Publications by authors named "Guang Yang"

2,201 Publications

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[Effects of weeds on crops and their ecological control in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):1876-1882

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Weeds is one of the important parts of agricultural ecosystem of Chinese materia medica. Weeds is a double-edged sword with advantages and disadvantages for the cultivated medicinal plants. In this study, we firstly analyzed the positive and negative effects of weeds on the yield and quality of Chinese materia medica. We then explored the possible mechanisms for the weeds' positive effects from the aspects of interspecific relationship, soil microecological environment, light environment, natural control of pests and so on. We also summarized three basic principles of weed control, that is, "making medicinal plants and weeds coexist harmoniously, achieving the overall optimum growth of medicinal plants", "prevention first, integrated control" and "preserving beneficial weeds and increasing their beneficial effects, removing harmful weeds and control their adverse effects". Finally, we introduced several common weed ecological control technology in field of the cultivated medicinal plants in China, including technology of controlling weeds by no-tillage, stral mulch, rotation, alternative herbs, competitive crops, and allelopathy. This study is aimed to apply the ecology theory to guide weed management and control, so as to achieve the goal of advantages promotion and disadvantages elimination of weeds to cultivated medicinal plants, making weeds into treasure and to promote the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicinal materials production and the protection of weed diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210123.106DOI Listing
April 2021

The anesthetic sevoflurane induces tau trafficking from neurons to microglia.

Commun Biol 2021 May 12;4(1):560. Epub 2021 May 12.

Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Accumulation and spread of tau in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies occur in a prion-like manner. However, the mechanisms and downstream consequences of tau trafficking remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that tau traffics from neurons to microglia via extracellular vesicles (EVs), leading to IL-6 generation and cognitive impairment. We assessed mice and neurons treated with anesthetics sevoflurane and desflurane, and applied nanobeam-sensor technology, an ultrasensitive method, to measure tau/p-tau amounts. Sevoflurane, but not desflurane, increased tau or p-tau amounts in blood, neuron culture medium, or EVs. Sevoflurane increased p-tau amounts in brain interstitial fluid. Microglia from tau knockout mice took up tau and p-tau when treated with sevoflurane-conditioned neuron culture medium, leading to IL-6 generation. Tau phosphorylation inhibitor lithium and EVs generation inhibitor GW4869 attenuated tau trafficking. GW4869 mitigated sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Thus, tau trafficking could occur from neurons to microglia to generate IL-6, leading to cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02047-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Long-wavelength UVA enhances UVB-induced cell death in cultured keratinocytes: DSB formation and suppressed survival pathway.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kawasaki, Japan.

Solar UV radiation consists of both UVA and UVB. The wavelength-specific molecular responses to UV radiation have been studied, but the interaction between UVA and UVB has not been well understood. In this study, we found that long-wavelength UVA, UVA1, augmented UVB-induced cell death, and examined the underlying mechanisms. Human keratinocytes HaCaT were exposed to UVA1, followed by UVB irradiation. Irradiation by UVA1 alone showed no effect on cell survival, whereas the UVA1 pre-irradiation remarkably enhanced UVB-induced cell death. UVA1 delayed the repair of pyrimidine dimers formed by UVB and the accumulation of nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins to damaged sites. Gap synthesis during NER was also decreased, suggesting that UVA1 delayed NER, and unrepaired pyrimidine dimers and single-strand breaks generated in the process of NER were left behind. Accumulation of this unrepaired DNA damage might have led to the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), as was detected using gel electrophoresis analysis and phosphorylated histone H2AX assay. Combined exposure enhanced the ATM-Chk2 signaling pathway, but not the ATR-Chk1 pathway, confirming the enhanced formation of DSBs. Moreover, UVA1 suppressed the UVB-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a survival signal pathway. These results indicated that UVA1 influenced the repair of UVB-induced DNA damage, which resulted in the formation of DSBs and enhanced cell death, suggesting the risk of simultaneous exposure to high doses of UVA1 and UVB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43630-021-00050-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Injectable keratin hydrogels as hemostatic and wound dressing materials.

Biomater Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Donghua University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201620, China. and College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Injectable hydrogels hold promise in biomedical applications due to their noninvasive administration procedure and capacity enabling the filling of irregularly shaped defects. Protein-based hydrogels provide features including good biocompatibility and inherent biofunction. However, challenges still remain to develop a protein-based injectable hydrogel in a convenient way due to the limited active groups in proteins. Keratins are a group of cysteine-rich structural proteins found abundantly in skin and skin appendages. In this work, we utilized keratin and the Au(iii) salt to develop an injectable hydrogel based on the dynamic exchange between disulfide bonds (S-S) and gold(i)-thiolates (Au-S). Such a hydrogel could be prepared at the physiological pH and applied as an injectable hydrogel for biomedical applications including hemostatic and wound dressing materials. Our findings demonstrated that this keratin injectable hydrogel showed a good hemostatic effect in both tail amputation and liver injury models. Moreover, it was proved efficient as a drug loading carrier, and the deferoxamine-loaded hydrogel showed a desirable wound healing effect in a full-thickness excision wound model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00135cDOI Listing
May 2021

Adjustment for body mass index changes inverse associations of HDL-cholesterol with blood pressure and hypertension to positive associations.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Science, Psychology and Sport, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, VIC, Australia.

The associations between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and blood pressure (BP) or hypertension are inconsistent in previous studies. This study aimed to assess these associations in a large cohort of Chinese adults and across different age groups. This cross-sectional association study included 22,081 Chinese adults. Associations of HDL-C with BP and hypertension were analyzed using linear or logistic regression, with or without adjustment for confounding factors. HDL-C was inversely associated with BP and hypertension. These associations were still apparent after adjustment for age, sex, fasting plasma glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Sub-analyses revealed: (1) in the whole cohort and females alone, HDL-C was inversely associated with BP and hypertension in young and middle-aged but not older participants; (2) in males alone, HDL-C was not associated with systolic BP or hypertension. However, HDL-C was either inversely, or not, or positively associated with BP in young, middle-aged, and older males, respectively. After further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the negative associations of HDL-C with BP and hypertension in the whole cohort became positive ones, and the positive associations only presented in males. These findings suggest that further adjustment for BMI changes inverse associations of HDL-cholesterol with BP and hypertension to positive associations in a cohort of Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00548-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Which GAN? A comparative study of generative adversarial network-based fast MRI reconstruction.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2021 Jun 10;379(2200):20200203. Epub 2021 May 10.

Cardiovascular Research Centre, Royal Brompton Hospital, SW3 6NP London, UK.

Fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for clinical applications that can alleviate motion artefacts and increase patient throughput. -space undersampling is an obvious approach to accelerate MR acquisition. However, undersampling of -space data can result in blurring and aliasing artefacts for the reconstructed images. Recently, several studies have been proposed to use deep learning-based data-driven models for MRI reconstruction and have obtained promising results. However, the comparison of these methods remains limited because the models have not been trained on the same datasets and the validation strategies may be different. The purpose of this work is to conduct a comparative study to investigate the generative adversarial network (GAN)-based models for MRI reconstruction. We reimplemented and benchmarked four widely used GAN-based architectures including DAGAN, ReconGAN, RefineGAN and KIGAN. These four frameworks were trained and tested on brain, knee and liver MRI images using twofold, fourfold and sixfold accelerations, respectively, with a random undersampling mask. Both quantitative evaluations and qualitative visualization have shown that the RefineGAN method has achieved superior performance in reconstruction with better accuracy and perceptual quality compared to other GAN-based methods. This article is part of the theme issue 'Synergistic tomographic image reconstruction: part 1'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2020.0203DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent advances in artificial intelligence for cardiac imaging.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 May 3;90:101928. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medical Imaging, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Digital Imaging Group, London, ON, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compmedimag.2021.101928DOI Listing
May 2021

Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Increases Fat Survival Rate after Fat Grafting in Nude Mice.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, 518000, Guangdong, China.

Background: Autologous fat grafts have been widely in use for reconstruction, contour abnormalities, and cosmetic surgeries. However, the grafted fat one-year survival rate is unpredictable and always low (20%-80%). Standardizing the existing transplantation technology is difficult due to the limiting conditions. Scaffold materials or drugs are unsuitable to employ because of legal restrictions, complex production, and undetermined hazards. Therefore, a simpler and more effective approach to improve grafted fat survival rate is using commercial products as additives. Earlier studies proved that porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), a biomaterial clinically used for wound repair, could work as a scaffold for lipo-implantation. This study aimed at investigating the hitherto unclear effect of PADM on transplanted fat survival.

Methods: Thirty-two 8-week-old female nude mice were divided into two groups. Control mice received a 300 μl fat injection, while the PADM group mice were injected with a 300 μl PADM-fat mixture. After a 4-week treatment, fat weight and liquefaction ratio were assessed. Histological changes were quantified via hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining. Macrophage infiltration and vascular regeneration were revealed using an anti-CD34 antibody. Mouse and human mRNA expression levels were gauged via RNA-sequencing. On the third day post implantation, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory genes Mcp-1 and Tnf-α were measured by qRT-PCR.

Results: The weight of surviving grafted fat did not differ between the control and the PADM group. However, adding PADM significantly decreased fat liquefaction. H&E-stained sections showed that PADM decreased fat necrosis, increased fat tissue regeneration, and raised CD34 levels in the regenerated tissue. RNA-sequencing showed that, compared to controls, fats from PADM-added group expressed more mouse-related mRNA but less human-related mRNA. The following GO and KEGG analysis showed that added PADM increased extracellular matrix (ECM) genes expression levels. The qRT-PCR showed that adding PADM increased Mcp-1 and Tnf-α mRNA expression levels.

Conclusions: In summary, PADM addition increased fat survival rate by reducing fat liquefaction through an increased macrophage infiltration, ECM regeneration, and revascularization. Therefore, PADM addition is a workable application in autologous fat grafting.

No Level Assigned: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02299-zDOI Listing
May 2021

La induced Si trimer bilayer on the Si(111) surface.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China and School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China and Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, China.

Using first-principles calculations, we identify a robust R30° reconstruction of a Si3 trimer bilayer on the Si(111) surface with a La coverage of 2/3 monolayer. Each surface unit cell contains two Si3 trimers and two La atoms, where the upper Si3 trimer is located just above the lower one with a rotation of about 60°, while two La atoms with different heights are distributed between the Si3 trimers and located on the T4 top site of the Si(111) surface, forming a honeycomb-like network structure. We find that the two La atoms have different valence states, La2+ and La3+, respectively. The high structural stability is attributed to the lower La atom saturating all the three dangling bonds of the upper Si3 trimer, while the higher La atom compensates two electrons to the lower Si3 trimer. The electronic band structure and band-decomposed charge density distribution show a semiconducting characteristic with a small surface band gap of 42 meV. Moreover, simulated STM images show a good structural match with the recent experimental observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp01351cDOI Listing
May 2021

Palladium-catalyzed one-pot phosphorylation of phenols mediated by sulfuryl fluoride.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(37):4588-4591

Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, 201210, China.

We report a general palladium-catalyzed one-pot procedure for the synthesis of phosphonates, phosphinates and phosphine oxides from phenols mediated by sulfuryl fluoride. It features mild conditions, broad substrate scope, high functionality tolerance and water insensitivity. The utility of this procedure has been well demonstrated by gram-scale synthesis, sequential synthesis of click chemistry building blocks, late-stage decoration of drugs and natural products and on-DNA synthesis of phosphine oxide for a DNA-encoded library (DEL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00769fDOI Listing
May 2021

Selection of a picomolar antibody that targets CXCR2-mediated neutrophil activation and alleviates EAE symptoms.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2547. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

Receptors and their ligands are important therapeutic targets for about one third of marketed drugs. Here, we describe an epitope-guided approach for selection of antibodies that modulate cellular signaling of targeted receptors. We chose CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily as receptor and a CXCR2 N-terminal peptide for antibody selection. We obtain a highly selective, tight-binding antibody from a 10-member antibody library using combinatorial enrichment. Structural and Hydrogen-Deuterium-Exchange mass spectrometry analyses demonstrate antibody interaction with an N-terminal region of CXCR2 that is part of the IL-8 epitope. The antibody strongly inhibits IL-8-induced and CXCR2-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and alleviates hCXCR2-dependent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis symptoms in mice. As inappropriate neutrophil migration accompanies many diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, glomerulonephritis, allergic asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer, this antibody has potential for development as a therapeutic agent, akin to anti-TNF antibodies. However, an important difference here is that the antibody targets the chemokine receptor and competes with natural ligand, rather than targeting the ligand itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22810-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100106PMC
May 2021

Genomic elucidation of a COVID-19 resurgence and local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China

While China experienced a peak and decline in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases at the start of 2020, in subsequent months, regional outbreaks have continuously emerged. Resurgences of COVID-19 have also been observed in many other countries. In Guangzhou, China, a small outbreak, involving less than 100 residents, emerged in March and April 2020, and comprehensive and near-real-time genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted. When the numbers of confirmed cases among overseas travelers increased, public health measures were enhanced by shifting from self-quarantine to central quarantine and SARS-CoV-2 testing for all overseas travelers. In an analysis of 109 imported cases, we found diverse viral variants distributed in the global viral phylogeny, which were frequently shared within households but not among passengers on the same flight. In contrast to the viral diversity of imported cases, local transmission was predominately attributed to two specific variants imported from Africa, including local cases that reported no direct or indirect contact with imported cases. The introduction events of the virus were identified or deduced before the enhanced measures were taken. These results show that the interventions were effective in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and they ruled out the possibility of cryptic transmission of viral variants from the first wave in January and February 2020. Our study provides evidence and emphasizes the importance of controls for overseas travelers in the context of the pandemic and exemplifies how viral genomic data can facilitate COVID-19 surveillance and inform public health mitigation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00079-21DOI Listing
May 2021

Efficacy of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in the Adjuvant Setting for Patients with Resected Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis with 11 Trials.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have recently become the standard first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR mutations. This study aimed to define the role of EGFR-TKI treatment in the adjuvant setting of patients with resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

Methods: Three online databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) were used to conduct systematic research to search for studies published before June 1, 2020. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC after radical surgery treated with EGFR-TKIs versus non-EGFR-TKIs in the adjuvant setting were compared. Based on rigorous self-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, studies were selected, and a meta-analysis was performed using hazard rate (HR) and 95% CIs as effective measures.

Results: Eleven studies, published between 2011 and 2020, with a total of 1,900 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. EGFR-TKI treatment showed a significant beneficial effect on DFS (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.31-0.57) and OS (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.45-0.86) for patients with resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC after radical resection in the adjuvant setting.

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results suggested that EGFR-TKI treatment improved the DFS and OS of completely resected patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC compared with non-EGFR-TKI treatment in the adjuvant setting. In the future, our conclusion should be confirmed by additional large-scale and well-designed clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515230DOI Listing
May 2021

Learning-Dependent Dendritic Spine Plasticity Is Impaired in Spontaneous Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Cognitive impairment is often observed in multiple sclerosis and its animal models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using mice with immunization-induced EAE, we have previously shown that the stability of cortical synapses is markedly decreased before the clinical onset of EAE. In this study, we examined learning-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in a spontaneous EAE model. Transgenic mice expressing myelin basic protein-specific T cell receptor genes develop EAE spontaneously at around 8 weeks of age. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy, we found that the elimination and formation rates of postsynaptic dendritic spines in somatosensory and motor cortices increased weeks before detectable signs of EAE and remained to be high during the disease onset. Despite the elevated basal spine turnover, motor learning-induced spine formation was reduced in presymptomatic EAE mice, in line with their impaired ability to retain learned motor skills. Additionally, we found a substantial elevation of IFN-γ mRNA in the brain of 4-week-old presymptomatic mice, and treatment of anti-IFN-γ antibody reduced dendritic spine elimination in the cortex. Together, these findings reveal synaptic instability and failure to form new synapses after learning as early brain pathology of EAE, which may contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits seen in autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22827DOI Listing
May 2021

JAS-GAN: Generative Adversarial Network Based Joint Atrium and Scar Segmentation on Unbalanced Atrial Targets.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 May 4;PP. Epub 2021 May 4.

Automated and accurate segmentation of the left atrium (LA) and atrial scars from late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE CMR) images are in high demand for quantifying atrial scars. The previous quantification of atrial scars relies on a two-phase segmentation for LA and atrial scars due to their large volume difference (unbalanced atrial targets). In this paper, we propose an inter-cascade generative adversarial network, namely JAS-GAN, to segment the unbalanced atrial targets from LGE CMR images automatically and accurately in an end-to-end way. Firstly, JAS-GAN investigates an adaptive attention cascade to automatically correlate the segmentation tasks of the unbalanced atrial targets. The adaptive attention cascade mainly models the inclusion relationship of the two unbalanced atrial targets, where the estimated LA acts as the attention map to adaptively focus on the small atrial scars roughly. Then, an adversarial regularization is applied to the segmentation tasks of the unbalanced atrial targets for making a consistent optimization. It mainly forces the estimated joint distribution of LA and atrial scars to match the real ones. We evaluated the performance of our JAS-GAN on a 3D LGE CMR dataset with 192 scans. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, our proposed approach yielded better segmentation performance (Average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) values of 0.946 and 0.821 for LA and atrial scars, respectively), which indicated the effectiveness of our proposed approach for segmenting unbalanced atrial targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3077469DOI Listing
May 2021

Gene duplication and loss of AANAT in mammals driven by rhythmic adaptations.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) plays a crucial role in synchronizing internal biological functions to circadian and circannual changes. Generally speaking, only one copy of AANAT gene has been found in mammals, however, three independent duplications of this gene were detected in several cetartiodactyl lineages (i.e., Suidae, Hippopotamidae, and Pecora) that originated in the middle Eocene, a geological period characterized with the increased climate seasonality. Lineage-specific expansions of AANAT and the associated functional enhancement in these lineages strongly suggest an improvement in regulating photoperiodic response to adapt to seasonal climate changes. In contrast, independent inactivating mutations or deletions of the AANAT locus were identified in the four pineal-deficient clades (cetaceans, sirenians, xenarthrans, and pangolins). Loss of AANAT function in cetaceans and sirenians could disrupt the sleep-promoting effects of pineal melatonin, which might contribute to increasing wakefulness, adapting these clades to underwater sleep. The absence of AANAT and pineal glands in xenarthrans and pangolins may be associated with their body temperature maintenance. The present work demonstrates a far more complex and intriguing evolutionary pattern and functional diversity of mammalian AANAT genes than previously thought, and provides further evidence for understanding AANAT evolution as driven by rhythmic adaptations in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab125DOI Listing
May 2021

Smaller volume and altered functional connectivity of the amygdala in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Life Science Research Center, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, 710071, Shaanxi, China.

Objectives: To analyze the abnormal amygdala structure and function in lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) patients compared with healthy controls (HCs).

Methods: Forty-four lifelong PE patients and thirty-one HCs were enrolled in this study. Each subject was diagnosed with PE using a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) score. Based on t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis, the voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were applied to evaluate brain structural and functional changes by using T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans.

Results: Lifelong PE patients had decreased gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala and increased FC between the amygdala and precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal cortex (MTC), as well as decreased FC between the amygdala and precentral gyrus, insula, and inferior frontal gyrus. Moreover, significantly negative correlations between the IELT score and the mean z-score from amygdala-MTC (r = -0.49) and amygdala-PCC (r = -0.48) FC were found in lifelong PE patients.

Conclusions: Our study investigated the abnormal amygdala-related structure and connectivity patterns in PE patients, which might provide novel perspective for understanding the crucial role of the amygdala in the neural mechanism of PE.

Key Points: • As one of the most common diseases in men, PE may be related to abnormal brain mechanisms. • Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging used to explore amygdala abnormalities in PE patients. • The correlation between clinical scores and functional connectivity was used to assess the reasonability of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08002-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Expression Level of ADAMTS1 in Granulosa Cells of PCOS Patients Is Related to Granulosa Cell Function, Oocyte Quality, and Embryo Development.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:647522. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1) is an extracellular matrix metalloproteinase that plays an important role in the process of ovulation. According to previous studies, the expression level of ADAMTS1 in the granulosa cells of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients and the mechanism for regulating oocyte quality and embryonic development potential are still unclear. Our research clarified that ADAMTS1 was significantly increased in granulosa cells of PCOS patients as compared to ovulatory controls. After silencing ADAMTS1 in granulosa cells, cell proliferation and E secretion were significantly inhibited, which may be related to the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family genes and key genes involved in E synthesis. Through retrospective analysis of the clinical data, it was found that the expression level of ADAMTS1 was significantly positively correlated to the oocyte maturation rate and good-quality embryo rate in PCOS patients. The downregulation of ADAMTS1 in primary granulosa cells lead to the changes in the expression of marker genes for oocyte and embryonic quality. By using immunofluorescence staining, it was found ADAMTS1 was expressed in various stages of pre-implantation embryo but its expression level gradually decreases with the development of the embryo. In addition, the silence of ADAMTS1 in 3PN zygotes significantly prolonged the development time of the zygote to the morula stage. This is, to our knowledge, the first time to explored the mechanism by which ADAMST1 is involved in affecting the quality of oocytes and embryonic development potential, which will provide new evidence for further understanding of the follicular microenvironment and embryo development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.647522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075003PMC
April 2021

Ellagic Acid Attenuates BLM-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Inhibiting Wnt Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:639574. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease with high mortality and limited therapy that is characterized by epithelial cell damage and fibroblast activation. Ellagic acid is a natural polyphenol compound widely found in fruits and nuts that has multiple pharmacological activities. In this study, we explored the potential effects and mechanisms of Ellagic acid on pulmonary fibrosis and . studies showed that Ellagic acid significantly alleviated bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. experiments indicated that Ellagic acid could suppress Wnt signaling and attenuate Wnt3a-induced myofibroblast activation and the phosphorylation of Erk2 and Akt. Further studies showed that Ellagic acid could induce autophagy formation in myofibroblasts mainly by suppressing mTOR signaling and promoting apoptosis of myofibroblasts. experiments revealed that Ellagic acid significantly inhibited myofibroblast activation and promoted autophagy formation. Taken together, our results show that Ellagic acid effectively attenuates BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by suppressing myofibroblast activation and promoting autophagy and apoptosis of myofibroblasts by inhibiting the Wnt signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.639574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072668PMC
April 2021

The Architectural Factor HMGB1 Is Involved in Genome Organization in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

mBio 2021 04 27;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Unit of Molecular Parasitology, Research Center for Translational Medicine, Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias of the Ministry of Education of China, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

The three-dimensional (3D) genome organization plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. In the unicellular malaria parasite , the high-order chromosome organization has emerged as an important epigenetic pathway mediating gene expression, particularly for virulence genes, but the related architectural factors and underlying mechanism remain elusive. Herein, we have identified the high-mobility-group protein HMGB1 as a critical architectural factor for maintenance of genome organization in Genome-wide occupancy analysis (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing [ChIP-seq]) shows that the HMGB1 protein is recruited mainly to centromeric regions likely via a DNA-binding-independent pathway. Chromosome conformation capture coupled with next-generation sequencing (Hi-C-seq) and 3D modeling analysis show that the loss of HMGB1 disrupts the integrity of centromere/telomere-based chromosome organization accompanied with diminished interaction frequency among centromere clusters. This triggers local chromatin alteration and dysregulated gene expression. Notably, the entire repertoire of the primary virulence genes () was completely silenced in the absence of HMGB1 (PfHMGB1). Furthermore, the disrupted nuclear organization was reconstituted by complementation of HMGB1, thereby rescuing the mutually exclusive expression of the gene family. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the architectural factor HMGB1 is associated with gene expression via mediating the high-order structure of genome organization. This finding not only contributes better understanding of the epigenetic regulation of gene expression but may also provide novel targets for antimalarial strategies. Malaria remains a major public health and economic burden currently. The mutually exclusive expression of the virulence genes is associated with the pathogenesis and immune evasion of human malaria parasites in the host. The nuclear architecture provides a well-organized environment for differential gene expression in the nucleus, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we have identified the highly conserved high-mobility-group protein HMGB1 as a key architecture regulator involved in virulence gene expression by establishing high-order genome organization in the nucleus of Mechanistic investigation revealed that the specific interaction of HMGB1 and centromeres constructed the precisely organized nuclear architecture, which coordinated with local chromatin structure to control the singular expression of virulence genes. Hence, this protein appears to be a critical architectural regulator for the pathogenesis of malaria infection and may be a new target for the development of an intervention strategy against malaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00148-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092211PMC
April 2021

Direct Imaging of Integrated Circuits in CPU with 60 nm Super-Resolution Optical Microscope.

Nano Lett 2021 May 27;21(9):3887-3893. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China.

Far-field super-resolution optical microscopies have achieved incredible success in life science for visualization of vital nanostructures organized in single cells. However, such resolution power has been much less extended to material science for inspection of human-made ultrafine nanostructures, simply because the current super-resolution optical microscopies modalities are rarely applicable to nonfluorescent samples or unlabeled systems. Here, we report an antiphase demodulation pump-probe (DPP) super-resolution microscope for direct optical inspection of integrated circuits (ICs) with a lateral resolution down to 60 nm. Because of the strong pump-probe (PP) signal from copper, we performed label-free super-resolution imaging of multilayered copper interconnects on a small central processing unit (CPU) chip. The label-free super-resolution DPP optical microscopy opens possibilities for easy, fast, and large-scale electronic inspection in the whole pipeline chain for designing and manufacturing ICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00403DOI Listing
May 2021

[Rapid screening of single guide RNA targeting pig genome and the harvesting of monoclonal cells by microarray seal].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;38(1):111-121

Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R.China;Institute of Clinical Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R.China.

The emergence of regular short repetitive palindromic sequence clusters (CRISPR) and CRISPR- associated proteins 9 (Cas9) gene editing technology has greatly promoted the wide application of genetically modified pigs. Efficient single guide RNA (sgRNA) is the key to the success of gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. For large animals with a long reproductive cycle, such as pigs, it is necessary to screen out efficient sgRNA to avoid wasting time and resource costs before animal experiments. In addition, how to efficiently obtain positive gene editing monoclonal cells is a difficult problem to be solved. In this study, a rapid sgRNA screening method targeting the pig genome was established and we rapidly obtained gene edited cells, laying a foundation for the subsequent production of knockout pigs as human hepatocyte bioreactor. At the same time, the method of obtaining monoclonal cells using pattern microarray culture technology was explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202006032DOI Listing
February 2021

Myeloid MKL1 Disseminates Cues to Promote Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:583492. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Targeted Intervention of Cardiovascular Disease and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cardiovascular Translational Medicine, Department of Pathophysiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological process in the heart in response to stress cues. Although taking place in cardiomyocytes, the hypertrophic response is influenced by other cell types, both within the heart and derived from circulation. In the present study we investigated the myeloid-specific role of megakaryocytic leukemia 1 (MKL1) in cardiac hypertrophy. Following transverse aortic constriction (TAC), myeloid MKL1 conditional knockout (MFCKO) mice exhibit an attenuated phenotype of cardiac hypertrophy compared to the WT mice. In accordance, the MFCKO mice were protected from excessive cardiac inflammation and fibrosis as opposed to the WT mice. Conditioned media collected from macrophages enhanced the pro-hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes exposed to endothelin in an MKL1-dependent manner. Of interest, expression levels of macrophage derived miR-155, known to promote cardiac hypertrophy, were down-regulated in the MFCKO mice compared to the WT mice. MKL1 depletion or inhibition repressed miR-155 expression in macrophages. Mechanistically, MKL1 interacted with NF-κB to activate miR-155 transcription in macrophages. In conclusion, our data suggest that MKL1 may contribute to pathological hypertrophy via regulating macrophage-derived miR-155 transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.583492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063155PMC
April 2021

NIR-II Absorbing Semiconducting Polymer-Triggered Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy for Cancer Treatment.

Small 2021 Apr 25:e2100501. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Photo-Sensitive Material Advanced Research and Technology Center (Photo-SMART), National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, 80778, Taiwan.

Exploration of facile strategies for precise regulation of target gene expression remains highly challenging in the development of gene therapies. Especially, a stimuli-responsive nanocarrier integrated with ability of noninvasive remote control for treating wide types of cancers is rarely developed. Herein, a NIR-II absorbing semiconducting polymer (PBDTQ) is employed to remotely activate the heat-inducible heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) promoter under laser irradiation, further realizing regulation of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) for cancer treatment in mild hyperthermia. In this multifunctional nanocomposite, the PBDTQ and double suicide gene plasmid (pSG) based on HSP70 promoter are incorporated into a lipid complex. Upon NIR-II laser excitation, the mild photothermal effect (≈43 °C) generated from PBDTQ can cause the release of pSG and activation of HSP70 promoter, and then upregulate suicide gene expression triggered by the HSP70 promoter which can further convert the nontoxic prodrug into its cytotoxic metabolites. Therefore, this work demonstrates a universal NIR-II laser-triggered GDEPT using semiconducting polymers as the photothermal generator for cancer treatment with minimized collateral damage and nontargeted side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100501DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparative analysis of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene family in Cetartiodactyla.

J Evol Biol 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210023, China.

Cetacea, whales, dolphins and porpoises, form an order of mammals adapted to aquatic life. Their transition to an aquatic habitat resulted in exceptional protection against cellular insults, including oxidative and osmotic stress. Here, we considered the structure and molecular evolution of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene family, which encodes essential enzymes in the mammalian antioxidant system, in the superorder Cetartiodactyla. To this end, we juxtaposed cetaceans and their closest extant relatives (order Artiodactyla). We identified 94 genes in 23 species, of which 70 are bona fide intact genes. Although the SOD gene family is conserved in Cetartiodactyla, lineage-specific gene duplications and deletions were observed. Phylogenetic analyses show that the SOD2 subfamily diverged from a clade containing SOD1 and SOD3, suggesting that cytoplasmic, extracellular, and mitochondrial SODs have started down independent evolutionary paths. Specific-amino acid changes (e.g., K130N in SOD2) that may enhance ROS elimination were identified in cetaceans. In silico analysis suggests that the core transcription factor repertoire of cetartiodactyl SOD genes may include Sp1, NF-κB, Nrf2, and AHR. Putative transcription factors binding sites responding to hypoxia were (e.g., Suppressor of Hairless; Su(H)) found in the cetacean SOD1 gene. We found significant evidence for positive selection in cetaceans using codon models. Cetaceans with different diving abilities also show divergent evolution of SOD1 and SOD2. Our genome-wide analysis of SOD genes helps clarify their relationship and evolutionary trajectory and identify putative functional changes in cetaceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13792DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic Values of Intraoperative (1-84) PTH Levels are Superior to iPTH for Successful PTX in CKD Patients.

Endocr Pract 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;. Electronic address:

Purpose: Persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) may occur because of residual cervico-thoracic parathyroids in parathyroidectomy (PTX) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared the predictive values of intraoperative plasma (1-84) parathyroid hormone ([1-84]PTH) and intact PTH( iPTH) levels in order to improve the safety and efficiency for PTX prospectively.

Methods: We included 100 healthy controls, 162 stage 5 CKD patients without SHPT, 214 PTX patients because of SHPT. Plasma iPTH and (1-84)PTH levels were measured before incision (io-iPTH0, io-[1-84]PTH0), 10min (io-iPTH10, io-[1-84]PTH10) and 20min (io-iPTH20, io-[1-84]PTH20) after removing all parathyroids. Reduction percentage of PTH at 10min and 20min were calculated (io-iPTH10%, io-[1-84]PTH10%, io-iPTH20%, io-[1-84]PTH20%). IPTH and (1-84)PTH were measured by the second and third-generation PTH assay respectively.

Results: Median baseline (1-84)PTH levels in controls, non-PTX and PTX patients were 22.1(15.4-31.3)pg/ml, 94.5(52.3-190.7)pg/ml and 850.9(595.0-1269.0)pg/ml. Compared with controls and non-PTX patients, PTX group had more obvious mineral metabolism disorders. There were 187 successful PTX, 19 persistent SHPT patients, and 8 patients were lost to follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves revealed io-(1-84)PTH10%>86.6% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.77, sensitivity 55.1%, specificity 94.7%), and io-(1-84)PTH20%>87.5% (AUC 0.92, sensitivity 84.0%, specificity 94.7%) could suggest successful PTX. Sensitivity of io-iPTH20% and io-(1-84)PTH20% were higher than those at the time-point of 10min. Moreover, the specificity, sensitivity of (1-84)PTH reduction percentage were superior to iPTH.

Conclusion: Intraoperative reduction percentages of plasma (1-84)PTH levels are superior to iPTH for accurately predicting successful PTX, especially at the time-point of 20min after all cervico-thoracic parathyroids are resected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eprac.2021.04.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene promoter methylation induces chondrocyte apoptosis.

Hum Genomics 2021 Apr 23;15(1):24. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Sports Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650031, Yunnan, China.

Objective: The occurrence of osteoarthritis is related to genetic and environmental factors. Among them, the change of chondrocyte gene expression pattern regulated by epigenetic modification is an important participant. This study analyzed the effect of CAMP gene methylation on the level of oxidative stress and inflammation of chondrocytes.

Methods: We analyzed the changes of the transcriptome in the articular cartilage tissue of osteoarthritis (OA) patients from the GSE117999 dataset. The GSE48422 dataset was used to analyze the changes in the methylation level of osteoarthritis cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry analysis of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing CAMP gene and 5-μM 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine (AZA) treatment on the proliferation and apoptosis of Human chondrocytes osteoarthritis (HC-OA) cells. The Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to detect the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression level of inflammatory factors was analyzed by Western Blot.

Results: The expression of CAMP in cartilage tissue of OA patients was upregulated, and the level of methylation was downregulated. CAMP was highly expressed in osteoarthritis articular cartilage cells. Silencing CAMP inhibited the proliferation of HC-OA cells and promoted their apoptosis. CAMP gene methylation inhibited ROS levels and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression levels in HC-OA cells, and promoted transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) expression. CAMP gene methylation inhibited the proliferation of HC-OA cells and promoted their apoptosis.

Conclusion: CAMP gene promoter methylation inhibits ROS levels and inflammation and induces chondrocyte apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40246-021-00321-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063489PMC
April 2021

Resveratrol induces AMPK and mTOR signaling inhibition-mediated autophagy and apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Hematology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China.

Resveratrol, a natural compound extracted from the skins of grapes, berries, or other fruits, has been shown to have anti-tumor effects against multiple myeloma (MM) via promoting apoptosis and inhibiting cell viability. In addition to apoptosis, autophagy also plays a significant role in anti-tumor effects. However, whether autophagy is involved in anti-MM activity of resveratrol remains unclear. In this study, human MM cell lines U266, RPMI-8226, and NCI-H929 were treated with resveratrol. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to measure cell viability. Western blot analysis was used to detect apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) was applied to inhibit autophagy. Results showed that resveratrol inhibited cell viability and colony formation via promoting apoptosis and autophagy in MM cell lines U266, RPMI-8226, and NCI-H929. Resveratrol promoted apoptosis-related proteins, Caspase-3 activating poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and Caspase-3 cleavage, and decreased the protein level of Survivin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, resveratrol upregulated the levels of LC3 and Beclin1 in a dose-dependent way, indicating that autophagy might be implicated in anti-MM effect of resveratrol. Furthermore, 3-MA relieved the cytotoxicity of resveratrol by blocking the autophagic flux. Resveratrol increased the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase and decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream substrates p70S6K and 4EBP1 in a dose-dependent manner, leading to autophagy. Therefore, our results suggest that resveratrol exerts anti-MM effects through apoptosis and autophagy, which can be used as a new therapeutic strategy for MM in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmab042DOI Listing
April 2021

Melatonin for an obese child with gene variant showing epilepsy and disordered sleep: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(11):2688-2695

Department of Pediatrics, The First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Background: Abnormalities in the () gene often lead to obesity, but are rarely associated with other conditions such as epilepsy and sleep disorder.

Case Summary: Here, we present a case of a male obese child with a heterozygous variant in (c.494G>A, p.Arg165Gln) inherited from his father, who presented with disordered sleep and abnormal facial movements. Examination through melatonin rhythm testing and electroencephalography led to a diagnosis of sleep disorder and epilepsy, as his melatonin rhythm was markedly distorted and the electroencephalography revealed epileptic discharges. He received treatment with an antiepileptic drug; however, the therapy was ineffective and the sleep disorder appeared to be deteriorating. Subsequently, we initiated adjuvant treatment with melatonin. Upon re-examination, his body mass index had decreased, the sleep disturbance had resolved, and his seizures were well controlled. Electro-encephalography review was normal, and a typical melatonin rhythm was restored.

Conclusion: We concluded that, in addition to causing obesity, abnormalities in the gene may contribute to the development of sleep disorders and epilepsy, and that melatonin can be used as an adjuvant therapy to alleviate these symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040176PMC
April 2021

Development of a prognostic index and screening of prognosis related genes based on an immunogenomic landscape analysis of bladder cancer.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 22;13(8):12099-12112. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Urology, Zhuzhou Central Hospital, Zhuzhou 412007, China.

Background: Bladder cancer (BLCA) is one of the most common urinary tract malignant tumors. It is associated with poor outcomes, and its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. There is great hope for immunotherapy in treating many malignant tumors; therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of immunotherapy for BLCA.

Methods: Gene expression profiles and clinical information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and immune-related genes (IRGs) were downloaded from the Immunology Database and Analysis Portal. Differentially-expressed and survival-associated IRGs in patients with BLCA were identified using computational algorithms and Cox regression analysis. We also performed functional enrichment analysis. Based on IRGs, we employed multivariate Cox analysis to develop a new prognostic index.

Results: We identified 261 IRGs that were differentially expressed between BLCA tissue and adjacent tissue, 30 of which were significantly associated with the overall survival (all P<0.01). According to multivariate Cox analysis, nine survival-related IRGs (MMP9, PDGFRA, AHNAK, OAS1, OLR1, RAC3, IGF1, PGF, and SH3BP2) were high-risk genes. We developed a prognostic index based on these IRGs and found it accurately predicted BLCA outcomes associated with the TNM stage. Intriguingly, the IRG-based prognostic index reflected infiltration of macrophages.

Conclusions: An independent IRG-based prognostic index provides a practical approach for assessing patients' immune status and prognosis with BLCA. This index independently predicted outcomes of BLCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109062PMC
April 2021