Publications by authors named "Guangwei Zhao"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

QTLs and candidate genes analyses for fruit size under domestication and differentiation in melon (Cucumis melo L.) based on high resolution maps.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Mar 3;21(1):126. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100081, Beijing, China.

Background: Melon is a very important horticultural crop produced worldwide with high phenotypic diversity. Fruit size is among the most important domestication and differentiation traits in melon. The molecular mechanisms of fruit size in melon are largely unknown.

Results: Two high-density genetic maps were constructed by whole-genome resequencing with two F segregating populations (WAP and MAP) derived from two crosses (cultivated agrestis × wild agrestis and cultivated melo × cultivated agrestis). We obtained 1,871,671 and 1,976,589 high quality SNPs that show differences between parents in WAP and MAP. A total of 5138 and 5839 recombination events generated 954 bins in WAP and 1027 bins in MAP with the average size of 321.3 Kb and 301.4 Kb respectively. All bins were mapped onto 12 linkage groups in WAP and MAP. The total lengths of two linkage maps were 904.4 cM (WAP) and 874.5 cM (MAP), covering 86.6% and 87.4% of the melon genome. Two loci for fruit size were identified on chromosome 11 in WAP and chromosome 5 in MAP, respectively. An auxin response factor and a YABBY transcription factor were inferred to be the candidate genes for both loci.

Conclusion: The high-resolution genetic maps and QTLs analyses for fruit size described here will provide a better understanding the genetic basis of domestication and differentiation, and provide a valuable tool for map-based cloning and molecular marker assisted breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02904-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931605PMC
March 2021

Satisfiability Attack-Resistant Camouflaged Two-Dimensional Heterostructure Devices.

ACS Nano 2021 Feb 28;15(2):3453-3467. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States.

Reverse engineering (RE) is one of the major security threats to the semiconductor industry due to the involvement of untrustworthy parties in an increasingly globalized chip manufacturing supply chain. RE efforts have already been successful in extracting device level functionalities from an integrated circuit (IC) with very limited resources. Camouflaging is an obfuscation method that can thwart such RE. Existing work on IC camouflaging primarily involves transformable interconnects and/or covert gates where variation in doping and dummy contacts hide the circuit structure or build cells that look alike but have different functionalities. Emerging solutions, such as polymorphic gates based on a giant spin Hall effect and Si nanowire field effect transistors (FETs), are also promising but add significant area overhead and are successfully decamouflaged by the satisfiability solver (SAT)-based RE techniques. Here, we harness the properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) including MoS, MoSe, MoTe, WS, and WSe and their optically transparent transition-metal oxides (TMOs) to demonstrate area efficient camouflaging solutions that are resilient to SAT attack and automatic test pattern generation attacks. We show that resistors with resistance values differing by 5 orders of magnitude, diodes with variable turn-on voltages and reverse saturation currents, and FETs with adjustable conduction type, threshold voltages, and switching characteristics can be optically camouflaged to look exactly similar by engineering TMO/TMD heterostructures, allowing hardware obfuscation of both digital and analog circuits. Since this 2D heterostructure devices family is intrinsically camouflaged, NAND/NOR/AND/OR gates in the circuit can be obfuscated with significantly less area overhead, allowing 100% logic obfuscation compared to only 5% for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based camouflaging. Finally, we demonstrate that the largest benchmarking circuit from ISCAS'85, comprised of more than 4000 logic gates when obfuscated with the CMOS-based technique, is successfully decamouflaged by SAT attack in <40 min; whereas, it renders to be invulnerable even in more than 10 h when camouflaged with 2D heterostructure devices, thereby corroborating our hypothesis of high resilience against RE. Our approach of connecting material properties to innovative devices to secure circuits can be considered as a one of a kind demonstration, highlighting the benefits of cross-layer optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c10651DOI Listing
February 2021

Genetic dissection of climacteric fruit ripening in a melon population segregating for ripening behavior.

Hortic Res 2020 Nov 1;7(1):187. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG) CSIC-IRTA-UAB-UB, Edifici CRAG, Campus UAB, 08193, Cerdanyola, Barcelona, Spain.

Melon is as an alternative model to understand fruit ripening due to the coexistence of climacteric and non-climacteric varieties within the same species, allowing the study of the processes that regulate this complex trait with genetic approaches. We phenotyped a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs), obtained by crossing a climacteric (Védrantais, cantalupensis type) and a non-climcteric variety (Piel de Sapo T111, inodorus type), for traits related to climacteric maturation and ethylene production. Individuals in the RIL population exhibited various combinations of phenotypes that differed in the amount of ethylene produced, the early onset of ethylene production, and other phenotypes associated with ripening. We characterized a major QTL on chromosome 8, ETHQV8.1, which is sufficient to activate climacteric ripening, and other minor QTLs that may modulate the climacteric response. The ETHQV8.1 allele was validated by using two reciprocal introgression line populations generated by crossing Védrantais and Piel de Sapo and analyzing the ETHQV8.1 region in each of the genetic backgrounds. A Genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 211 accessions of the ssp. melo further identified two regions on chromosome 8 associated with the production of aromas, one of these regions overlapping with the 154.1 kb interval containing ETHQV8.1. The ETHQV8.1 region contains several candidate genes that may be related to fruit ripening. This work sheds light into the regulation mechanisms of a complex trait such as fruit ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00411-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603510PMC
November 2020

Genetic mapping and candidate gene analysis for melon resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

Sci Rep 2020 11 24;10(1):20456. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450009, Henan, China.

Phytophthora blight is one of the most serious diseases affecting melon (Cucumis melo) production. Due to the lack of highly resistant germplasms, the progress on disease-resistant research is slow. To understand the genetics of melon resistance to Phytophthora capsici, an F population containing 498 individuals was developed by crossing susceptible line E31 to highly resistant line ZQK9. Genetic analysis indicated that the resistance in ZQK9 was controlled by a dominant gene, tentatively named MePhyto. Through bulked-segregant analysis (BSA-Seq) and chromosome walking techniques, the MePhyto gene was mapped to a 52.44 kb interval on chromosome 12. In this region, there were eight genes and their expression patterns were validated by qRT-PCR. Among them, one wall-associated receptor kinase (WAK) gene MELO3C002430 was significantly induced in ZQK9 after P. capsici inoculation, but not in E31. Based on the non-synonymous mutation site in MELO3C002430, a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker, CAPS2430, was developed and this maker was co-segregated with MePhyto in both F population and a collection of 36 melon accessions. Thus MELO3C002430 was considered as the candidate gene and CAPS2430 was a promising marker for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding. These results lay a foundation for revealing the resistance mechanism of melon to P. capsici.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77600-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686303PMC
November 2020

Development of a fluorescent probe for the detection of hPD-L1.

J Biosci Bioeng 2020 Oct 18;130(4):431-436. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Key Laboratory for Biological Medicine in Shandong Universities, Weifang Key Laboratory for Antibody Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, China; World Research Hub Initiative, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan. Electronic address:

Interaction of human programmed death factor-1 (hPD-1) of T cells and one of its ligands hPD-L1 which is expressed on cancer cells suppresses effector T cell functions. Studies showed that the hPD-1/hPD-L1 pathway is associated with killing mechanisms of tumor cells evading the immune system. Immunotherapy based on the checkpoint inhibitor on hPD-1 has been an important approach to treat cancer; however, not all cancer cells over-express hPD-L1. Detection of hPD-L1 over-expression in cancer cells may be a key factor for deciding on whether immunotherapy should be conducted. In the present study, we produced recombinant hPD-1 using Escherichia coli, and created a fluorescent probe termed quenched hPD-1 (QPD-1) for the detection of hPD-L1. We found that hPD-1 can quench fluorescence of carboxytetramethylrhodamine labeled on its N-terminal and QPD-1 is a convenient tool to rapidly detect hPD-L1 with a limit of detection of 10 nM and detectable range of 10 nM-1000 nM. QPD-1 may also function as a probe to screen for hPD-L1 over-expressing tumor cells and promote appropriate medical procedure through tumor immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.06.009DOI Listing
October 2020

Transcriptome analysis clarified genes involved in resistance to Phytophthora capsici in melon.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(2):e0227284. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China.

Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora capsici is a devastating disease for melon plant. However, the underlying resistance mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome differences between the resistant ZQK9 and susceptible E31 at 0, 3, and 5 days post-inoculation (dpi) were identified by RNA-seq. A total of 1,195 and 6,595 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in ZQK9 and E31, respectively. P. capsici infection triggered massive transcript changes in the inoculated tissues. Genes related to plant defense responses were activated, which was reflected by a lot of up-regulated DEGs involved in pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, hormones biosynthesis and signal transduction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and cell wall modification in resistant ZQK9. The dataset generated in this study may provide a basis for identifying candidate resistant genes in melon against P. capsici and lay a foundation for further research on the molecular mechanisms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227284PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015699PMC
May 2020

QTL mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 and Papaya ringspot virus in Citrullus amarus.

Theor Appl Genet 2020 Feb 10;133(2):677-687. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, 2700 Savannah Highway, Charleston, SC, 29414, USA.

Key Message: A Citrullus amarus mapping population segregating for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 and Papaya ringspot virus was used to identify novel QTL, important for the improvement in watermelon disease resistance. Multiple disease screens of the USDA Citrullus spp. germplasm collection have highlighted the value of Citrullus amarus (citron melon or wild watermelon) as a resource for enhancing modern watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus) with resistance to a broad range of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases of watermelon. We have generated a genetic population of C. amarus segregating for resistance to two important watermelon diseases: Fusarium wilt (caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum; Fon race 2) and Papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W). QTL mapping of Fon race 2 resistance identified seven significant QTLs, with the major QTL representing a novel genetic source of resistance and an opportunity for gene pyramiding. A single QTL was associated with resistance to PRSV-W, which adhered to expectations of a prior study indicating a single-gene recessive inheritance in watermelon. The resistance loci identified here provide valuable genetic resources for introgression into cultivated watermelon for the improvement in disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03500-3DOI Listing
February 2020

Pneumonia infection by in a male alpaca.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(3):267-269. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Animal Diseases Rapid Diagnosis Center, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

After sudden death with a history of about two weeks ruminal tympany, a 3-year-old, male alpaca from Huantaiqi Zoo, Chongqing, China was presented to the Animal Diseases Rapid Diagnosis Center, Southwest University, Chongqing, China for diagnosis of the death causes. At necropsy, the primary pathological lesions were found in the lung. A pronounced hemorrhage with topical congestion and lobular pneumonia was identified. Sero-fibrinogenous pleural effusion was also detected in the thoracic cavity. After necropsy, the lung sample was processed for histological examination, while lung, hydropericardium, and heart-blood samples were processed for bacteriological examination. From the lung tissue, abundant fluid exudate was found in the pulmonary alveoli. Meanwhile, a mild to moderate hemorrhage and inflammatory cells infiltrations were also observed in the lung sections. Pure isolates on the 5.00% defibrinated sheep blood agar were submitted for identification by morphological and molecular methods. Sequencing results indicated that the Gram-negative sporadic bacilli were all belonged to . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of induced pneumonia in an alpaca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2019.100291.2397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828162PMC
September 2019

A comprehensive genome variation map of melon identifies multiple domestication events and loci influencing agronomic traits.

Nat Genet 2019 11 1;51(11):1607-1615. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Lingnan Guangdong Laboratory of Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Melon is an economically important fruit crop that has been cultivated for thousands of years; however, the genetic basis and history of its domestication still remain largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive map of the genomic variation in melon derived from the resequencing of 1,175 accessions, which represent the global diversity of the species. Our results suggest that three independent domestication events occurred in melon, two in India and one in Africa. We detected two independent sets of domestication sweeps, resulting in diverse characteristics of the two subspecies melo and agrestis during melon breeding. Genome-wide association studies for 16 agronomic traits identified 208 loci significantly associated with fruit mass, quality and morphological characters. This study sheds light on the domestication history of melon and provides a valuable resource for genomics-assisted breeding of this important crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0522-8DOI Listing
November 2019

Draft genome sequencing and annotation of a low-virulence Morganella morganii strain CQ-M7, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the giant salamander in China.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 03 23;20:248-252. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

College of Animal Science, Southwest University, No. 160, Xueyuan Road, Chongqing, 402460, PR China; Chongqing Sanjiezhongxin Bioengineering Co, Ltd, No.3 Southern Section of Yingbin Avenue, Chongqing, 402460, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: A multidrug-resistant Morganella morganii strain (CQ-M7), isolated from the kidney of a diseased Chinese giant salamander in China, was examined with whole genome sequencing to better understand drug tolerance and its pathogenicity.

Methods: The draft genome of the investigated strain was assembled using HGA assembler and annotated using Rapid Annotations Subsystems Technology (RAST) server. The contigs were annotated by the appropriate bioinformatics tools available on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR. Pathogenicity of the isolate was performed on 30 healthy Chinese giant salamanders with different infection dosages.

Results: The CQ-M7 strain showed resistance to multiple antimicrobials, especially to aminoglycoside and β-lactam antibiotics. Seventeen drug-resistance genes were detected, which were related to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, peptide antibiotic, and fosfomycin resistance. Sequence analysis showed the assembled genome size to be 4 966 326bp with 51.16% of GC content, containing 4587 protein-coding genes, 71 pseudogenes, five rRNAs, 80 tRNAs, and five noncoding RNAs. The genome sequence was deposited in GenBank under accession number RQIJ00000000. Artificial infection results indicated that the CQ-M7 strain was a low-virulence strain for the Chinese giant salamander.

Conclusion: It is believed that this is the first draft genome of Chinese giant salamander original Morganella morganii strain harbouring multiple antibiotic resistance genes in China. The reported genome sequence could provide insights into antibiotic resistance mechanisms and control strategies of Morganella morganii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.08.012DOI Listing
March 2020

GosB Inhibits Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Promotes Cell Survival in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

Biomed Res Int 2017 17;2017:7394869. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Truein Agro-Pastoral Group Co., Ltd., Zhengzhou City, China.

It has been demonstrated that the activator protein related transcription factor Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma B (GosB) is involved in preadipocyte differentiation and triacylglycerol synthesis. However, the role of GosB in regulating the synthesis of milk fatty acid in mouse mammary glands remains unclear. This research uncovered potentially new roles of GosB in suppressing milk fatty acid synthesis. Results revealed that GosB had the highest expression in lung tissue and showed a higher expression level during nonlactation than during lactation. GosB inhibited the expression of fatty acid synthase , stearoyl-CoA desaturase , fatty acid binding protein 4 , diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 , perilipin 2 , perilipin 3 , and in mouse mammary gland epithelial cells (MEC). In addition, GosB reduced cellular triglyceride content and the accumulation of lipid droplets; in particular, GosB enhanced saturated fatty acid concentration (C16:0 and C18:0). The PPAR agonist, rosiglitazone (ROSI), promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation. GosB increased the expression of and protected MEC from ROSI-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, MECs were protected from apoptosis through the GosB regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations. These findings suggest that GosB may regulate mammary epithelial cells milk fat synthesis and apoptosis via PPAR in mouse mammary glands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/7394869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664265PMC
January 2018

ΔFosB regulates rosiglitazone-induced milk fat synthesis and cell survival.

J Cell Physiol 2018 12 26;233(12):9284-9298. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Rosiglitazone induces adipogenesis in adipocyte and regulates cell survival and differentiation in number of cell types. However, whether PPARγ regulates the synthesis of milk fat and cell survival in goat mammary gland remains unknown. Rosiglitazone strongly enhanced cellular triacylglycerol content and accumulation of lipid droplet in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Furthermore, ΔFosB decreased the expression of PPARγ at both mRNA and protein levels, and rosiglitazone-induced milk fat synthesis was abolished by ΔFosB overexpression. ΔFosB reduced milk fat synthesis and enhanced saturated fatty acid concentration. Rosiglitazone increased the number of GMEC in G0/G1 phase and inhibited cell proliferation, and these effects were improved by overexpression of ΔFosB. ΔFosB was found to promote the expression of Bcl-2 and suppress the expression of Bax, and protected GMEC from apoptosis induced by rosiglitazone. Intracellular calcium trafficking assay revealed that rosiglitazone markedly increased intracellular calcium concentration. ΔFosB protected GMEC from apoptosis induced by intracellular Ca overload. ΔFosB increased MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity. SB-3CT, an MMP-9 inhibitor, suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, and increased intracellular calcium levels, and this effect was abolished by ΔFosB overexpression. SB-3CT induced GMEC apoptosis and this effect was inhibited by ΔFosB overexpression. These findings suggest that ΔFosB regulates rosiglitazone-induced milk fat synthesis and cell survival. Therefore, ΔFosB may be an important checkpoint to control milk fat synthesis and cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.26218DOI Listing
December 2018

Cellular microRNA miR-10a-5p inhibits replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by targeting the host factor signal recognition particle 14.

J Gen Virol 2017 Apr 12;98(4):624-632. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs have recently been demonstrated to play vital roles in virus-host interactions. Our previous research on small RNA deep sequencing showed that the expression level of miR-10a increased during the viral life cycle. The present study sought to determine the function of miR-10a and its molecular mechanism during PRRSV infection. In the current study, the result of PRRSV infection inducing miR-10a expression was validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Overexpression of miR-10a-5p using its mimics markedly reduced the expression level of intracellular PRRSV ORF7 mRNA and N protein. Simultaneously, overexpression of miR-10a-5p also significantly decreased the expression level of extracellular viral RNA and virus titres in the supernatants. These results demonstrated that miR-10a-5p could suppress the replication of PRRSV. A direct interaction between miR-10a-5p and signal recognition particle 14 (SRP14) was confirmed using bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification. miR-10a-5p could directly target the 3'UTR of pig SRP14 mRNA in a sequence-specific manner and decrease SRP14 expression through translational repression but not mRNA degradation. Further, knockdown of SRP14 by small interfering RNA also inhibits the replication of PRRSV. Collectively, these results suggested that miR-10a-5p inhibits PRRSV replication through suppression of SRP14 expression, which not only provides new insights into virus-host interactions during PRRSV infection but also suggests potential new antiviral strategies against PRRSV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000708DOI Listing
April 2017

[Study on Prediction Model of Soft Tissue Deformation during Needle Insertion].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2016 Jun;33(3):442-7

Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)hydrogel was made for simulating human’s soft tissue in our experiment.The image acquisition device is composed of an optical platform,a camera and its bracket and a light source.In order to study the law of soft tissue deformation under flexible needle insertion,markers were embedded into the soft tissue and their displacements were recorded.Based on the analysis of displacements of markers in Xdirection and Ydirection,back propagation(BP)neural network was employed to model the displacement of Ydirection for the markers.Compared to the experimental data,fitting degree of the neural network model was above 95%,the maximum relative error for valid data was limited to 30%,and the maximum absolute error was 0.8mm.The BP neural network model was beneficial for predicting soft tissue deformation quantitatively.The results showed that the model could effectively improve the accuracy of flexible needle insertion into soft tissue.
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June 2016

Pathogenicity of two Toxoplasma gondii strains in chickens of different ages infected via intraperitoneal injection.

Avian Pathol 2014 20;43(1):91-5. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

a College of Veterinary Medicine , Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing , Jiangsu , PR China.

This experiment was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in broilers of different ages. Chickens at the ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(8) tachyzoites of RH and JS strains of T. gondii, respectively. The clinical signs and death of chickens were recorded daily post inoculation. Serum samples were collected at days 0, 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, 39, 46 and 53 post infection to screen T. gondii circulating antigens (TCA) and T. gondii circulating antibodies (TCAb). The results showed that T. gondii infection of 7-day-old chickens caused death, even though the mortality rate of the JS strain (100%) was significantly higher than that of the RH strain (70%). Chickens at 14 days old showed only mild clinical signs, but no death. Neither clinical signs nor death were recorded in 21-day-old and 28-day-old chickens. TCA and TCAb became positive at days 4 and 11, respectively. Both the TCA and the TCAb of groups 21 days old (RH strain) and 28 days old (both RH and JS strains) decreased to a negative level earlier than the other experimental groups. Specific T. gondii DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in chickens that survived in the 7-day-old group (RH strain) and in all infected chickens of groups 14 days old and 21 days old injected with both strains. In the groups injected at 28 days old, three samples (RH strain) and one sample (JS strain) were found negative. The results indicated that the age of the chicken was an important factor affecting the pathogenicity of T. gondii and that these two strains of T. gondii displayed different virulence for chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2013.874007DOI Listing
September 2014

Up-regulated expression of Bnip3L after intracerebral hemorrhage in adult rats.

J Mol Histol 2013 Oct 15;44(5):497-505. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Bnip3L, also known as NIX, is a homolog of the E1B 19K/Bcl-2 binding and pro-apoptotic protein Bnip3 which can bind to Bcl-2 to elaborate that effect. In tumor cells, Bnip3L played a role in tumor growth inhibition, but some studies argued hypoxia-induced autophagy via Bnip3L was a survival mechanism that promoted tumor progression. In heart muscle, it related to decreased myocardial function. However, its function in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is still not clear. In this frame, we found the Bnip3L expression increased in the perihematomal region in adult rats after performed ICH. Double immunofluorenscence staining manifested that Bnip3L co-located with neurons, not astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we detected that neuronal apoptosis marker active caspase-3 had colocalizations with Bnip3L. In addition, colocalizations and co-immunoprecipitation between Bnip3L and Bcl-2, consistent with previous study, were also found. All our findings suggested that Bnip3L might be involved in the pathophysiology of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-013-9506-7DOI Listing
October 2013

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens in China based on circulating antigens and antibodies.

Vet Parasitol 2012 Apr 11;185(2-4):72-7. Epub 2011 Nov 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, PR China.

Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in humans and other animals including domestic poultry throughout the world, but the data on prevalence of T. gondii in free-ranged (FR) chickens in People's Republic of China (PRC) are limited. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in FR chickens was investigated in 13 provinces/municipalities of China during the period from January to June 2010. A total of 1173 serum samples were collected and assayed for T. gondii circulating antigens (TCA) and antibodies (TCAb) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Out of this number, 199 samples were TCA positive (16.97%), 226 samples were TCAb positive (19.27%), 69 samples were positive for both TCA and TCAb (5.88%), and the total seropositive rate was found in 356 of 1173 (30.36%). The results of the present survey indicated that infection with T. gondii in FR chickens is widely spread in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.10.031DOI Listing
April 2012

Vaccination of goats with DNA vaccines encoding H11 and IL-2 induces partial protection against Haemonchus contortus infection.

Vet J 2012 Jan 16;191(1):94-100. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, PR China.

DNA vaccines expressing Haemonchus contortus H11 antigen with or without interleukin (IL)-2 were tested for protection against H. contortus infection in goats. Sixteen goats (8-10 months of age) were allocated into four trial groups. On days 0 and 14, group 1 was immunised with a DNA vaccine expressing H11 and IL-2 and group 2 was immunised with a DNA vaccine expressing H11 only. Group 3 was an unvaccinated positive control group challenged with H. contortus third stage larvae (L3). Group 4 was an unvaccinated negative control group that was not challenged with L3. Animals in groups 1-3 were challenged with 5000 infective H. contortus L3 14 days after the second immunisation. Transcription of H11 and IL-2 was demonstrated in muscle by reverse transcriptase-PCR 10 days after primary immunisation and translation of H11 was detected by Western blot analysis 7 days after the second immunisation. Following immunisation with a DNA vaccine expressing H11 and IL-2, high levels of specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, non-specific serum IgA, mucosal IgA, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes were produced. Following challenge with L3, cumulative mean faecal worm egg counts and worm burdens in group 1 were reduced by 56.6% and 46.7%, respectively, while corresponding reductions in group 2 were 44.8% and 38.0%. There was a small but significant difference in abomasal worm burdens in goats in groups 1 (395.3±37.6) and 2 (459.5±101.6) compared to group 3 (741.5±241.5; P<0.05). Use of a DNA vaccine expressing H11 and IL-2 conferred partial protection against Haemonchus contortus infection in goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.12.023DOI Listing
January 2012