Publications by authors named "Guanghai Qi"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of in ovo feeding of N-acetyl-L-glutamate on early intestinal development and growth performance in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2020 Jul 24;99(7):3583-3593. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Animal Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, P. R. China. Electronic address:

The present study determined the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) on early intestinal development and growth performance of broilers. A total of 702 fertile broiler eggs were randomly divided into 3 treatments: 1) non-punctured control group, 2) saline-injected control group, and 3) NAG solution-injected group (1.5 mg/egg). At 17.5 D of incubation, 300 μL of each solution was injected into each egg of injected groups. Results indicated that the hatchability and healthy chicken rate were not affected by NAG injection (P > 0.05). Chicks from NAG solution-injected group had significantly decreased average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio during 1-14 D than those in the non-punctured control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the non-punctured control group, IOF of NAG significantly increased the density of goblet cells in jejunum at hatch, duodenum at 7 D, and ileum at 14 D; decreased crypt depth in jejunum at hatch; and increased villus height in duodenum and jejunum and villus height:crypt depth ratio in duodenum at 7 D (P < 0.05). The intestinal mRNA expression of Na-dependent neutral amino acid transporter, peptide transporter, and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 did not differ between groups at 7 or 14 D. However, the mRNA expression level of rBAT in jejunum significantly increased in the NAG solution-injected group than in the non-punctured control group at 7 D (P < 0.05). In conclusion, IOF of NAG (1.5 mg/egg) accelerated the early intestinal development by enhancing intestinal immune and absorption function, thereby positively affecting the feed efficiency for the first 2 wk post-hatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597834PMC
July 2020

Supplemental Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 manipulates intestinal structure and microbial composition in broiler chickens.

Sci Rep 2018 10 18;8(1):15358. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Knowledge about the modulation of gut microbiota improves our understanding of the underlying mechanism by which probiotic treatment benefits the chickens. This study examined the effects of Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 on intestinal structure and microbial composition in broilers. Broiler chicks were fed basal diets without or with B. subtilis supplementation (1.0 × 10 spores/kg of diet). Supplemental B. subtilis increased average body weight and average daily gain, as well as elevated villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio of ileum in broilers. Multi-dimension analysis showed a certain degree of separation between the cecal microbiota from treatment and control groups. Increased Firmicutes abundance and reduced Bacteroidetes abundance in cecum were observed responded to B. subtilis addition, which also increased the abundances of Christensenellaceae and Caulobacteraceae, and simultaneously decreased the abundances of potentially harmful bacteria such as Vampirovibrio, Escherichia/Shigella and Parabacteroides. Network analysis signified that B. subtilis addition improved the interaction pattern within cecal microbiota of broilers, however, it exerted little influence on the metabolic pathways of cecal microbiota by comparison of the functional prediction of metagenomes. In conclusion, supplemental B. subtilis DSM 32315 improved growth performance and intestinal structure of broilers, which could be at least partially responsible by the manipulation of cecal microbial composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33762-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194052PMC
October 2018

Nutritional modulation of health, egg quality and environmental pollution of the layers.

Anim Nutr 2017 Jun 20;3(2):91-96. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

World egg production and consumption have been increasing for the past decades. Traditional strategies in poultry nutrition have made vital contributions to this great growth in quantity. However, current global issues should be considered in modern egg production such as growing populations and food security, food safety and quality, limited resources and environmental problems. The development of knowledge of poultry nutrition and modern biotechnology provides novel nutritional approaches to closely fit the requirement of pullets and laying hens, which will consequently decrease the nutrition excretion and maintain the lower cost of feed. Nutrition has also been widely accepted as a strategy to influence health and diseases of laying hens. The maintenance of good health is an important prerequisite for improving productivity and egg quality. In addition, there are many measures and strategies for minimizing the incidence of egg defects and providing a choice of lifestyle to enhance human health. This paper reviews current research progress on developing innovative technologies and strategies to maximize animal health and performance, improve the quality of egg products and minimize pollution caused by poultry production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2017.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5941107PMC
June 2017

Gas stunning with CO affected meat color, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases, glutathione S-transferases, and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in the skeletal muscles of broilers.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2018 9;9:37. Epub 2018 May 9.

1Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture & National, Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 12 Zhongguanchun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081 China.

Background: Meat color and lipid peroxidation are important traits related to meat quality. CO concentration is a critical factor that can affect meat quality in the commercial use of gas stunning (GS). However, the effect and mechanism of CO stunning on meat color and lipid peroxidation during long-term storage remain poorly studied. We aimed to study the effects of GS methods, especially CO concentration, on meat color and meat lipid peroxidation in broilers during long-term storage at 4 °C and to explore the potential mechanism of meat color change via lipid peroxidation and the inner lipid peroxide scavenging system.

Methods: Eighteen broilers were sacrificed after exposure to one of the following gas mixtures for 90 s: 40% CO + 21% O + 39% N (G40%), 79% CO + 21% O (G79%), or no stunning (0% CO, control). Meat color, serum variables, enzyme activities, and the gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (), glutathione S-transferase () and superoxide dismutase () were determined.

Results: The concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T3,  = 0.03) and the ratio of serum free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4,  <  0.01) were decreased, whereas levels of serum cortisol ( <  0.01) were increased in the 40% CO group compared with the control group. Additionally, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) ( <  0.01) and TBARS ( = 0.01) in breast meat and the TBARS in thigh meat ( <  0.01) were increased in the 40% CO group compared with the control group. Serum T3 was negatively correlated with TBARS both in the breast and thigh meat ( = - 0.63,  <  0.01 and  = - 0.47,  = 0.05 respectively). T3/T4 was negatively correlated with TBARS in the breast meat and in the thigh meat ( = - 0.57,  = 0.01; and  = - 0.53,  = 0.03 respectively). Compared with the control group, Lightness (L*) ( 0.03) and L* ( 0.01) were increased, whereas total chromatic aberration (E*) ( 0.05) and E* ( 0.01) were decreased in the breast meat of both the G40% and G79% groups. The values of yellowness (b*) ( 0.01), b* ( 0.01) and E* ( 0.01) in the thigh meat were lower in both the G40% and G79% groups than in the control group. In the breast muscle, the mRNA levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 ( = 0.03), ( = 0.04), and ( = 0.05) were decreased, and the mRNA levels of ( = 0.07), ( = 0.09), and ( = 0.06) were slightly lower in both the G40% and G79% groups compared with the control group. However, among these genes, only the mRNA level of was decreased in the G40% group compared with the control group and the G79% group ( = 0.03) in the thigh muscle.

Conclusions: Compared with the control group, meat color quality in the breast meat was decreased, and the expression of genes in the MAPK/Nrf2/ARE (antioxidant responsive element) antioxidant pathway in breast muscle was partly suppressed by GS of both 40% and 79% CO. However, oxidative stress and meat lipid peroxidation during storage were aggravated by GS with 40% CO compared to GS with 79% CO and no GS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-018-0252-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5941633PMC
May 2018

Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal.

PLoS One 2017 15;12(8):e0182886. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens' diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (P<0.05). A total of 15 proteins, accounting for 75% of egg white proteins with various biological functions of egg whites, were found to be reduced. This finding may relate to the decrease of albumen quality in the CSM100 group. Oviduct magnum morphology and hormone analysis indicated that a reduced level of plasma progesterone caused reduced growth of the tubular gland and epithelial cells in the magnum, further decreasing egg white protein synthesis in the magnum. These findings help demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of a CSM diet that cause adverse effects on albumen quality, while also showing that SBM should not be totally replaced with CSM in a hen diet.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0182886PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557595PMC
October 2017

Genetic Variant in Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Alters Lipid Metabolism in Laying Hens in a Diet-Specific Manner.

Int J Biol Sci 2016 25;12(11):1382-1393. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Genetic variant T329S in flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) impairs trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism in birds. The TMA metabolism that under complex genetic and dietary regulation, closely linked to cardiovascular disease risk. We determined whether the genetic defects in TMA metabolism may change other metabolic traits in birds, determined whether the genetic effects depend on diets, and to identify genes or gene pathways that underlie the metabolic alteration induced by genetic and diet factors. We used hens genotyped as c.984 A>T as well as those with the homozygous normal genotype. For each genotype, hens were provided with either a corn-soybean meal basal diets (SM), which contains lower levels of TMA precursor, or the basal diets supplemented with 21% of rapeseed meal (RM), which contains higher levels of TMA precursor. An integrative analysis of metabolomic and transcriptomic was used to explore the metabolic patterns of genetic variant in hens that were fed the two defined diets. In birds that consumed SM diets, the T329S mutation increased levels of plasma TMA and lipids, mRNA levels, and the expression of genes involved in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. In birds that consumed RM diets, the T329S mutation induced fishy odor syndrome, a repression in LXR pathway and a reciprocal change in lipid metabolism. Variations in TMA and lipid metabolism were linked to the genetic variant in in a diet-specific manner, which suggest FMO3 functions in TMA metabolism and lipid homeostasis. LXR pathway and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism are two possible mechanisms of FMO3 action in response to dietary TMA precursor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.16472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5118784PMC
October 2017

Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Mar 9;30(3):400-409. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens.

Methods: A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM, or DRM individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM, DRM, and LCSM-DRM). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks.

Results: The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM and LCSM-DRM groups (p<0.05) in weeks 41 to 44. The LCSM group did not affect egg production compared to the SBM group in weeks 41 to 44 (p>0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p<0.05). Compared to the SBM group, the LCSM and LCSM-DRM groups showed decreased albumen weight (p<0.05), CP weight in the albumen (p<0.05) and CP weight in the whole egg (p<0.05) at 44 weeks. Plasma total protein (TP) levels were lower in the LCSM group than in the SBM group at 44 weeks (p<0.05); however, TP, albumin, and globulin levels were not significantly different between the LCSM group and the SBM group or between the DRM group and the SBM group (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Together, our results suggest that the LCSM or DRM diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337920PMC
March 2017

Effect of dietary protein sources and storage temperatures on egg internal quality of stored shell eggs.

Anim Nutr 2015 Dec 23;1(4):299-304. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

College of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality (Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk hardness and yolk springiness) of eggs when stored at either 4 or 28°C for 28 d. A total of 288 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to 6 treatment groups (4 replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage temperatures (4 and 28°C) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 216 eggs was collected for egg internal quality determination. The results showed as follows: 1) lower egg quality was observed in the DRM group compared with the other groups when stored at 4 and 28°C for 28 d ( < 0.05), while there was no difference in egg internal quality among the other groups. 2) The CSP diet resulted in higher yolk hardness compared with the other diets when eggs were stored at 4°C for 28 d ( < 0.05). Lower Haugh unit was observed in the DRM and SBM-DRM groups compared with the other groups when eggs were stored for 28 d at 4°C ( < 0.05). 3) Yolk breakage occurred in the DRM group and eggs could not be analyzed for egg internal quality when stored at 28°C for 28 d. The overall results indicated that CSP or DRM as the sole dietary protein source for laying hens may adversely affect the internal quality of stored eggs as compared with the SBM diet, and half replacement of CSP combined with SBM may maintain similar egg quality to SBM diet alone for eggs stored under refrigerated conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2015.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5941001PMC
December 2015

Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets.

Anim Nutr 2015 Dec 30;1(4):293-298. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age) were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T), thyroxine (T), growth hormone (GH), glucagon (GU) and adrenaline (AD) in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T, GH, GU and AD ( < 0.01) and significantly up-regulated the gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in muscle and liver tissues ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the control group and tiamulin group in T, T, GH, GU or AD ( > 0.05). Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2015.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940994PMC
December 2015

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids on lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in laying hens.

Arch Anim Nutr 2011 Oct;65(5):354-65

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, P.R. China.

To examine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in laying hens, Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384, 52 weeks old) were randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments. Each treatment had six replicates of 16 hens each. All birds were assigned to a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing a mixture of CLA at 0%, 1%, 2% or 4% for six weeks. With increasing dietary CLA, egg weight and feed intake decreased, and yolk colour was darkened. Feed efficiency was improved at 1% and 2% dietary CLA. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly reduced by CLA in a dose dependent manner. A linear decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed after CLA supplementation. With increasing dietary CLA, the deposition of two major isomers of CLA (c9, t11; t10, c12) in yolk lipids increased linearly, the proportion of saturated fatty acids increased and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was highest at 1% CLA. Compared to the control, CLA supplementation significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, inhibited hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion production, and decreased the malonaldehyde concentrations in both serum and liver. The results demonstrated that dietary CLA meliorated serum lipid profiles and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of laying hens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1745039x.2011.617546DOI Listing
October 2011

Assessment of melamine contamination in crop, soil and water in China and risks of melamine accumulation in animal tissues and products.

Environ Int 2010 Jul 11;36(5):446-52. Epub 2010 Apr 11.

Feed Safety Reference Laboratory of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The scandal of melamine-adulterated infant formula in China in September 2008 demanded the need to assess the extent of melamine contamination in the environment and food products and possible risks of consuming melamine-contaminated diets. In this work, our extensive work tested water, soil and crop samples from 21 provinces in China. Soils nearby and waste waters from melamine-manufacturing factories were examined, and the highest melamine concentrations in waste water and soil samples were 226.766 and 41.136 mg/kg, respectively. Six of 94 irrigation water samples had melamine at a concentration of 21-198 microg/L. Only 1 sample collected from 124 farmlands farther than 150 km from melamine factories was detected for melamine at a content of 176 microg/L. Only 3 out of 557 crop samples contaminated more than 1mg/kg melamine, with the highest level of 2.05 mg/kg in a wheat sample. When basal diets contained 2mg/kg melamine were fed to various animals, deposition of melamine in animal tissues and products was all lower than 122 microg/kg. The melamine deposition was much higher (e.g., 4483 microg/kg in the kidney of chicken) when diets contained 100 mg/kg melamine but was found to be completely depleted after 96 h for all animals after switching to the basal diets. Our work may be valuable to regulate melamine production and monitor the safety of food and animal products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2010.03.006DOI Listing
July 2010