Publications by authors named "Guangliang Liu"

95 Publications

Decreased bioavailability of both inorganic mercury and methylmercury in anaerobic sediments by sorption on iron sulfide nanoparticles.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 30;424(Pt B):127399. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Methylmercury (MeHg), derived via inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms, is a neurotoxic contaminant causing concern worldwide. Establishing how to reduce Hg(II) methylation and MeHg bioavailability is essential for effective control of Hg pollution. Iron sulfide nanoparticles (FeS) is a promising passivator for Hg(II) methylation. However, its effect on the fate of MeHg in aquatic systems remains poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of FeS on Hg(II) bioavailability, MeHg production and bioavailability in aquatic environments. Results demonstrated that FeS rapidly sorbed Hg(II) and MeHg, with sorption affected by pH, chloride ion and dissolved organic matter. Hg-specific biosensor analysis showed that Hg(II) sorbed onto FeS significantly reduced its bioavailability to microorganisms. Double stable isotope (Hg(II) and MeHg) addition revealed that FeS significantly inhibited MeHg production in anaerobic sediments. Furthermore, synthetic gut juice extraction suggested that FeS decrease concentrations of bioavailable MeHg and Hg(II), reducing their integration into food webs. However, the sorbed MeHg and Hg(II) in sediments can be released after FeS oxidation, potentially enhancing the risk of exposure to aquatic organisms. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of Hg transformation and exposure risks in aquatic systems, providing valuable information for the development of in situ Hg remediation systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127399DOI Listing
September 2021

Dark Reduction of Mercury by Microalgae-Associated Aerobic Bacteria in Marine Environments.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Oct 29;55(20):14258-14268. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Redox transformation of mercury (Hg) is critical for Hg exchange at the air-sea interface and it can also affect the methylation of Hg in marine environments. However, the contributions of microalgae and aerobic bacteria in oxic seawater to Hg reduction are largely unknown. Here, we studied the reduction of Hg mediated by microalgae and aerobic bacteria in surface marine water and microalgae cultures under dark and sunlight conditions. The comparable reduction rates of Hg with and without light suggest that dark reduction by biological processes is as important as photochemical reduction in the tested surface marine water and microalgae cultures. The contributions of microalgae, associated free-living aerobic bacteria, and extracellular substances to dark reduction were distinguished and quantified in 7 model microalgae cultures, demonstrating that the associated aerobic bacteria are directly involved in dark Hg reduction. The aerobic bacteria in the microalgae cultures were isolated and a rapid dark reduction of Hg followed by a decrease of Hg was observed. The reduction of Hg and re-oxidation of Hg were demonstrated in aerobic bacteria spp. using double isotope tracing (Hg and Hg). These findings highlight the importance of algae-associated aerobic bacteria in Hg transformation in oxic marine water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03608DOI Listing
October 2021

Genistein-Derived ROS-Responsive Nanoparticles Relieve Colitis by Regulating Mucosal Homeostasis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 23;13(34):40249-40266. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P. R. China.

Disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an important event in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and genistein (GEN) is a candidate medicine to prevent IBD. However, the clinical application of GEN is restricted owing to its low oral bioavailability. Herein, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanomaterial (defined as GEN-NP2) containing superoxidase dismutase-mimetic temporally conjugated β-cyclodextrin and 4-(hydroxymethyl)phenylboronic acid pinacol ester-modified GEN was prepared. GEN-NP2 effectively delivered GEN to the inflammation site and protected GEN from rapid metabolism and elimination in the gastrointestinal tract. In response to high ROS levels, GEN was site-specifically released and accumulated at inflammatory sites. Mechanistically, GEN-NP2 effectively increased the expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), simultaneously reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and Caspase1-p20), attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, promoted autophagy of intestinal epithelial cells, inhibited the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), modulated the gut microbiota, and ultimately alleviated colitis. In addition, the oral administration of these nanoparticles showed excellent safety, thereby providing confidence in the further development of precise treatments for IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09215DOI Listing
September 2021

Bisphenol A and genistein have opposite effects on adult chicken ovary by acting on ERα/Nrf2-Keap1-signaling pathway.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Sep 5;347:109616. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

The reproductive toxicity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals has become a matter of great concern. However, the potential toxicological mechanism of typical environmental estrogens, bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN), on adult ovary remains ambiguous. In this study, we used laying hens as the experimental model and aimed to clarify the effect of long-term exposure to safe reference doses of BPA and GEN on adult ovary. Results demonstrated that 1/10 no-observable-adverse effect-level dose (1/10 NOAEL, 500 μg/kg body weight [bw]/day) of BPA significantly reduced the production performance and caused the degeneration of follicles and stromal cells and the increase of atretic follicles. Moreover, 1/10 NOAEL dose of BPA undermined the redox homeostasis of the ovary through activating Keap1 and suppressing the Nrf2-signaling pathway (Nrf2, NQO1, and HO-1). On the contrary, GEN (20, 40 mg/kg bw/day) dramatically improved the antioxidant capacity of the ovary by regulating the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, enhancing the activities of antioxidant-related enzymes (CAT, GSH-Px, and T-SOD), and inhibiting the excessive accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA). Parallel in vitro studies confirmed that the differential role of BPA and GEN on ovarian redox balance was directly mediated by Nrf2-Keap1 antioxidant system. And GEN could ameliorate BPA-induced oxidative stress. Importantly, our research found that exposure to BPA and GEN altered estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression in the ovary. And the use of specific ERα agonist/antagonist confirmed that BPA and GEN have opposite regulatory effects on the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by targeting ERα.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109616DOI Listing
September 2021

Aging and phytoavailability of newly introduced and legacy cadmium in paddy soil and their bioaccessibility in rice grain distinguished by enriched isotope tracing.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 4;417:125998. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Phytoavailability of Cadmium (Cd) plays a critical role in its accumulation in soil-rice systems. However, differential aging and phytoavailability of newly introduced Cd (Cd) and legacy Cd (Cd) in the soil-rice system remains unknown. Moreover, distinguishing their aging and phytoavailability is challenging. Enriched Cd isotope was introduced into a series of pot experiments, combined with sequential extraction and isotope dilution (Cd isotopic spike), to investigate the aging and distribution of Cd and Cd under different treatments. The treatments included simulated acid rain, slaked lime, and biochar. Cd aged quickly than Cd in flooded soil and its availability was similar to that of Cd after tillering stage. The grain Cd contents were positively correlated to Cd concentrations in the overlying water. Acid rain reduced the soil pH, increasing the grain Cd, while slaked lime reduced grain Cd content. The acidic biochar used in this study increased grain Cd, possibly through soil acidification-induced Cd release. The differences in bioaccumulation and translocation factors between Cd and Cd in rice plants under slaked lime and biochar treatments suggested their different in vivo complexations and translocations. Analysis of bioaccessibility of Cd and Cd in rice grains provided valuable insights regarding human Cd exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125998DOI Listing
September 2021

Porcine Bocavirus: A 10-Year History since Its Discovery.

Virol Sin 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, China.

Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) is a single-stranded DNA virus, belongs to the genus Bocaparvovirus of family Parvoviridae. It was discovered along with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV 2) and torque tenovirus (TTV) in the lymph nodes of pigs suffering from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Sweden in 2009. PBoV has been reported throughout the world, mostly in weaning piglets, and has a broad range of tissue tropism. Since PBoV is prevalent in healthy as well as clinically infected pigs and is mostly associated with coinfection with other viruses, the pathogenic nature of PBoV is still unclear. Currently, there are no cell lines available for the study of PBoV, and animal model experiments have not been described. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about PBoV, including the epidemiology, evolution analysis, detection methods, pathogenesis and public health concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00365-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080206PMC
April 2021

IFIT5 Negatively Regulates the Type I IFN Pathway by Disrupting TBK1-IKKε-IRF3 Signalosome and Degrading IRF3 and IKKε.

J Immunol 2021 05 15;206(9):2184-2197. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China

IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs), known as canonical IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), play critical roles in regulating immune responses against pathogens and maintaining homeostasis. How the IFIT5 regulates innate immune responses is rarely reported and remains enigmatic. In this study, we discover that human IFIT5 (hIFIT5) functions as a negative regulator of the type I IFN (IFN) pathway in HEK293T cell lines. Our data illustrated that hIFIT5 inhibited the promotor activities of IFN-β induced by IRF3 and its upstream factors but not by IRF3-5D (activated form of IRF3), suggesting that IRF3 might be a target of hIFIT5. Further investigations revealed that hIFIT5 downregulated the phosphorylation of IRF3 and IKKε and blocked the IRF3 nuclear translocation. Moreover, hIFIT5 impaired the IRF3-TBK1-IKKε complex, accompanied by IRF3 and IKKε degradation. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hIFIT5 is a negative modulator in the type I IFN signaling pathway, opening additional avenues for preventing hyperactivation and maintaining immunity homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001033DOI Listing
May 2021

Release of legacy mercury and effect of aquaculture on mercury biogeochemical cycling in highly polluted Ya-Er Lake, China.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 21;275:130011. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China. Electronic address:

Although global mercury (Hg) emission from chlor-alkali industry is decreasing, the legacy Hg may still have potential risks due to its environmental persistence. The objective of this work is to study the biogeochemical cycling and potential risk of Hg in the Ya-Er Lake, which was heavily contaminated by historical chlor-alkali production. Higher concentrations of total Hg (THg) in Ya-Er Lake water (16.8 ± 8.4 ng L) and sediment (547 ± 489 ng g) than other lake systems were observed, reflecting serious Hg pollution in this system. Diffusion rates of Hg at sediment-water interface and budget of Hg showed that release of legacy Hg in sediment (accounting for ∼80%) dominated THg in water, and about 80% methylmercury (MeHg) of total was diffused from sediment. Significant correlations between total organic carbon (TOC) derived from aquaculture and THg diffusion and MeHg concentrations in sediment suggest that TOC plays important roles in controlling legacy Hg release and MeHg production. The actual weekly intakes of Hg via consumption of cultured catfish and wild topmouth culter were higher than the established provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of MeHg. These results indicated that although the nearby chlor-alkali plant has been shut down for three decades, the release of legacy Hg stored in the sediment still adversely affects this ecosystem. Moreover, aquaculture could enhance MeHg production and control MeHg distribution in the polluted aquatic ecosystem, potentially posing a health risk to surrounding inhabitants through consumption of fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130011DOI Listing
July 2021

Enriched isotope tracing to reveal the fractionation and lability of legacy and newly introduced cadmium under different amendments.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 17;403:123975. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The newly introduced Cd (Cd) has different environmental fates than legacy Cd (Cd) and how to distinguish them in soil under different amendments is crucial for understanding natural aging and engineered remediation of Cd pollution in soil. In this study, enriched stable isotope tracer (Cd) was introduced to distinguish the fate of Cd and Cd in paddy soil under pH adjustment and quicklime, slaked lime, and biochar amendments. The behaviors of Cd and Cd were studied during 56 days of flooding incubation through overlying water analysis, sequential extraction fractionation and lability (exchangeable pool probed by Cd isotopic spike) assessment. The results showed that soil pH is the main driving factor controlling the partition of both Cd and Cd in overlying water. During the incubation, Cd transformed quickly from soluble fraction to residual fraction under all treatments. In addition, at the end of the incubation, Cd concentrations in residual fraction were much higher than that of Cd, suggesting a more thorough aging of Cd than Cd. The labile Cd (ECd) under pH adjustment and biochar amendment decreased during incubation and ECd% was essentially the same with that of ECd% after 28 days, indicating the aging equilibrium of exchangeable pool of Cd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123975DOI Listing
February 2021

TNFAIP3 ameliorates the degeneration of inflammatory human nucleus pulposus cells by inhibiting mTOR signaling and promoting autophagy.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 11 20;12(23):24242-24254. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Autophagy is involved in degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis and disc degeneration. Although, tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) is well-known as a key regulator of inflammation and autophagy, it is still not clear whether TNFAIP3 regulates autophagy to protect from human disc cells degeneration. We hypothesize that TNFAIP3 may also regulate autophagy to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in human nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). In this study, TNFAIP3 expression was increased in degenerative disc tissue as well as LPS-stimulated human NPCs, and the effect of TNFAIP3 in LPS-induced NPCs was further explored. The results demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in TNFAIP3-His cells was decreased, while it was increased in TNFAIP3-siRNA cells. Further molecular mechanism research showed that TNFAIP3-siRNA cells enhanced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and inhibited autophagy. Meanwhile, after treatment of TNFAIP3-siRNA cells with the mTOR inhibitor Torin1, the level of autophagy increased and the decrease of extracellular matrix was reversed. In summary, overexpressed TNFAIP3 can promote autophagy and reduce inflammation in LPS-induced human NPCs. Moreover, autophagy triggered by TNFAIP3 can ameliorate the degeneration of inflammatory human NPCs, providing a potential and an attractive therapeutic strategy for degenerative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.104160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762495PMC
November 2020

Periphyton as an important source of methylmercury in Everglades water and food web.

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 12;410:124551. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th ST, Miami, FL 33199, USA; Laboratory of Environmental Nanotechnology and Health Effect, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

Periphyton is ubiquitous in Florida Everglades and has a profound effect on mercury (Hg) cycling. Enhanced methylmercury (MeHg) production in periphyton has been well documented, but the re-distribution of MeHg from periphyton remains unknown. In this study, periphyton, sediments, surface water, periphyton overlying water, and periphyton porewater were collected from Everglades for analyzing the distribution of MeHg and total Hg (THg). Results showed that there were no significant differences in THg and MeHg in different types of periphyton, but they all displayed higher MeHg levels than sediments. MeHg distribution coefficients (logk) in periphyton were lower than in sediments, suggesting that periphyton MeHg could be more labile entering aquatic cycling and bioaccumulation. In water, the more the distance of water samples taken from periphyton, the lower the MeHg and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were detected. In extracellular polymeric substances of periphyton, MeHg in colloidal fractions was significantly higher than that in capsular fractions. It was estimated that approximately 10% (or 1.35 kg) of periphyton MeHg were passed on to mosquitofish entering the food web during wet season, contributing 73% of total Hg stocked in mosquitofish. These results revealed the importance of periphyton on water MeHg distribution and MeHg bioaccumulation in Everglades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124551DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification and characterization of PEDV infection in rat crypt epithelial cells.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Oct 17;249:108848. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China. Electronic address:

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a devastating enteric disease to the world's swine production. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), as the PED causative agent, has been commonly propagated and investigated in Vero cells, as well as in IPEC-J2, a porcine epithelial cell-jejunum 2. However, Vero cells, which are defective in interferon production, cannot represent the host response in enteric cells while PEDV replicates poorly in IPEC-J2 cells. In this study, we observed that rat crypt epithelial cells (IEC-6) were highly susceptible to different subtypes of PEDV. The replication kinetics of PEDV in IEC-6 cells is similar to that in Vero cells, but it is much higher than in IPEC-J2 cells. Besides that, PEDV infection in IEC-6 cells can induce the production of inflammatory cytokines and interferon, especially the type III IFNs. Collectively, our findings suggest that IEC-6 is an ideal cell line for PEDV replication and immune response studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497550PMC
October 2020

Monitoring AuNP Dynamics in the Blood of a Single Mouse Using Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with an Ultralow-Volume High-Efficiency Introduction System.

Anal Chem 2020 11 6;92(22):14872-14877. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, P. R. China.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are increasingly being used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents owing to their excellent properties; however, there is not much data available on their dynamics in vivo on a single particle basis in a single mouse. Here, we developed a method for the direct analysis of nanoparticles in trace blood samples based on single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS). A flexible, highly configurable, and precisely controlled sample introduction system was designed by assembling an ultralow-volume autosampler (flow rate in the range of 5-5000 μL/min) and a customized cyclonic spray chamber (transfer efficiency up to 99%). Upon systematic optimization, the detection limit of the nanoparticle size (LOD) of AuNPs in ultrapure water was 19 nm, and the detection limit of the nanoparticle number concentration (LOD) was 8 × 10 particle/L. Using a retro-orbital blood sampling method and subsequent dilution, the system was successfully applied to track the dynamic changes in size and concentration for AuNPs in the blood of a single mouse, and the recovery for the blood sample was 111.74%. Furthermore, the concentration of AuNPs in mouse blood reached a peak in a short period of time and, then, gradually decreased. This study provides a promising technique for analyzing and monitoring the size and concentration of nanoparticles in ultralow-volume blood samples with low concentrations, making it a powerful tool for analyzing and understanding the fate of nanoparticles in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c02285DOI Listing
November 2020

N6-methyladenosine regulates PEDV replication and host gene expression.

Virology 2020 09 16;548:59-72. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, China. Electronic address:

Methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (mA) is a widespread RNA modification that is critical for various physiological and pathological processes. Although this modification was also found in the RNA of several viruses almost 40 years ago, its biological functions during viral infection have been elucidated recently. Here, we investigated the effects of viral and host RNA methylation during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. The results demonstrated that the mA modification was abundant in the PEDV genome and the host methyltransferases METTL3 and METTL14 and demethylase FTO were involved in the regulation of viral replication. The knockdown of the methyltransferases increased PEDV replication while silencing the demethylase decreased PEDV output. Moreover, the proteins of the YTHDF family regulated the PEDV replication by affecting the stability of mA-modified viral RNA. In particular, PEDV infection could trigger an increasement of mA in host RNA and decrease the expression of FTO. The mA modification sites in mRNAs and target genes were also altered during PEDV infection. Additionally, part of the host responses to PEDV infection was controlled by mA modification, which could be reversed by the expression of FTO. Taken together, our results identified the role of mA modification in PEDV replication and interactions with the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297182PMC
September 2020

Next-Generation Porcine Intestinal Organoids: an Apical-Out Organoid Model for Swine Enteric Virus Infection and Immune Response Investigations.

J Virol 2020 10 14;94(21). Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Lanzhou, China

The intestinal organoid culture system is a pathbreaking working model for investigating pathogen-host interactions in the intestines. However, due to the limitations of the first generation of intestinal organoids, basal-out structure and growth in Matrigel, most pathogens can rarely attach to the apical membrane directly and hardly initiate infection. In this study, we first developed a next-generation porcine intestinal organoid culture system, characterized by an apical membrane on the surface, called apical-out. To investigate the infectivity and antiviral immune responses of this apical-out porcine intestinal organoid, a swine enteric virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), was employed to inoculate the culture system. Both reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) analysis demonstrated that TGEV replicated in the apical-out porcine intestinal organoid culture system. Additionally, our results illustrated that TGEV infection significantly upregulated the expression levels of alpha interferon (IFN-α), IFN-λ1, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), ISG58, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in this culture system. Hence, we successfully developed a porcine intestinal apical-out organoid culture system, which will facilitate the investigation of pathogen-host interactions in pig intestines. Intestinal organoids are a newly developed culture system for investigating pathogen-host interactions. Intestinal organoid models have been widely used since their development, because the results obtained from this type of culture model better represent physiological conditions than those from well-established cell lines. The three-dimensional (3D) porcine intestinal organoid model was reported in 2018 and 2019 for the investigation of intestinal pathogens. However, those organoid culture models were basal-out intestinal organoids, which are not suitable for porcine enteric virus research because they invade the intestines via the apical side of epithelial cells on villi. In this study, we developed a porcine apical-out intestinal organoid culture system and verified its infectivity, type I and type III interferon (IFN) antiviral responses, and inflammatory responses following infection by a swine enteric virus. Our results imply that this apical-out porcine intestinal organoid culture system is an ideal model for the investigation of interactions between swine enteric viruses and the intestines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01006-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565635PMC
October 2020

Acute porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection reshapes the intestinal microbiota.

Virology 2020 09 11;548:200-212. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, China. Electronic address:

The intestinal microbiota is crucial to intestinal homeostasis. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is high pathogenic to intestines, causing diarrhea, even death in piglets. To investigate the detailed relationship between PEDV infection and intestinal microbiota, the composition and distribution of intestinal microbiota from pigs were first analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. The results demonstrated that the composition and distribution of microbes in different intestinal segments were quite similar between 1-week-old and 2-week-old piglets but different from 4-week-old (weaned) piglets. Then piglets at different ages were inoculated with PEDV. The results showed that the 1-week-old piglets exhibited the most severe pathogenicity comparing to the other age groups. Further investigations indicated that Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Lactococcus in the intestinal microbiota of piglets were significantly changed by PEDV infection. These results strengthen our understanding of viruses influencing intestinal microbes and remind us of the potential association between PEDV and intestinal microbes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353907PMC
September 2020

Cooking methods affect the intake of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from grass carp.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Oct 14;203:111003. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, PR China.

Consumption of fish is one of the predominant sources of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling and frying) on the levels of PFASs in fish muscle and the intake of PFASs was explored by using grass carp collected from Tangxun Lake, Wuhan, China. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFASs in raw fish fillets, with the concentrations ranging from 59.6 to 136 ng/g ww, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (7.73-51.9 ng/g ww). The concentrations of long-chain PFASs in fish increased after cooking, while those of short-chain PFASs decreased. The amounts of PFASs in the cooked fish fillets decreased except PFOS. Short-chain PFASs, including PFBS and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), were dominant in cooking juice. The highest amounts of PFBS in the juices were observed after boiling and frying, even higher than those in cooked fish fillets, suggesting that the release of short-chain PFASs to the cooking juices could not be neglected. Based on these results, the intake of short-chain PFASs amount through cooked fish fillets slightly decreased, but the intake of PFOS amount increased. However, consumption of cooking juice (fish soup) could increase the exposure risk of PFBS. Comprehensively considering the increase of PFOS and decrease of total PFASs, boiling may be the relatively better method to cook fish. As PFASs are ubiquitous and inevitable in aquatic food, it is thus important to choose appropriate cooking processes and dietary habits for reducing the intake of different PFASs from fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111003DOI Listing
October 2020

Preparation, identification, and functional analysis of monoclonal antibodies against atypical porcine pestivirus NS3 protein.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2020 Sep 15;32(5):695-699. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) had been detected in many countries. However, to date, a commercial detection kit is not available because of a lack of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to APPV. We generated 7 mAbs targeting the NS3 protein of APPV. Isotyping results indicated that all of these mAbs are IgG1 with a kappa light chain. We analyzed the epitopes recognized by mAbs 2B6, 6G11, 8D1, 8D3, and 8F12, which recognized the same linear epitope (GRIKSAYSDE); the 6H3 and 7E10 mAbs recognized 2 different conformational epitopes. Applications of these antibodies were verified by ELISA, western blot, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and flow cytometry. The antibodies were functionally workable for these immunoassays except for 8F12, which could not be used in flow cytometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638720939923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488968PMC
September 2020

Neural-Network-Based Event-Triggered Adaptive Control of Nonaffine Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Dynamic Uncertainties.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 May 3;32(5):2239-2250. Epub 2021 May 3.

This article addresses the adaptive event-triggered neural control problem for nonaffine pure-feedback nonlinear multiagent systems with dynamic disturbance, unmodeled dynamics, and dead-zone input. Radial basis function neural networks are applied to approximate the unknown nonlinear function. A dynamic signal is constructed to deal with the design difficulties in the unmodeled dynamics. Moreover, to reduce the communication burden, we propose an event-triggered strategy with a varying threshold. Based on the Lyapunov function method and adaptive neural control approach, a novel event-triggered control protocol is constructed, which realizes that the outputs of all followers converge to a neighborhood of the leader's output and ensures that all signals are bounded in the closed-loop system. An illustrative simulation example is applied to verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3003950DOI Listing
May 2021

Interleukin (IL)-21 Promotes the Differentiation of IgA-Producing Plasma Cells in Porcine Peyer's Patches via the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway.

Front Immunol 2020 23;11:1303. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Secretory IgA is critical to prevent the invasion of pathogens via mucosa. However, the key factors and the mechanisms of IgA generation in the porcine gut are not well-understood. In this study, a panel of factors, including BAFF, APRIL, CD40L, TGF-β1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and IL-21, were employed to stimulate IgM B lymphocytes from porcine ileum Peyer's patches. The results showed that IL-21 significantly upregulated IgA production of B cells and facilitated cell proliferation and differentiation of antibody-secreting cells. In addition, three transcripts in porcine IgA class switch recombination (CSR), germ-line transcript α, post-switch transcript α, and circle transcript α, were first amplified by (nest-)PCR and sequenced. All these key indicators of IgA CSR were upregulated by IL-21 treatment. Furthermore, we found that IL-21 predominantly activated JAK1, STAT1, and STAT3 proteins and confirmed that the JAK-STAT signaling pathway was involved in porcine IgA CSR. Thus, IL-21 plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of IgA-secreting cells in porcine Peyer's patches through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These findings provide insights into the mucosal vaccine design by regulation of IL-21 for the prevention and control of enteric pathogens in the pig industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324671PMC
April 2021

Adaptive Bipartite Tracking Control of Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Input Quantization.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2020 Jun 30;PP. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

This article studies the bipartite tracking control problem of distributed nonlinear multiagent systems with input quantization, external disturbances, and actuator faults. We use the radial basis function (RBF) neural networks (NNs) to model unknown nonlinearities. Due to the fact that the upper bounds of disturbances and the number of actuator faults are unknown, an intermediate control law is designed based on a backstepping strategy, where a compensation term is introduced to eliminate external disturbances and actuator faults. Meanwhile, a novel smooth function is incorporated into the real distributed controller to reduce the effect of quantization on the virtual controller. The proposed distributed controller not only realizes the bipartite tracking control but also ensures that all signals are bounded in the closed-loop systems and the outputs of all followers converge to a neighborhood of the leader output. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2020.2999090DOI Listing
June 2020

Rapid and efficient detection methods of pathogenic swine enteric coronaviruses.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jul 19;104(14):6091-6100. Epub 2020 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, China.

Porcine enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) cause highly contagious enteric diarrhea in suckling piglets. These COV infections are characterized by clinical signs of vomiting, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and high morbidity and mortality, resulting in significant economic losses and tremendous threats to the pig farming industry worldwide. Because the clinical manifestations of pigs infected by different CoVs are similar, it is difficult to differentiate between the specific pathogens. Effective high-throughput detection methods are powerful tools used in the prevention and control of diseases. The immune system of piglets is not well developed, so serological methods to detect antibodies against these viruses are not suitable for rapid and early detection. This paper reviews various PCR-based methods used for the rapid and efficient detection of these pathogenic CoVs in swine intestines. KEY POINTS: 1. Swine enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) emerged and reemerged in past years. 2. Enteric CoVs infect pigs at all ages with high mortality rate in suckling pigs. 3. Rapid and efficient detection methods are needed and critical for diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10645-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235545PMC
July 2020

Changes in the Th9 cell population and related cytokines in the peripheral blood of infants with recurrent wheezing.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2020 ;45(1):60-68

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

Introduction: T helper type 9 (Th9) cells have been shown to play a key role in initiating allergic reactions and promoting airway inflammation. However, to the best of our knowledge, their role has not been analyzed in infants with recurrent wheezing.

Material And Methods: We performed a case-control study including 34 infants with recurrent wheezing and the same number of healthy infants as controls; all subjects were aged 1- to 3-years-old. The Th9 cell populations in the peripheral blood of these subjects were analyzed using flow cytometry, along with the assessment of Th9- and Th2-related plasma cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, and IL-33, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) using a Luminex 200 immunoassay.

Results: Our results indicatedthat infants with recurrent wheezing had higher percentages of Th9 cells (median, 0.69%; range, 0.46-1.08%) as compared to healthy infants (median, 0.25%, range, 0.13-0.36%; p < 0.05). In addition, infants with recurrent wheezing also exhibited higher plasma levels of cytokines IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-33, and TGF-β1. Furthermore, the percentage of Th9 cells was positively correlated with the levels of IL-4 (r = 0.408, p < 0.05) and IL-9 (r = 0.644, p < 0.05) in the peripheral blood of wheezing infants.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the percentage of Th9 cells is increased in infants with recurrent wheezing; thus, Th9 cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of recurrent wheezing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2020.94683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226556PMC
January 2020

Interleukin-35 sensitizes monocytes from patients with asthma to glucocorticoid therapy by regulating p38 MAPK.

Exp Ther Med 2020 May 9;19(5):3247-3258. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Binhai County People's Hospital, Yancheng, Jiangsu 224500, P.R. China.

The activation of monocytes and macrophages is associated with steroid-resistant (SR) asthma. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, but its regulatory effects on monocytes in patients with SR asthma is not fully understood. Based on clinical response to oral prednisolone, 34 patients with steroid-sensitive (SS) asthma and 20 patients with SR asthma were enrolled in the present study. Serum IL-35 levels were analyzed using the Luminex 200 platform. Monocytes from patients with asthma were pretreated with IL-35 followed by dexamethasone (DEX) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), then corticosteroid sensitivity was evaluated according to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of DEX with respect to LPS-induced IL-6 maximal production in monocytes (DEX-IC). The percentage of maximal inhibition of IL-6 by DEX was presented as E. Phosphorylated-P38 mitogen activated kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were examined by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis, respectively. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding to the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Compared with patients with SS asthma, patients with SR asthma had lower IL-35 expression levels (P<0.05). Correlation analysis results demonstrated that the expression levels of IL-35 showed a weak negative correlation with log DEX-IC (r=-0.351; P<0.01) and a moderate positive correlation with E value (r=0.4501; P<0.01) in all patients with asthma. Moreover, IL-35 enhanced DEX-suppressed IL-6 production and the DEX-induced upregulation of the MKP-1 mRNA expression level in monocytes from both patient groups (P<0.01). In addition, IL-35 inhibited p-p38 MAPK expression in monocytes, and these effects were mediated via an increase in DEX-induced GR binding to GRE. Therefore, IL-35 may be involved in the corticosteroid enhancing effects in monocytes of patients with SR and SS asthma, suggesting potential benefits of IL-35 supplementation in asthmatics with DEX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132241PMC
May 2020

Speciation of thioarsenicals through application of coffee ring effect on gold nanofilm and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Anal Chim Acta 2020 Apr 21;1106:88-95. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, 11200 SW 8th ST, Miami, FL, 33199, USA; Southwest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th ST, Miami, FL, 33199, USA. Electronic address:

Thioarsenicals, such as dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA), have been increasingly discovered as important arsenic metabolites, yet analysis of these unstable arsenic species remains a challenging task. A method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection in combination with the coffee ringeffect for separation is expected to be particularly useful for analysis of thioarsenicals, thanks to minimal sample pretreatment and unique fingerprint Raman identification. Such a method would offer an alternative approach that overcomes limitations of conventional arsenic speciation techniques based on high performance liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometry detection. A novel analytical method based on combination of the coffee ringeffect and SERS was developed for the speciation of thiolated arsenicals. A gold nanofilm (AuNF) was employed not only as a SERS substrate, but also as a platform for the separation of thioarsenicals. Once a drop of the thioarsenicals solution was placed onto the AuNF and evaporation of the solvent and the ring stamp formation onto AuNF began, the SERS signal intensity substantially increased from center to edge regions of the evaporated droplet due to the presence of the coffee ring effect. Through calculating the pKa's of DMMTA and DMDTA and accordingly manipulating the chemical environment, separation of these thioarsenicals was realized as they travelled different distances during the development of the coffee ring. The migration distances of individual species were influenced by a radial outward flow of a solute, the thioarsenicals-AuNF interactions and a thermally induced Marangoni flow. The separation of DMMTA (center) and DMDTA (edge) on the coffee ring, in combination with fingerprint SERS spectra, enables the identification of these thioarsenicals by this AuNF-based coffee ring effect-SERS method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.01.042DOI Listing
April 2020

The CO Absorption in Flue Gas Using Mixed Ionic Liquids.

Molecules 2020 Feb 25;25(5). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China.

Because of the appealing properties, ionic liquids (ILs) are believed to be promising alternatives for the CO absorption in the flue gas. Several ILs, such as [NHemim][BF], [Cmim][OAc], and [NHemim[OAc], have been used to capture CO of the simulated flue gas in this work. The structural changes of the ILs before and after absorption were also investigated by quantum chemical methods, FTIR, and NMR technologies. However, the experimental results and theoretical calculation showed that the flue gas component SO would significantly weaken the CO absorption performance of the ILs. SO was more likely to react with the active sites of the ILs than CO. To improve the absorption capacity, the ionic liquid (IL) mixture [Cmim][OAc]/ [NHemim][BF] were employed for the CO absorption of the flue gas. It is found that the CO absorption capacity would be increased by about 25%, even in the presence of SO. The calculation results suggested that CO could not compete with SO for reacting with the IL during the absorption process. Nevertheless, SO might be first captured by the [NHemim][BF] of the IL mixture, and then the [Cmim][OAc] ionic liquid could absorb more CO without the interference of SO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179232PMC
February 2020

Occurrence and leaching of silver in municipal sewage sludge in China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Feb 10;189:109929. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL, 33199, United States.

Sewage treatment plants effectively remove silver (Ag) from sewage. Sewage sludge can therefore be important Ag sinks, polluting the environment with this element. In this work, we report a nation-wide survey on the Ag content of sewage sludge in China (0.23-19.02 mg kg, average 2.72 mg kg). Furthermore, we identify that sludge disposal represents an important Ag pollution source (84.48 tons in 2016) for the environment by estimating the national and provincial inventories of sludge-borne Ag in China. Also the positive correlations between the per capita gross domestic product (GDP)/provincial GDP and the content/mass loadings of Ag highlighted the impact of human activities on Ag pollution. In different samples, strong complexation of thiosulfate contributed to the highest leaching concentration (95.00-438.15 μg kg) and ratio (1.9-8.8%) of Ag, emphasizing the necessity of a long-term risk assessment for landfill and land application of sludge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109929DOI Listing
February 2020

Development of a multiplex RT-PCR for the detection of major diarrhoeal viruses in pig herds in China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Mar 28;67(2):678-685. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

The major enteric RNA viruses in pigs include porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine rotavirus A (PRV-A), porcine kobuvirus (PKV), porcine sapovirus (PSaV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). For differential diagnosis, a multiplex RT-PCR method was established on the basis of the N genes of TGEV, PEDV and PDCoV, the VP7 gene of PRV-A, and the polyprotein genes of PKV and PSaV. This multiplex RT-PCR could specifically detect TGEV, PEDV, PDCoV, PRV-A, PKV and PSaV without cross-reaction to any other major viruses circulating in Chinese pig farms. The limit of detection of this method was as low as 10 -10  ng cDNA of each virus. A total of 398 swine faecal samples collected from nine provinces of China between October 2015 and April 2017 were analysed by this established multiplex RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that PDCoV (144/398), PSaV (114/398), PEDV (78/398) and PRV-A (70/398) were the main pathogens, but TGEV was not found in the pig herds in China. In addition, dual infections, for example, PDCoV + PSaV, PDCoV + PRV-A, PRA-V + PSaV and PEDV + PDCoV, and triple infections, for example, PDCoV + PRV-A + PSaV and PEDV + PDCoV + PKV, were found among the collected samples. The multiplex RT-PCR provided a valuable tool for the differential diagnosis of swine enteric viruses circulating in Chinese pig farms and will facilitate the prevention and control of swine diarrhoea in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168528PMC
March 2020

Imbalance of Th22/Treg cells causes microinflammation in uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Biosci Rep 2019 10;39(10)

The Eleventh People's Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610000, P.R. China.

Background: Regulatory T (Treg) cells are of critical functionality in immune activation and inflammation in uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). A disruption in balance of Treg cells has potency to elicit infectious disease progression. Here, we examined possible association between ratio imbalance of Th22/Treg cells and microinflammation in uremic patients undergoing HD.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated to allow measurement of the percentage of Th22 cells and Treg cells using flow cytometry. Subsequently, serum levels of related cytokines, interleukin (IL) 22 (IL-22) and IL-10 and inflammatory factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), (TNF-α), IL-6 were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then relationships among dialysis time, microinflammation status (CRP) and dialysis adequacy (immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), urea clearance index (Kt/V), β2-MG, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus) were evaluated. Finally, correlation between microinflammation status and dialysis adequacy was analyzed with Pearson's correlation coefficient.

Results: An increased percentage of Th22 and a decreased percentage of Treg cells were evident in uremic patients undergoing HD. Serum levels of IL-22, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 were increased, while IL-10 serum level was reduced. An imbalance of Th22/Treg cells was associated with microinflammation status in uremic patients undergoing HD. Furthermore, prolongation of the dialysis time, the microinflammation status and dialysis adequacy were changed. Increased dialysis adequacy was observed to correlate with alleviated microinflammation of uremic patients undergoing HD.

Conclusions: Conjointly, an imbalance of Th22/Treg cells may be a potential cause responsible for uremia occurrence, which in turn indicates that uremia could be effectively alleviated by altering the ratio of Th22/Treg cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20191585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822497PMC
October 2019

Arsenic Speciation on Silver Nanofilms by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

Anal Chem 2019 07 14;91(13):8280-8288. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

College of Chemistry , Fuzhou University , Fuzhou , Fujian 350116 , China.

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), as a nondestructive and fast detection technique, is a promising alternative approach for arsenic detection, particularly for in situ applications. SERS-based speciation analysis according to the fingerprint SERS signals of different arsenicals has the potential to provide a superior technique in species preservation over the conventional chromatographic separation methods, albeit with some difficulties due to the similarity in SERS patterns. In this study, we explored a novel SERS method for arsenic speciation by using the separation potential of the coffee ring effect on negatively charged silver nanofilms (AgNFs). Four arsenic species, including arsenite (As), arsenate (As), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured for fingerprint SERS signals in solution and on the films. Significant enhancement of SERS signals on the dried coffee ring stains by the AgNFs were observed except for As, and more importantly, arsenicals migrated varying distances during coffee ring development, promoting better speciation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was then introduced into the droplet to reduce the droplet surface tension, facilitating the migration of solution into the peripheral region. Under the combined interactions of arsenicals with the AgNFs, solvent, and surfactant, enhanced separation between arsenicals was observed as a result of the formation of two concentric rings. Combining the SERS fingerprint signals and physical separation of arsenicals on the surface, arsenic speciation was achieved using the AgNFs substrate-based SERS technology, demonstrating the potential of the coffee ring effect for rapid separation and analysis of small molecules by SERS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00999DOI Listing
July 2019
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