Publications by authors named "Guang Zeng"

236 Publications

Upregulated bone morphogenetic protein 5 enhances proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process in benign prostatic hyperplasia via BMP/Smad signaling pathway.

Prostate 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common illnesses in aging men. Recent studies found that bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) is upregulated in BPH tissues, however, the role of BMP5 in the development of BPH has not been examined. The current study aims to elucidate the potential roles of BMP5 and related signaling pathways in BPH.

Methods: Human prostate cell lines (BPH-1, WPMY-1) and human/rat hyperplastic prostate tissues were utilized. Western blot, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescent staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. BMP5-silenced and -overexpressed cell models were generated and then cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and proliferation were determined. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was also quantitated. And rescue experiments by BMP/Smad signaling pathway agonist or antagonist were accomplished. Moreover, BPH-related tissue microarray analysis was performed and associations between clinical parameters and expression of BMP5 were analyzed.

Results: Our study demonstrated that BMP5 was upregulated in human and rat hyperplastic tissues and localized both in the epithelial and stromal compartments of the prostate tissues. E-cadherin was downregulated in hyperplastic tissues, while N-cadherin and vimentin were upregulated. Overexpression of BMP5 enhanced cell proliferation and the EMT process via phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, while knockdown of BMP5 induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and blocked the EMT process. Moreover, a BMP/Smad signaling pathway agonist and antagonist reversed the effects of BMP5 silencing and overexpression, respectively. In addition, BMP5 expression positively correlated with prostate volume and total prostate-specific antigen.

Conclusion: Our novel data suggest that BMP5 modulated cell proliferation and the EMT process through the BMP/Smad signaling pathway which could contribute to the development of BPH. However, further studies are required to determine the exact mechanism. Our study also indicated that BMP/Smad signaling may be rediscovered as a promising new therapeutic target for the treatment of BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24241DOI Listing
September 2021

High optoelectronic performance of a local-back-gate ReS/ReSe heterojunction phototransistor with hafnium oxide dielectric.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 2;13(34):14435-14441. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Shanghai Institute of Intelligent Electronics & Systems, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

A high optoelectronic performance ReS/ReSe van der Waals (vdW) heterojunction phototransistor utilizing thin hafnium oxide (HfO) as a local-back-gate dielectric layer was prepared and studied. The heterojunction-based phototransistor exhibits a superior electrical performance with a large rectification ratio of ∼10. Furthermore, unlike diode-like heterojunction devices, the innovative introduction of a local-back-gate in this phototransistor provides an outstanding gate-tunable capability with an ultra-low off-state current of 433 fA and a high on/off current ratio of over 10. And under optical excitation of a wide spectrum from 400 to 633 nm, an excellent photodetection responsivity at the 10 A W level and the maximum normalized detectivity of 1.8 × 10 Jones @ 633 nm have been demonstrated. Such high performances are attributed to the band alignment of the type-II heterojunction and the suppression of dark current by the local-back-gate. This work provides a promising reference for two-dimensional (2D) Re-based heterojunction optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02728jDOI Listing
September 2021

Problematic Internet Usage and Self-Esteem in Chinese Undergraduate Students: The Mediation Effects of Individual Affect and Relationship Satisfaction.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 29;18(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Sports Training, Xi'an Physical Education University, Xi'an 710068, China.

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the mediating effects of individual affect and relationship satisfaction on the relationship between self-esteem and Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), relationship satisfaction was assessed using a positive and negative semantic dimension scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and PIU was measured using the Problematic Internet Use scale with a sample of 507 Chinese university students (Mage = 20.41 years, SD = 2.49). The relationships between the variables were tested using structural equation modelling with a multiple mediation model. The results revealed that negative affect and the negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction mediated the relationship between self-esteem and PIU. The implications of the results and the study's theoretical contributions are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296993PMC
June 2021

Regional Features of Long-Term Exposure to PM Air Quality over Asia under SSP Scenarios Based on CMIP6 Models.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 25;18(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington 6022, New Zealand.

This study investigates changes in fine particulate matter (PM) concentration and air-quality index (AQI) in Asia using nine different Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project 6 (CMIP6) climate model ensembles from historical and future scenarios under shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The results indicated that the estimated present-day PM concentrations were comparable to satellite-derived data. Overall, the PM concentrations of the analyzed regions exceeded the WHO air-quality guidelines, particularly in East Asia and South Asia. In future SSP scenarios that consider the implementation of significant air-quality controls (SSP1-2.6, SSP5-8.5) and medium air-quality controls (SSP2-4.5), the annual PM levels were predicted to substantially reduce (by 46% to around 66% of the present-day levels) in East Asia, resulting in a significant improvement in the AQI values in the mid-future. Conversely, weak air pollution controls considered in the SSP3-7.0 scenario resulted in poor AQI values in China and India. Moreover, a predicted increase in the percentage of aged populations (>65 years) in these regions, coupled with high AQI values, may increase the risk of premature deaths in the future. This study also examined the regional impact of PM mitigations on downward shortwave energy and surface air temperature. Our results revealed that, although significant air pollution controls can reduce long-term exposure to PM, it may also contribute to the warming of near- and mid-future climates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297095PMC
June 2021

NELL2 modulates cell proliferation and apoptosis via ERK pathway in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Jul;135(13):1591-1608

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a quite common illness but its etiology and mechanism remain unclear. Neural epidermal growth factor-like like 2 (NELL2) plays multifunctional roles in neural cell growth and is strongly linked to the urinary tract disease. Current study aims to determine the expression, functional activities and underlying mechanism of NELL2 in BPH. Human prostate cell lines and tissues from normal human and BPH patients were utilized. Immunohistochemical staining, immunofluorescent staining, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting were performed. We further generated cell models with NELL2 silenced or overexpressed. Subsequently, proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis of prostate cells were determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis process were also analyzed. Our study revealed that NELL2 was up-regulated in BPH samples and localized in the stroma and the epithelium compartments of human prostate tissues. NELL2 deficiency induced a mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation via phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. Additionally, suppression of ERK1/2 with U0126 incubation could significantly reverse NELL2 deficiency triggered cell apoptosis. Consistently, overexpression of NELL2 promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis. However, NELL2 interference was observed no effect on EMT and fibrosis process. Our novel data demonstrated that up-regulation of NELL2 in the enlarged prostate could contribute to the development of BPH through enhancing cell proliferation and inhibited a mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis via the ERK pathway. The NELL2-ERK system might represent an important target to facilitate the development of future therapeutic approaches in BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20210476DOI Listing
July 2021

Smoothened inhibition leads to decreased cell proliferation and suppressed tissue fibrosis in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Cell Death Discov 2021 May 18;7(1):115. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in aging males. It has been proven that the Hedgehog (HH) is implied as an effective and fundamental regulatory growth factor signal for organogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration. Smoothened (SMO), as the major control point of HH signals, activates aberrantly in most human solid tumors. However, the specific function of SMO and its downstream glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) family in BPH has not been well understood. Here, we first revealed that the SMO cascade was upregulated in BPH tissues and was localized in both the stromal and the epithelium compartments of human prostate tissues. Cyclopamine, as a specific SMO inhibitor, was incubated with BPH-1 and WPMY-1, and intraperitoneally injected into a BPH rat model established by castration with testosterone supplementation. SMO inhibition could induce cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and a reduction of tissue fibrosis markers, both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, a tissue microarray, containing 104 BPH specimens, was constructed to analyze the correlations between the expression of SMO cascade and clinical parameters. The GLI2 was correlated positively with nocturia and negatively with fPSA. The GLI3 was in a positive relationship with International Prostate Symptom Score and nocturia. In conclusion, our study suggested that SMO cascade could play important roles in the development of BPH and it might be rediscovered as a promising therapeutic target for BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00501-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131753PMC
May 2021

The Immune-Related Gene HCST as a Novel Biomarker for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:630706. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of kidney tumor worldwide. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases showed that the immune-related gene (IRG) hematopoietic cell signal transducer (HCST) could provide guidance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of ccRCC. The RNA-seq data of ccRCC tissues were extracted from two databases: TCGA (https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/ccg/research/structural-genomics/tcga) and GEO (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). Corresponding clinical information was downloaded from TCGA. Immune-related gene data were extracted from the IMMPORT website (https://www.immport.org/). Differential analysis with R software (https://www.r-project.org/) was used to obtain a prognosis model of ccRCC IRGs. The differences were combined with the clinical data to assess the usefulness of the HCST as a prognostic biomarker. Based on data obtained from the Oncomine (https://www.oncomine.org/), Human Protein Atlas (https://www.proteinatlas.org/), and PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) databases, the expression levels of the HCST in ccRCC, clinical-pathological indicators of relevance, and influence on prognosis were analyzed. Regulation of the HCST gene in ccRCC was assessed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). In TCGA/GEO databases, the high HCST expression in tumor tissues was significantly correlated to the TMN stage, tumor grade, invasion depth, and lymphatic metastasis ( < 0.05). The overall survival (OS) of patients with high HCST gene expression was significantly lower than that of patients with low HCST gene expression ( < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that the HCST expression level [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.630, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.042-2.552], tumor cell grade (HR = 1.829, 95% CI = 1.115-3.001), and distant metastasis (HR = 2.634, 95%, CI = 1.562-4.442) were independent risk factors affecting the OS of ccRCC patients (all, < 0.05). The GSEA study showed that there was significant enrichment in cell adhesion, tumorigenesis, and immune and inflammatory responses in HCST high expression samples. Hematopoietic cell signal transducer expression was closely associated with the levels of infiltrating immune cells around ccRCC tissues, especially dendritic cells (DCs). In conclusion, the present study suggested that the HCST was interrelated to the clinicopathology and poor prognosis of ccRCC. High HCST expression was also closely correlated with the levels of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, especially DCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.630706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103545PMC
April 2021

Promoting the Performance of Li-CO Batteries via Constructing Three-Dimensional Interconnected K Doped MnO Nanowires Networks.

Front Chem 2021 15;9:670612. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, China.

Nowadays, Li-CO batteries have attracted enormous interests due to their high energy density for integrated energy storage and conversion devices, superiorities of capturing and converting CO. Nevertheless, the actual application of Li-CO batteries is hindered attributed to excessive overpotential and poor lifespan. In the past decades, catalysts have been employed in the Li-CO batteries and been demonstrated to reduce the decomposition potential of the as-formed LiCO during charge process with high efficiency. However, as a representative of promising catalysts, the high costs of noble metals limit the further development, which gives rise to the exploration of catalysts with high efficiency and low cost. In this work, we prepared a K doped MnO nanowires networks with three-dimensional interconnections (3D KMO NWs) catalyst through a simple hydrothermal method. The interconnected 3D nanowires network catalysts could accelerate the Li ions diffusion, CO transfer and the decomposition of discharge products LiCO. It is found that high content of K doping can promote the diffusion of ions, electrons and CO in the MnO air cathode, and promote the octahedral effect of MnO, stabilize the structure of MnO hosts, and improve the catalytic activity of CO. Therefore, it shows a high total discharge capacity of 9,043 mAh g, a low overpotential of 1.25 V, and a longer cycle performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.670612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082424PMC
April 2021

In Situ Bismuth Nanosheet Assembly for Highly Selective Electrocatalytic CO Reduction to Formate.

Chem Asian J 2021 Jun 10;16(12):1539-1544. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, 350002, P. R. China.

The reduction of carbon dioxide (CO ) into value-added fuels using an electrochemical method has been regarded as a compelling sustainable energy conversion technology. However, high-performance electrocatalysts for CO reduction reaction (CO RR) with high formate selectivity and good stability need to be improved. Earth-abundant Bi has been demonstrated to be active for CO RR to formate. Herein, we fabricated an extremely active and selective bismuth nanosheet (Bi-NSs) assembly via an in situ electrochemical transformation of (BiO) CO nanostructures. The as-prepared material exhibits high activity and selectivity for CO RR to formate, with nearly 94% faradaic efficiency at -1.03 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode (vs. RHE)) and stable selectivity (>90%) in a large potential window ranging from -0.83 to -1.18 V (vs. RHE) and excellent durability during 12 h continuous electrolysis. In addition, the Bi-NSs based CO RR/methanol oxidation reaction (CO RR/MOR) electrolytic system for overall CO splitting was constructed, evidencing the feasibility of its practical implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100305DOI Listing
June 2021

Hydrangea-like Superstructured Micro/Nanoreactor of Topotactically Converted Ultrathin Bismuth Nanosheets for Highly Active CO Electroreduction to Formate.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 20;13(17):20589-20597. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, China.

An electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CORR) is an appealing route to obtain the value-added feedstocks and alleviate the energy crisis. However, how to achieve high-performance electrocatalysts for CO reduction to formate is challenging owing to the poor intrinsic activity, insufficient conductivity, and low surface density of active sites. Herein, we fabricated an extremely active and selective hydrangea-like superstructured micro/nanoreactor of ultrathin bismuth nanosheets through an electrochemical topotactic transformation of hierarchical bismuth oxide formate (BiOCOOH). The resulted bismuth nanosheet superstructure is in the form of three-dimensional intercrossed networks of ultrathin nanosheets, forming an ordered open porous structure through self-assembly, which can be used as a micro/nanoreactor to enable a large electrochemically active surface area as well as high atomic utilization. Such a distinctive nanostructure endows the material with high electrocatalytic performances for CO reduction to formate with near-unity Faradaic selectivity (>95%) in a wide potential window from -0.78 to -1.18 V. Furthermore, this micro/nanoreactor can give the high current densities over 300 mA cm at low applied potentials without compromising selectivity in a flow cell reactor. Density functional theory (DFT) and attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy ( ATR-IR) were further conducted to interpret the CORR mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03871DOI Listing
May 2021

M2a macrophage can rescue proliferation and gene expression of benign prostate hyperplasia epithelial and stroma cells from insulin-like growth factor 1 knockdown.

Prostate 2021 Jun 16;81(9):530-542. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in elderly men and is often accompanied by chronic inflammation. Macrophages (several subtypes) are the main inflammatory cells that infiltrate the hyperplastic prostate and are found to secrete cytokines and growth factors. The current study aims to explore the effect of M2a macrophages on the development of BPH via insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

Methods: Human prostate tissues, prostate, and monocyte cell lines (WPMY-1, BPH-1, and THP-1) were used. THP-1 was polarized into several subtypes with cytokines. The expression and localization of IGF-1 and M2 macrophages were determined via immunofluorescent staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to investigate the effects of different subtypes of macrophages on prostate cells. IGF-1 in WPMY-1 and BPH-1 cells was silenced and cocultured with or without M2a macrophages. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and fibrosis processes were examined.

Results: The polarized subtypes of macrophages were verified by amplifying their specific markers. M2a macrophages enhanced prostate cell proliferation more significantly and CD206 was more expressed in hyperplastic prostate. IGF-1 was localized in both epithelial and stromal components of prostate and upregulated in BPH tissues. M2a macrophages expressed more IGF-1 than other subtypes. Knockdown of IGF-1 in WPMY-1 and BPH-1 cells attenuated cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, retarded cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and suppressed the EMT process in BPH-1 cells as well as the fibrotic process in WPMY-1 cells, which was reversible when cocultured with M2a macrophages.

Conclusion: These data demonstrated that knockdown of IGF-1 expression in cultured BPH epithelial and stromal cells reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis. These effects are reversed by coculture with M2a macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24131DOI Listing
June 2021

Highly efficient Co single-atom catalyst for epoxidation of plant oils.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):131103

CAS Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Applied Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

Epoxidation of bio-derived plant oils is a sustainable route to manufacturing plasticizers, additives in lubricants, and other chemicals. The traditional synthetic approaches suffer from the employment of corrosive mineral acid or expensive peroxides (e.g., HO). In this work, we report the epoxidation of plant oils using O as the terminal oxidant catalyzed by Co-N-C/SiO single-atom catalyst. The single-atom dispersion of cobalt is confirmed by high-angle annular dark field-STEM and x-ray absorption fine structure techniques. In the epoxidation of methyl oleate under mild reaction conditions (35 °C, 0.1 MPa O), 99% selectivity to the desired product is achieved at full conversion. Even for crude oils, Co-N-C/SiO is also effective and good yields of the corresponding epoxides are obtained. In addition, the catalyst is easily recovered and can be reused five times without obvious decay in catalytic activity/selectivity. A superoxide radical involved reaction mechanism is proposed on the basis of kinetic study and EPR experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0046166DOI Listing
April 2021

Nitrogen-doped porous carbon-encapsulated copper composite for efficient reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 10;594:254-264. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 568 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

Developing low-cost non-precious metals as efficient catalysts for the reduction of toxic 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to useful 4-aminophenol (4-AP) have received increasing attention in recent years. Herein, a novel and efficient Cu-based catalyst Cu/[email protected] (carbon doped with nitrogen) was prepared via a facile method from pyrolysis of bi-ligand MOFs material Cu(BDC)(BPY) (BDC = p-Phthalic acid, BPY = 4,4'-bipyridyl) in Ar atmosphere. Characterization results revealed that N doping in carbon matrix favors the development of mesoporous structure, the formation of more defect sites in carbon matrix, better dispersion of Cu/CuO nano particles, and maintenance of Cu species in metallic Cu state (the active site), all of which contribute to a superior catalytic activity for 4-NP reduction with a pseudo-first-order rate constant as high as 0.126 s (the molar ratio of NaBH to 4-NP is 400), nearly 11 times higher than its counterpart Cu/[email protected] without N doping (0.011 s). The activation energy for 4-NP reduction to 4-AP catalyzed by Cu/[email protected] was determined as 55.6 kJ mol (the molar ratio of NaBH to 4-NP is 100). In addition, Cu/[email protected] showed excellent reusability in successive 6 cycles. The facile synthesis and superior catalytic activity make Cu/[email protected] a promising catalyst in industrial applications for many other similar reaction systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Orius similis (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): A Promising Candidate Predator of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

J Econ Entomol 2021 04;114(2):582-589

The Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China.

The bug Orius similis Zheng is a native generalist predator of insect pests in southern China. The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a notorious defoliator that is now an economically important insect pest throughout China. To investigate the ability of O. similis to control FAW, we evaluated the predatory capacity, behavior, and functional response of O. similis with respect to FAW and their olfactory response. Both females and males successfully preyed on FAW eggs and first-instar larvae but not on second-instar or older larvae. Adult O. similis only attacked and killed one egg or one larva at a time before sucking the prey, and similar predatory behavior was also observed with regard to FAW egg masses. Both female and male O. similis exhibited type II functional response when preying on FAW eggs and first-instar larvae. Maximum estimated prey consumed per day was 23.7 eggs and 26.2 larvae for adult females and 22.5 eggs and 19.6 larvae for adult males. Moreover, in a Y-tube olfactometer experiment, both female and male O. similis exhibited a significant preference for maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings damaged by FAW over clean air, healthy seedlings, FAW feces, and FAW, suggesting that seedlings damaged by FAW may releases specific volatiles attracting the predator. Collectively, the results of the study suggest that O. similis is a promising candidate for the biological control of FAW eggs and first-instar larvae, particularly given its attraction to FAW-damaged leaves, which may enable it to locate the target prey rapidly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa318DOI Listing
April 2021

Dual-gate MoS2 phototransistor with atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 as top-gate dielectric for ultrahigh photoresponsivity.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China,, Shanghai, CHINA.

An asymmetric dual-gate (DG) MoS2 field effective transistor (FET) with ultrahigh electrical performance and optical responsivity using atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 as top-gate (TG) dielectric was fabricated and investigated. The effective DG modulation of MoS2 FET exhibited an outstanding electrical performance with a high on/off current ratio of 6×108. Furthermore, a large threshold voltage modulation could be obtained from -20.5 to -39.3 V as a function of the TG voltage in a DG MoS2 phototransistor. Meanwhile, the optical properties were systematically explored under a series of gate biases and illuminated optical power under the 550 nm laser illumination. And the ultrahigh photoresponsivity of 2.04×105 AW-1 has been demonstrated with the structure of DG MoS2 phototransistor because the electric field formed by DG can separate photogenerated electrons and holes efficiently. So, the DG design for the 2D materials with ultrahigh photoresponsivity gives promising opportunity for the application of optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe2ccDOI Listing
February 2021

Changes in the expression and functional activities of Myosin II isoforms in human hyperplastic prostate.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 01;135(1):167-183

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease among aging males with the etiology remaining unclear. We recently found myosin II was abundantly expressed in rat and cultured human prostate cells with permissive roles in the dynamic and static components. The present study aimed to explore the expression and functional activities of myosin II isoforms including smooth muscle (SM) myosin II (SMM II) and non-muscle myosin II (NMM II) in the hyperplastic prostate. Human prostate cell lines and tissues from normal human and BPH patients were used. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome, immunohistochemical staining, in vitro organ bath, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western-blotting were performed. We further created cell models with NMM II isoforms silenced and proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis of prostate cells were determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry. Hyperplastic prostate SM expressed more SM1 and LC17b isoforms compared with their alternatively spliced counterparts, favoring a slower more tonic-type contraction and greater force generation. For BPH group, blebbistatin (BLEB, a selective myosin II inhibitor), exhibited a stronger effect on relaxing phenylephrine (PE) pre-contracted prostate strips and inhibiting PE-induced contraction. Additionally, NMMHC-A and NMMHC-B were up-regulated in hyperplastic prostate with no change in NMMHC-C. Knockdown of NMMHC-A or NMMHC-B inhibited prostate cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, with no changes in cell cycle. Our novel data demonstrate that expression and functional activities of myosin II isoforms are altered in human hyperplastic prostate, suggesting a new pathological mechanism for BPH. Thus, the myosin II system may provide potential new therapeutic targets for BPH/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20201283DOI Listing
January 2021

Elevated α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase as an independent prognostic factor for mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 02 17;8(1):644-651. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Donghu Road 169, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Aims: Many studies have explored the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), especially patients with cardiovascular disease. However, associated mechanisms and markers remain to be further investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH) levels on disease progression and prognosis of patients with COVID-19.

Methods And Results: One thousand seven hundred and fifty-one patients from the Leishenshan hospital in Wuhan were divided into elevated and normal groups by α-HBDH level, and the clinical information between the two groups was compared retrospectively. The main outcome evaluation criteria included in-hospital death and disease severity. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses, survival curves, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curve models were performed to explore the relationship between elevated α-HBDH and the two outcomes. Besides, curve fitting analyses were conducted to analyse the relationship between computed tomography score and survival. Among 1751 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 15 patients (0.87%) died. The mean (SD) age of patients was 58 years in normal α-HBDH group and 66 years in elevated α-HBDH group (P < 0.001). The mortality during hospitalization was 0.26% (4 of 1559) for patients with normal α-HBDH levels and 5.73% (11 of 192) for those with elevated α-HBDH levels (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis confirmed an association between elevated α-HBDH levels and higher risk of in-hospital mortality [hazard ratio: 4.411, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.127-17.260; P = 0.033]. Multivariate logistic regression for disease severity and α-HBDH levels showed significant difference between both groups (odds ratio = 3.759; 95% CI, 1.895-7.455; P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves also illustrated the survival difference between normal and elevated α-HBDH patients (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study found that serum α-HBDH is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality and disease severity among COVID-19 patients. α-HBDH assessment may aid clinicians in identifying high-risk individuals among COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835619PMC
February 2021

Bilirubin Levels as Potential Indicators of Disease Severity in Coronavirus Disease Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 9;7:598870. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a large number of deaths. Some patients with severe or critical COVID-19 have been observed to have elevated bilirubin levels. Studies on the association of bilirubin level and mortality in patients with COVID-19 are limited. This study aimed to examine the role of bilirubin levels in COVID-19 severity and mortality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China. Cox regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the risks for mortality and disease severity, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analyses with log-rank tests were performed to assess the association between bilirubin level and survival. In total, 1,788 patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. 5.8% (4/69) of patients in the elevated serum total bilirubin (STB) group died, compared to 0.6% (11/1,719) of patients in the non-elevated STB group. The median alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the elevated STB group were 29 U/L [interquartile range (IQR): 16-45 U/L] and 22 U/L (IQR: 13-37 U /L), respectively, which were significantly higher than the median ALT (median: 23, IQR: 15-37) and AST (median: 20, IQR: 16-26) activities in the non-elevated STB group (both < 0.05). Patients with an elevated STB level showed increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 9.45, = 0.002], elevated conjugated bilirubin (CB) levels (HR: 4.38, = 0.03), and an elevated ratio of CB to unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, CB/UCB) (HR: 2.49, = 0.01). CB/UCB was positively correlated with disease severity (odds ratio: 2.21, = 0.01). COVID-19 patients with elevated STB and CB levels had a higher mortality, and CB/UCB was predictive of disease severity and mortality. Thus, it is necessary to pay special attention to COVID-19 patients with elevated bilirubin levels in clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.598870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680876PMC
November 2020

Printable Hole Transport Layer for 1.0 cm Organic Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 5;12(46):52028-52037. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Institute of Polymers and Energy Chemistry (IPEC), Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China.

Currently, most of the hole transport layers (HTLs) of organic solar cells (OSCs) are unable to meet the requirements of printing preparation, which imposes restrictions on the commercial process of the OSCs severely. Here, we report a printable HTL, PCPDTKH-TT. The PM6:Y6:PCBM device with PCPDTKH-TT as an HTL exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.3% (with an area of 0.04 cm). More importantly, the PCE of the device is up to 10.2%, with an area of 1.0 cm prepared by the wire-bar coating PCPDTKH-TT HTL, which is in favor of the printing fabrication of the OSCs. In view of the superiorities of the large-area printing and the impressive PCE, we believe that PCPDTKH-TT should be a potential HTL for industrial production of OSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c16124DOI Listing
November 2020

Alterations in the phosphodiesterase type 5 pathway and oxidative stress correlate with erectile function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 12 29;24(24):14280-14292. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

To explore how alterations in the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) signalling pathway and oxidative stress correlate with changes in the expression of relaxation and contraction molecules and erectile dysfunction (ED) in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study, SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used. Erectile function was determined by apomorphine test and electrical stimulation (ES) of cavernous nerve. Masson's trichrome staining and confocal microscopy were performed. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), PDE5, phosphorylated-PDE5 and α1-adrenergic receptor (α1AR) were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting while oxidative stress in CC was determined by colorimetric analysis. SHR exhibited obvious ED. CC of SHR showed less SM but more collagen fibres. The expression of NOS isoforms in SHR was significantly decreased while all α1AR isoforms were increased. In addition, PDE5 and phosphorylated-PDE5 were down-regulated and its activity attenuated in the hypertensive rats. Meanwhile, the SHR group suffered oxidative stress, which may be modulated by endoplasmic reticulum stress and NADPH oxidase up-regulation. Dysregulation of NOS and α1AR, histological changes and oxidative stress in CC may be associated with the pathophysiology of hypertension-induced ED. In addition, PDE5 down-regulation may lead to the decreased efficacy of PDE5 inhibitors in some hypertensive ED patients and treatment of oxidative stress could be used as a new therapeutic target for this type of ED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754015PMC
December 2020

Changes in the expression and function of the PDE5 pathway in the obstructed urinary bladder.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 11 3;24(22):13181-13195. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Our study aims to explore changes in bladder contractility and the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) signalling pathway in response to partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). A surgically induced male rat PBOO model and human obstructed bladder tissues were used. Histological changes were examined by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Bladder strip contractility was measured via organ bath. The expressions of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, PDE5, muscarinic cholinergic receptor (CHRM) isoforms and PDE4 isoforms in bladder were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The immunolocalization of the PDE5 protein and its functional activity were also determined. PBOO bladder tissue exhibited significant SM hypertrophy and elevated responsiveness to KCl depolarization and the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol. NOS isoforms, PDE5, CHRM2, CHRM3 and PDE4A were up-regulated in obstructed bladder tissue, whereas no change in PDE4B and PDE4D isoform expression was observed. With regard to PDE5, it was expressed in the SM bundles of bladder. Interestingly, obstructed bladder exhibited less relaxation responsiveness to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but an exaggerated PDE5 inhibition effect. The up-regulation of PDE5 could contribute to the lack of effect on Q for benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptom (BPH/LUTS) patients treated with PDE5 inhibitors. Moreover, PDE5 (with presence of NO) and PDE4 may serve as new therapeutic targets for bladder diseases such as BPH-induced LUTS and overactive bladder (OAB).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701571PMC
November 2020

Association Between Diabetes and COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study With a Large Sample of 1,880 Cases in Leishenshan Hospital, Wuhan.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 14;11:478. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

This study aimed to investigate the clinical courses and outcomes of diabetes mellitus patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan. This study enrolled 1,880 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Leishenshan Hospital. We collected and analyzed their data, including demographic data, history of comorbidity, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, chest computed tomography (CT) images, treatment options, and survival. The percentages of patients with diabetes among the severe and critical COVID-19 cases were higher than those among the mild or general cases (89.2%, 10.8 vs. 0%, = 0.001). However, patients with and without diabetes showed no difference in the follow-up period ( = 0.993). The mortality rate in patients with or without diabetes was 2.9% ( = 4) and 1.1% ( = 9), respectively ( = 0.114). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses and the Kaplan-Meier curves did not show any statistically significant differences between patients with and without diabetes (all > 0.05). Our study results suggested that diabetes had no effect on the prognosis of COVID-19 patients but had a negative association with their clinical courses. These results may be useful for clinicians in the management of diabetic patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371935PMC
August 2020

Low prevalence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in cancer patients with COVID-19.

Int J Cancer 2020 12 27;147(11):3267-3269. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300852PMC
December 2020

Recurrent positive SARS-CoV-2: Immune certificate may not be valid.

J Med Virol 2020 11 9;92(11):2384-2386. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283767PMC
November 2020

Microstructural Study of a Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy Hot Compressed at a High Strain Rate.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 20;13(10). Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

Understanding the correlation of plasticity with deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors, in magnesium (Mg) alloys deformed under high-strain-rate conditions, is increasingly important for wrought Mg processing. In the present study, a ZK30 (Mg-2.61%Zn-0.66%Zr by weight percent (wt.%)) alloy in the as-forged state was hot compressed to various strain levels at a temperature of 350 °C and a strain rate of 10 s. Heterogeneous deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of the complicated microstructures in the deformed samples were analyzed via a grain-partitioning approach based on intra-grain misorientation analysis from electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The ZK30 alloy showed excellent formability, remaining intact at a true strain of -1.11. Continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) via grain boundary corrugation/bulging are the dominant mechanisms for the relaxation of strain energy during hot compression. Initial Zr-rich coarse grains undertook a significant portion of the plastic strain as the compression progressed, reflected by the increased misorientations within their interior and marked change in their aspect ratios. The results indicate that the excellent plasticity of the as-forged ZK30 alloy can be attributed to the operative CDRX mechanisms and the reduced deformation anisotropy of Zr-rich coarse grains containing Zn-Zr nano-precipitates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13102348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287677PMC
May 2020

Metal-Organic Layers Leading to Atomically Thin Bismuthene for Efficient Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction to Liquid Fuel.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Aug 10;59(35):15014-15020. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

AIST-Kyoto University Chemical Energy Materials Open Innovation Laboratory (ChEM-OIL), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

Electrochemical reduction of CO to valuable fuels is appealing for CO fixation and energy storage. However, the development of electrocatalysts with high activity and selectivity in a wide potential window is challenging. Herein, atomically thin bismuthene (Bi-ene) is pioneeringly obtained by an in situ electrochemical transformation from ultrathin bismuth-based metal-organic layers. The few-layer Bi-ene, which possesses a great mass of exposed active sites with high intrinsic activity, has a high selectivity (ca. 100 %), large partial current density, and quite good stability in a potential window exceeding 0.35 V toward formate production. It even deliver current densities that exceed 300.0 mA cm without compromising selectivity in a flow-cell reactor. Using in situ ATR-IR spectra and DFT analysis, a reaction mechanism involving HCO for formate generation was unveiled, which brings new fundamental understanding of CO reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202005577DOI Listing
August 2020

Interfacial Reactions between Ga and Cu-10Ni Substrate at Low Temperature.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 May 22;12(18):21045-21056. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Nihon Superior Centre for the Manufacture of Electronic Materials (NS CMEM), School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Ga alloys have been attracting significant renewed attention for low-temperature bonding applications in electronic packaging. This study systematically investigates the interfacial reaction between liquid Ga and Cu-10Ni substrates at 30 °C. In addition to CuGa formed from binary Ga/Cu couples, a layer of nanocrystalline GaNi and CuGa formed between the Cu-10Ni substrate and the blocklike micrometer scale CuGa layer. The growth of interfacial intermetallics (IMCs) on the Cu-10Ni substrate was substantially accelerated compared to the IMC growth in binary Ga/Cu couples. Reaction kinetics study shows the IMC growth from the Cu-10Ni substrate was controlled by reaction and volume diffusion, while the IMC growth from the Cu substrate was controlled by volume diffusion. It is also found that the presence of Ni within the CuGa phase resulted in improved thermal stability and a smaller coefficient of thermal expansion during heating from 25 to 300 °C, using synchrotron XRD analysis. There was least thermal expansion anisotropy among most of the IMCs that form in conventional Sn-based solder alloys, including CuSn and so forth. It is concluded that using a Cu-10Ni substrate as opposed to a Cu substrate could achieve sufficient metallurgical bonding within shorter processing time. The results have implications for broadening the application temperatures when using Ga as a low-temperature joining material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c02032DOI Listing
May 2020

Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits intimal hyperplasia, vascular smooth muscle cell excessive proliferation, migration via blocking miR-21/PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

Cell Cycle 2020 04 22;19(8):918-932. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

Department of General Surgery, Putuo Hospital Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Excessive migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical cellular events that lead to intimal hyperplasia in atherosclerosis and restenosis. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on intimal hyperplasia and VSMC proliferation and migration, and the underlying mechanisms by which these events occur. A rat unilateral carotid artery was ligated to induce vascular injury and the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles were determined using miRNA microarray analysis. We observed that UDCA significantly reduced the degree of intimal hyperplasia and induced miR-21 dysregulation. Restoration of miR-21 by agomir-miR-21 reversed the protective effects of UDCA on intimal hyperplasia and proliferation , UDCA suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, invasion and migration in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the suppressive effect of UDCA was abrogated by overexpression of miR-21 in PDGF-BB-incubated VSMCs. Furthermore, we identified that miR-21 in VSMCs targeted the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, negatively modulated the AKT/mTOR pathway. More importantly, we observed that that UDCA suppressed AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in the carotid artery injury model, whereas this pathway was reactivated by overexpression of miR-21. Taken together, our findings indicated that UDCA inhibited intimal hyperplasia and VSMCs excessive migration and proliferation via blocking miR-21/PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which suggests that UDCA may be a promising candidate for the therapy of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2020.1732514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217369PMC
April 2020

Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China.

N Engl J Med 2020 04 28;382(18):1708-1720. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

From the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (W.G., W.L., J.H., R.C., C.T., T.W., S.L., Jin-lin Wang, N.Z., J.H., W.L.), the Departments of Thoracic Oncology (W.L.), Thoracic Surgery and Oncology (J.H.), and Emergency Medicine (Z.L.), First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, and Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University (C.L.), and the State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Department of Biostatistics, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University (C.O., P.C.), Guangzhou, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital (Z.N., J.X.), Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Yu Hu), the Central Hospital of Wuhan (Y.P.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Wuhan Hospital of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (L.W.), Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (P.P.), Tianyou Hospital Affiliated to Wuhan University of Science and Technology (Jian-ming Wang), and the People's Hospital of Huangpi District (S.Z.), Wuhan, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases (L. Liu), and the Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital (K.-Y.Y.), Shenzhen, the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai (H.S.), the Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (D.S.C.H.), and the Department of Microbiology and the Carol Yu Center for Infection, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam (K.-Y.Y.), Hong Kong, Medical ICU, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (B.D.), and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (G.Z.), Beijing, the State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (L. Li), Chengdu Public Health Clinical Medical Center, Chengdu (Y.L.), Huangshi Central Hospital of Edong Healthcare Group, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi (Ya-hua Hu), the First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha (J. Liu), the Third People's Hospital of Hainan Province, Sanya (Z.C.), Huanggang Central Hospital, Huanggang (G.L.), Wenling First People's Hospital, Wenling (Z.Z.), the Third People's Hospital of Yichang, Yichang (S.Q.), Affiliated Taihe Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan (J. Luo), and Xiantao First People's Hospital, Xiantao (C.Y.) - all in China.

Background: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients.

Methods: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death.

Results: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission.

Conclusions: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7092819PMC
April 2020

Realizing Ultrahigh Mechanical Flexibility and >15% Efficiency of Flexible Organic Solar Cells via a "Welding" Flexible Transparent Electrode.

Adv Mater 2020 Apr 26;32(14):e1908478. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Laboratory of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) still lag behind those of rigid devices and their mechanical stability is unable to meet the needs of flexible electronics at present due to the lack of a high-performance flexible transparent electrode (FTE). Here, a so-called "welding" concept is proposed to design an FTE with tight binding of the upper electrode and the underlying substrate. The upper electrode consisting of solution-processed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and silver nanowire (AgNW) network is well welded by utilizing the capillary force effect and secondary growth of AZO, leading to a reduction of the AgNWs junction site resistance. Meanwhile, the poly(ethylene terephthalate) is modified by embedding the AgNWs, which are then used to link with the AgNWs in the upper hybrid electrode, thus enhancing the adhesion of the electrode to the substrate. By this welding strategy, critical bottleneck issues relating to the FTEs in terms of optoelectronic and mechanical properties are comprehensively addressed. The single-junction flexible OSCs based on this welded FTE show a high performance, achieving a record high PCE of 15.21%. In addition, the PCEs of the flexible OSCs are less influenced by the device area and display robust bending durability even under extreme test conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201908478DOI Listing
April 2020
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