheme to construct an optical lattice where the atoms are confined to the surface of a torus. This construction can be realized with spatially shaped laser beams which could be realized with recently developed high resolution imaging techniques. We numerically study the feasibility of this proposal by calculating the tunneling strengths for atoms in the torus lattice. To illustrate the nontrivial role of topology in atomic dynamics on the torus, we study the quantized superfluid currents and fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states on such a structure. For FQH states, we numerically investigate the robustness of the topological degeneracy and propose an experimental way to detect such a degeneracy. Our scheme for torus construction can be generalized to surfaces with higher genus for exploration of richer topological physics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.133002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047963PMC
September 2018

Dual targeting of survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein suppresses the growth and promotes the apoptosis of gastric cancer HGC-27 cells.

Oncol Lett 2018 Sep 5;16(3):3489-3498. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040, P.R. China.

Gastric cancer can be a fatal tumor and therefore represents one of the primary challenges in modern oncology. Survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) are members of the IAP family, which exerts a strong inhibitory effect on cellular apoptosis. In previous studies, the expression levels of survivin and XIAP have been demonstrated to influence the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer; therefore, the present study investigated the effect of silencing survivin and XIAP on the biological activity of the gastric cancer HGC-27 cell line. It was demonstrated that the expression levels of survivin and XIAP were significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues, compared with the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression levels of survivin and XIAP were similarly elevated in gastric cancer HGC-27 cells, compared with normal gastric epithelial GES-1cells. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated surviving- or XIAP-knockdown, in addition to the dual knockdown of survivin and XIAP, inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of HGC-27 cells. Simultaneous inhibition of XIAP and survivin expression was more effective, compared with inhibition of XIAP or survivin alone. These results indicated that the dual knockdown of survivin and XIAP may be an effective strategy for treating gastric cancer in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096218PMC
September 2018

Anterior nucleus of thalamus stimulation inhibited abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in kainic acid-induced epileptic rats.

Brain Res 2018 12 17;1701:28-35. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurostimulation, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) has demonstrated antiepileptic efficacy, especially for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE, and Sema-3A and GAP-43 are pivotal regulators of MFS. This study investigated the effects of ANT-DBS on MFS and expression levels of Sema-3A and GAP-43 as a possible mechanism for seizure suppression.

Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control (saline injection), (2) KA (kainic acid injection), (3) KA + Sham-DBS (electrode implantation without stimulation), and (4) KA + DBS (electrode implantation with stimulation). Video electroencephalography (EEG) was used to ensure model establishment and monitor seizure frequency, latency, and severity (Racine stage). Chronic ANT stimulation was conducted for 35 days in the KA + DBS group, and MFS compared to the other groups by quantitative Timm staining. Sema-3A and GAP-43 expression levels in the hippocampal formation were evaluated in all groups with western blot.

Results: The latency period was significantly prolonged and spontaneous seizure frequency reduced in the KA + DBS group compared to KA and KA + Sham-DBS groups. Staining scores for MFS in CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) were significantly lower in the KA + DBS group. The KA + DBS group also exhibited decreased GAP-43 expression and increased Sema-3A expression compared to KA and KA + Sham-DBS groups.

Conclusion: These results suggest that ANT-DBS extends the latent period following epileptogenic stimulation by impeding MFS through modulation of GAP-43 and Sema-3A expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.07.014DOI Listing
December 2018

LncRNA CCAT1 contributes to the growth and invasion of gastric cancer via targeting miR-219-1.

J Cell Biochem 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150040, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most malignant tumors that seriously threaten to human health. Increased reports indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were associated with GC. This study aims to investigate the regulatory role of colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) in GC. The results exhibited that CCAT1 was higher expressed in 57 GC tissue samples than in 57 paired adjacent normal tissue samples. The expression of CCAT1 was also increased in GC cell lines (MKN45, Hs746T and SGC-7901) compared with gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. Besides, decreased cell proliferation with increased cell apoptosis were detected in SGC-7902 cells transfected with CCAT1 shRNA. At the same time, lower cell invasion ability was measured in SCG-7901 cells transfected with CCAT1-shRNA. In addition, miR-219-1 was predicted and convinced a direct target of CCAT1. The expression of miR-219-1 was declined in GC tissues and GC cell lines. Further studies demonstrated that the roles of CCAT1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were inhibited by miR-219-1. At last, the in vivo experiment indicated that tumor growth of GC was suppressed through knockdown of CCAT1. In conclusion, these results suggested that CAT1 promotes the tumorigenesis and progression of GC by negative-regulating miR-219-1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.26560DOI Listing
December 2017
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