Publications by authors named "Grzegorz W Basak"

74 Publications

Rapid resolution of COVID-19 after faecal microbiota transplantation.

Gut 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Hematology, Transplantation and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325010DOI Listing
July 2021

Improved outcome of patients with graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies over time: an EBMT mega-file study.

Haematologica 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains a major threat to successful outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Advances in prophylaxis and supportive care have taken place over the years. The aim of this study is to test whether incidence and mortality of aGvHD have been reduced over time. 102 557 patients with a median age of 47.6 years with malignancies after first allogeneic sibling or unrelated donor (URD) transplant were studied in the following periods: 1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. Findings: 100-day-incidences of aGvHD grades II-IV decreased from 40%, to 38%, 32%, 29% and 28% over calendar time (p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.265769DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of decontamination therapy on gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in children: Decontamination therapy in allo-HCT.

Curr Res Transl Med 2021 Jul 15;69(3):103298. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Hematology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warszawa, Warszawa, Poland.

Introduction: Gut colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) is associated with a significantly decreased overall survival in adult patients undergoing allo-HCT because of an increased treatment-related mortality.

Objective: The objective of this multicenter study was the analysis of impact of gut colonization status and the use of antibiotics on development of gastro-intestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of allo-HCT in children.

Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent allo-HCT over a period of three years in all pediatric HCT centers in Poland were analyzed for the impact of gut colonization on GI GVHD, with respect to standard of care including prophylaxis of infections and supportive therapy.

Results: At the time of allo-HCT, 44.2% of pediatric patients were colonized by ARB. Decontamination therapy with antibiotics was applied in 78% of children. Gut decontamination prophylactic therapy with antibiotics decreased the risk of acute GI GVHD. The use of gentamicin contributed to decreased rate of GVHD, while the use of ciprofloxacin and colistin contributed to increased incidence of GVHD after allo-HCT in children. Sepsis with ARB and non-MFD transplant contributed significantly to worse survival, while neither colonization nor gut decontamination had an impact on overall survival.

Conclusions: Gut decontamination therapy contributed to lower incidence of acute GI GVHD in children undergoing allo-HCT, and the use of specific antibiotics might be responsible for this effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.retram.2021.103298DOI Listing
July 2021

Perspectives for the Use of CAR-T Cells for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:632937. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Hematology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

During recent years considerable progress has been made in the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, despite the current improvements in the prognosis of this malignancy, it always ends with relapse, and therefore new therapy approaches for destroying resistant cancer cells are needed. Presently, there is great hope being placed in the use of immunotherapy against refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma which is unresponsive to any other currently known drugs. The most promising one is CAR-T cell therapy which has already shown tremendous success in treating other malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and could potentially be administered to multiple myeloma patients. CAR-T cells equipped with receptors against BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen), which is a surface antigen that is highly expressed on malignant cells, are now of great interest in this field with significant results in clinical trials. Furthermore, CAR-T cells with other receptors and combinations of different strategies are being intensively studied. However, even with CAR-T cell therapy, the majority of patients eventually relapse, which is the greatest limitation of this therapy. Serious adverse events such as cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity should also be considered as possible side effects of CAR-T cell therapy. Here, we discuss the results of CAR-T cell therapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma, where we describe its main advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, we also describe the current results that have been obtained on using combinations of CAR-T cell therapies with other drugs for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.632937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943463PMC
February 2021

Hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy survey of the EBMT: monitoring of activities and trends over 30 years.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 07 23;56(7):1651-1664. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Numbers of Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in Europe and collaborating countries continues to rise with 48,512 HCT in 43,581 patients, comprising of 19,798 (41%) allogeneic and 28,714 (59%) autologous, reported by 700 centers in 51 countries during 2019. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,764 (25%), lymphoid malignancies 27,895 (64%), and nonmalignant disorders 3173 (7%). A marked growth in CAR-T cellular therapies from 151 in 2017 to 1134 patients in 2019 is observed. This year's analyses focus on changes over 30 years. Since the first survey in 1990 where 143 centers reported 4234 HCT, the number has increased to 700 centers and 48,512 HCT. Transplants were reported in 20 countries in 1990, and 51, 30 years later. More than 800,000 HCT in 715,000 patients were reported overall. Next to the massive expansion of HCT technology, most notable developments include the success of unrelated donor and haploidentical HCT, an increase followed by decrease in the number of cord blood transplants, use of reduced intensity HCT in older patients, and the phenomenal rise in cellular therapy. This annual report of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) reflects current activity and highlights important trends vital for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01227-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263343PMC
July 2021

Addition of Rituximab in Reduced Intensity Conditioning Regimens for B-Cell Malignancies Does Not Influence Transplant Outcomes: EBMT Registry Analyses Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for B-Cell Malignancies.

Front Immunol 2020 2;11:613954. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Rituximab (R) is increasingly incorporated in reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in patients with B-cell malignancies, not only to improve disease control, but also to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). There are no randomized prospective data to validate this practice, although single center data and the CIBMTR analysis have shown promising results. We aimed at validation of these findings in a large registry study. We conducted a retrospective analysis using the EBMT registry of 3,803 adult patients with B-cell malignancies undergoing alloHCT (2001-2013) with either rituximab (R-RIC-9%) or non-rituximab (RIC-91%) reduced intensity regimens respectively. Median age and median follow up were 55 years (range 19.1-77.3) and 43.2 months (range 0.3-179.8), respectively. There was no difference in transplant outcomes (R-RIC vs RIC), including 1-year overall survival (69.9% vs 70.7%), 1-year disease-free survival (64.4% vs 62.2%), 1-year non-relapse mortality (21% vs 22%), and day-100 incidence of acute GVHD 2-4° (12% vs 12%). In summary, we found that addition of rituximab in RIC regimens for B-cell malignancies had no significant impact on major transplant outcome variables. Of note, data on chronic GVHD was not available, limiting the conclusions that can be drawn from the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.613954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884746PMC
June 2021

How much has allogeneic stem cell transplant-related mortality improved since the 1980s? A retrospective analysis from the EBMT.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(24):6283-6290

European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Transplant Complications Working Party, Paris, France.

We performed a study to find out how advances in modern medicine have improved the mortality risk of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We analyzed major transplantation outcome parameters in adult patients on the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry who had hematologic malignancies and had received transplants from matched sibling donors. We performed multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional-hazards model including known risk factors for nonrelapse mortality and a matched-pairs analysis. We identified 38 800 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Considerable changes in patient characteristics have occurred in the past decades, such as older age, different underlying diseases, and a higher proportion of patients with advanced disease. Major reasons for transplantation-related death in the 1980s were infectious complications and graft-versus-host disease. Nonrelapse mortality, measured at 1 year after transplantation, has decreased over time: 29.7% from 1980 through 1989, 24.4% from 1990 through 1999, 14.8% from 2000 through 2009, and 12.2% from 2010 through 2016. On multivariate analysis, the year of transplantation was associated with reduced nonrelapse mortality (P < .0001; hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)], 0.8 [0.79-0.82], for 5-year intervals) and decreased overall mortality (P < .0001; HR [95% CI], 0.87 [0.86-0.88]. In the matched-pairs analysis of 3718 patients in each group, nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 24.4% in the 1990s and 9.5% from 2013 through 2016 (P < .0001; HR [95% CI], 0.39 [0.34-0.43]). Transplantation-related mortality has decreased significantly in the past 40 years. These favorable data facilitate evidence-based treatment decisions on transplantation indications in the context of the availability of novel immunotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756984PMC
December 2020

What Model of Nutrition Can Be Recommended to People Ending Their Professional Sports Career? An Analysis of the Mediterranean Diet and the CRON Diet in the Context of Former Athletes.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 24;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolomics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland.

Athletes who retire from their sporting career face an increase in body weight, leading to overweight or obesity. Simultaneously, a significant number of these athletes meet the criteria of metabolic syndrome. The available literature does not offer clearly defined standards of nutrition for the discussed group of people. In this situation, it seems advisable to develop different standards of dietary behavior typical of athletes finishing their sports careers. For this purpose, the study analyzed two types of diets: the Mediterranean diet and the Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition (CRON) diet based on significant calorie restrictions. Both diets seem to meet the requirements of this group of people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761328PMC
November 2020

Reduced Calcium Signaling Is Associated With Severe Graft-Versus-Host Disease: Results From Preclinical Models and From a Prospective EBMT Study.

Front Immunol 2020 11;11:1983. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumor Immunology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Despite its involvement in various immune functions, including the allogeneic activation of T-lymphocytes, the relevance of calcium (Ca) for GVHD pathobiology is largely unknown. To elucidate a potential association between Caand GVHD, we analyzed Ca-sensing G-protein coupled receptor 6a (GPRC6a) signaling in preclinical GVHD models and conducted a prospective EBMT study on Ca serum levels prior alloSCT including 363 matched sibling allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantations (alloSCTs). In experimental models, we found decreased expression during intestinal GVHD. GPRC6a deficient alloSCT recipients had higher clinical and histopathological GVHD scores leading to increased mortality. As possible underlying mechanism, we found increased antigen presentation potential in GPRC6a alloSCT recipients demonstrated by higher proliferation rates of T-lymphocytes. In patients with low Ca serum levels (≤median 2.2 mmol/l) before alloSCT, we found a higher incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV (HR = 2.3 Cl = 1.45-3.85 = 0.0006), severe acute GVHD grades III-IV (HR = 3.3 CI = 1.59-7.14, = 0.002) and extensive chronic GVHD (HR = 2.0 Cl = 1.04-3.85 = 0.04). In conclusion, experimental and clinical data suggest an association of reduced Ca signaling with increased severity of GVHD. Future areas of interest include the in depth analysis of involved molecular pathways and the investigation of Ca signaling as a therapeutic target during GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431962PMC
April 2021

Association of Country-Specific Socioeconomic Factors With Survival of Patients Who Experience Severe Classic Acute Graft-vs.-Host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. An Analysis From the Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Front Immunol 2020 23;11:1537. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Haematology, Oncology and Internal Medicine, Medical Uniwersity of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGvHD) is one of the most frequent causes of transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Its treatment is complex and costly. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the impact of country-specific socioeconomic factors on outcome of patients who experience severe aGvHD. Adults with hematological malignancies receiving alloHCT from either HLA-matched siblings ( = 1,328) or unrelated donors ( = 2,824) developing grade 3 or 4 aGvHD were included. In univariate analysis, the probability of TRM at 2 years was increased for countries with lower current Health Care Expenditure (HCE, = 0.04), lower HCE as % of Gross Domestic Product per capita ( = 0.003) and lower values of the Human Development Index ( = 0.02). In a multivariate model, the risk of TRM was most strongly predicted by current HCE (HR = 0.76, = 0.006). HCE >median was also associated with reduced risk of the overall mortality (HR 0.73, = 0.0006) and reduced risk of treatment failure (either relapse or TRM; HR 0.77, = 0.004). We conclude that country-specific socioeconomic factors, in particular current HCE, are strongly associated with survival of patients who experience severe aGvHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7390847PMC
April 2021

Multimodal Approach to Assessment of Fecal Microbiota Donors based on Three Complementary Methods.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 29;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland.

Methods of stool assessment are mostly focused on next-generation sequencing (NGS) or classical culturing, but only rarely both. We conducted a series of experiments using a multi-method approach to trace the stability of gut microbiota in various donors over time, to find the best method for the proper selection of fecal donors and to find "super-donor" indicators. Ten consecutive stools donated by each of three donors were used for the experiments (30 stools in total). The experiments assessed bacterial viability measured by flow cytometry, stool culturing on different media and in various conditions, and NGS (90 samples in total). There were no statistically significant differences between live and dead cell numbers; however, we found a group of cells classified as not-dead-not-alive, which may be possibly important in selection of "good" donors. Donor C, being a regular stool donor, was characterized by the largest number of cultivable species (64). Cultivable core microbiota (shared by all donors) was composed of only 16 species. ANCOM analysis of NGS data highlighted particular genera to be more abundant in one donor vs. the others. There was a correlation between the not-dead-not-alive group found in flow cytometry and found by NGS, and we could distinguish a regular stool donor from the others. In this work, we showed that combining various methods of microbiota assessment gives more information than each method separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409046PMC
June 2020

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and graft-versus-host disease induced by transmission of Norovirus with fecal microbiota transplant.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Feb 18;23(1):e13386. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to decolonize gastrointestinal tract from antibiotic-resistant bacteria before allogeneic hematopoietic cells transplantation (alloHCT). AlloHCT was complicated by norovirus gastroenteritis, acute graft-versus-host disease, and eosinophilic pancolitis. Norovirus was identified in samples from FMT material. Symptoms resolved after steroids course and second norovirus-free FMT from another donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13386DOI Listing
February 2021

Tandem Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Salvage Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Refractory to Induction Chemotherapy: A Case Report.

Transplant Proc 2020 Oct 20;52(8):2548-2550. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Background: Primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with dismal prognosis. No standard treatment options are available, and it remains an unmet clinical need. Here, we report a case of a tandem allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) performed in a patient who did not achieve remission after 2 courses of induction chemotherapy.

Methods Case Report: The treatment was approved by the Bioethical Commission of the Medical University of Warsaw and was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The patient gave informed consent.

Results: A 41-year-old woman was diagnosed with AML, high cytogenetic risk, with concomitant skin and central nervous system involvement, bone marrow necrosis, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. She received "3+7" induction and HAM (cytarabine, mitoxantrone) reinduction, after which she did not achieve remission and hematopoietic recovery. Tandem allo-HSCT was performed from the same HLA-identical brother---the first after reduced intensity conditioning (cladribine, cytarabine, mitoxantrone, melphalan) and the second after myeloablative conditioning (BuCy--busulphan, cyclophosphamide). The patient obtained complete remission after the first allo-HSCT and remains disease-free after the second for 5 years CONCLUSION: Tandem allo-HSCT may be a treatment option for primary refractory AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.01.124DOI Listing
October 2020

The challenge of COVID-19 and hematopoietic cell transplantation; EBMT recommendations for management of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, their donors, and patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 13;55(11):2071-2076. Epub 2020 May 13.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread over the world causing the disease by WHO called COVID-19. This pandemic poses unprecedented stress on the health care system including programs performing allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and cellular therapy such as with CAR T cells. Risk factors for severe disease include age and predisposing conditions such as cancer. The true impact on stem cell transplant and CAR T-cell recipients in unknown. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) has therefore developed recommendations for transplant programs and physicians caring for these patients. These guidelines were developed by experts from the Infectious Diseases Working Party and have been endorsed by EBMT's scientific council and board. This work intends to provide guidelines for transplant centers, management of transplant candidates and recipients, and donor issues until the COVID-19 pandemic has passed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0919-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220575PMC
November 2020

Association of Serum Ferritin Levels Before Start of Conditioning With Mortality After alloSCT - A Prospective, Non-interventional Study of the EBMT Transplant Complications Working Party.

Front Immunol 2020 15;11:586. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Elevated serum ferritin levels occur due to iron overload or during inflammation and macrophage activation. A correlation of high serum ferritin levels with increased mortality after alloSCT has been suggested by several retrospective analyses as well as by two smaller prospective studies. This prospective multicentric study aimed to study the association of ferritin serum levels before start of conditioning with alloSCT outcome. Patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma or MDS receiving a matched sibling alloSCT for the first time were considered for inclusion, regardless of conditioning. A comparison of outcomes between patients with high and low ferritin level was performed using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis using cause-specific Cox model. Twenty centers reported data on 298 alloSCT recipients. The ferritin cut off point was determined at 1500 μg/l (median of measured ferritin levels). In alloSCT recipients with ferritin levels above cut off measured before the start of conditioning, overall survival (HR = 2.5, CI = 1.5-4.1, = 0.0005) and progression-free survival (HR = 2.4, CI = 1.6-3.8, < 0.0001) were inferior. Excess mortality in the high ferritin group was due to both higher relapse incidence (HR = 2.2, CI = 1.2-3.8, = 0.007) and increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 3.1, CI = 1.5-6.4, = 0.002). NRM was driven by significantly higher infection-related mortality in the high ferritin group (HR = 3.9, CI = 1.6-9.7, = 0.003). Acute and chronic GVHD incidence or severity were not associated to serum ferritin levels. We conclude that ferritin levels can serve as routine laboratory biomarker for mortality risk assessment before alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174614PMC
March 2021

Negative Impact of Borderline Creatinine Concentration and Glomerular Filtration Rate at Baseline on the Outcome of Patients With Multiple Myeloma Treated With Autologous Stem Cell Transplant.

Transplant Proc 2020 Sep 26;52(7):2186-2192. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Internal Diseases, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Renal impairment (RI) is one of the multiple myeloma (MM)-defining events for initiating therapy. After induction therapy, high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (ASCT) remains the standard of care for transplant-eligible patients with MM. According to the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG), the organ criterion for kidney damage is defined by a serum creatinine concentration (CrC) > 2 mg/dL or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 40 mL/min. In this long-term study, we evaluated the impact of CrC and eGFR calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation on progression-free and overall survival using a lower threshold than the IMWG criteria.

Patients And Methods: We studied the longitudinal outcomes as measured by progression-free survival and overall survival in 59 transplant-eligible patients with MM: 38 patients with normal renal function and 21 patients with RI defined as a CrC higher than upper limit of normal (≥ 1.1 mg/dL), eGFR < 60 mL/min, treated with ASCT from 1998 to 2004.

Results: The risk of disease progression and death following ASCT increased by 16.5% (P = .005) and 19% (P < .0009) per 1 mg/dL of CrC, respectively. The thresholds for the association of renal insufficiency and negative outcomes were CrC > 1.4 mg/dL and eGFR < 55mL/min.

Conclusions: We observed a negative correlation between minimal renal insufficiency and long-term outcomes. Management of patients with even marginally increased CrC and/or decreased eGFR not fulfilling IMWG RI criteria requires more concentrated effort to reverse even minimal renal insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.02.067DOI Listing
September 2020

The EBMT activity survey on hematopoietic-cell transplantation and cellular therapy 2018: CAR-T's come into focus.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;55(8):1604-1613. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) is widely used for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. Number of transplants performed in Europe and associated countries continues to rise with 47,468 HCT in 42,901 patients [19,630 allogeneic (41%) and 27,838 autologous (59%)] reported by 701 centers in 50 countries in 2018. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,679 (25%; 97% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 27,318 (64%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1625 (4%; 2.9% allogeneic), and nonmalignant disorders 3063 (7%; 81% allogeneic). This year's analysis focuses on cellular therapies with the marked growth in CAR T-cell therapies from 151 in 2017 to 301 patients reported in 2018. Other cellular therapy numbers show less significant changes. Important trends in HCT include a 49% increase in allogeneic HCT for chronic phase CML (although transplant numbers remain low) and a 24% increase in aplastic anemia. In autologous HCT, there is an ongoing increase in autoimmune diseases (by 19%), predominantly due to activity in multiple sclerosis. This annual report reflects current activity and highlights important trends, useful for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0826-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391287PMC
August 2020

Prophylaxis and management of graft versus host disease after stem-cell transplantation for haematological malignancies: updated consensus recommendations of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Feb;7(2):e157-e167

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major factor contributing to mortality and morbidity after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Because of the small number of results from well designed, large-scale, clinical studies there is considerable variability in the prevention and treatment of GVHD worldwide. In 2014, to standardise treatment approaches the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation published recommendations on the management of GVHD in the setting of HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor transplantation in adult patients with haematological malignancies. Here we update these recommendations including the results of study published after 2014. Evidence was searched in three steps: first, a widespread scan of published trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews; second, expert opinion was added for specific issues following several rounds of debate; and third, a refined search to target debated or rapidly updating issues. On the basis of this evidence and the 2014 recommendations, five members of the EBMT Transplant Complications Working Party created 38 statements on GVHD prophylaxis, drug management, and treatment of acute and chronic GVHD. Subsequently, they created the EBMT GVHD management recommendation expert panel by recruiting 20 experts with expertise in GVHD management. An email-based, two-round Delphi panel approach was used to manage the consensus. Modified National Comprehensive Cancer Network categories for evidence and consensus were applied to the approved statements. We reached 100% consensus for 29 recommendations and 95% consensus for nine recommendations. Key updates to these recommendations include a broader use of rabbit anti-T-cell globulin; lower steroid doses for the management of grade 2 acute GVHD with isolated skin or upper gastrointestinal tract manifestations; fluticasone, azithromycin, and montelukast should be used for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; and the addition of newer treatment options for resteroid-refractory acute and chronic GVHD. In addition, we discuss specific aspects of GVHD prophylaxis and management in the setting of haploidentical transplantation and in paediatric patients, but no formal recommendations on those procedures have been provided in this Review. The European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation proposes to use these recommendations as a basis for the routine management of GVHD during stem-cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30256-XDOI Listing
February 2020

Management of adults and children undergoing chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy: best practice recommendations of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT and EBMT (JACIE).

Haematologica 2020 31;105(2):297-316. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a novel class of anti-cancer therapy in which autologous or allogeneic T cells are engineered to express a CAR targeting a membrane antigen. In Europe, tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah™) is approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and young adults as well as relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, while axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta™) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory high-grade B-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Both agents are genetically engineered autologous T cells targeting CD19. These practical recommendations, prepared under the auspices of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, relate to patient care and supply chain management under the following headings: patient eligibility, screening laboratory tests and imaging and work-up prior to leukapheresis, how to perform leukapheresis, bridging therapy, lymphodepleting conditioning, product receipt and thawing, infusion of CAR T cells, short-term complications including cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, antibiotic prophylaxis, medium-term complications including cytopenias and B-cell aplasia, nursing and psychological support for patients, long-term follow-up, post-authorization safety surveillance, and regulatory issues. These recommendations are not prescriptive and are intended as guidance in the use of this novel therapeutic class.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.229781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012497PMC
April 2021

Benchmarking of survival outcomes following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A review of existing processes and the introduction of an international system from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT and EBMT (JACIE).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 04 21;55(4):681-694. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Agence de la biomédecine, Paris, France.

In many healthcare settings, benchmarking for complex procedures has become a mandatory requirement by competent authorities, regulators, payers and patients to assure clinical performance, cost-effectiveness and safe care of patients. In several countries inside and outside Europe, benchmarking systems have been established for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but access is not universal. As benchmarking is now integrated into the FACT-JACIE standards, the EBMT and JACIE established a Clinical Outcomes Group (COG) to develop and introduce a universal system accessible across EBMT members. Established systems from seven European countries (United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland), USA and Australia were appraised, revealing similarities in process, but wide variations in selection criteria and statistical methods. In tandem, the COG developed the first phase of a bespoke risk-adapted international benchmarking model for one-year survival following allogeneic and autologous HSCT based on current capabilities within the EBMT registry core dataset. Data completeness, which has a critical impact on validity of centre comparisons, is also assessed. Ongoing development will include further scientific validation of the model, incorporation of further variables (when appropriate) alongside implementation of systems for clinically meaningful interpretation and governance aiming to maximise acceptance to centres, clinicians, payers and patients across EBMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0718-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113189PMC
April 2020

Association of uric acid levels before start of conditioning with mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation - a prospective, non-interventional study of the EBMT Transplant Complication Working Party.

Haematologica 2020 07 10;105(7):1977-1983. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Uric acid is a danger signal contributing to inflammation. Its relevance to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) derives from preclinical models where the depletion of uric acid led to improved survival and reduced graft--host disease (GvHD). In a clinical pilot trial, peri-transplant uric acid depletion reduced acute GvHD incidence. This prospective international multicenter study aimed to investigate the association of uric acid serum levels before start of conditioning with alloSCT outcome. We included patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma or myelodysplastic syndrome receiving a first matched sibling alloSCT from peripheral blood, regardless of conditioning. We compared outcomes between patients with high and low uric acid levels with univariate- and multivariate analysis using a cause-specific Cox model. Twenty centers from 10 countries reported data on 366 alloSCT recipients. There were no significant differences in terms of baseline comorbidity and disease stage between the high- and low uric acid group. Patients with uric acid levels above median measured before start of conditioning did not significantly differ from the remaining in terms of acute GvHD grades II-IV incidence (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-2.4, =0.08). However, they had significantly shorter overall survival (HR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.7-4.7, <0.0001) and progression free survival (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, =0.025). Non-relapse mortality was significantly increased in alloSCT recipients with high uric acid levels (HR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0, =0.003). Finally, the incidence of relapse after alloSCT was increased in patients with higher uric acid levels (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5, =0.04). We conclude that high uric acid levels before the start of conditioning correlate with increased mortality after alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.228668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327652PMC
July 2020

Results from a multicenter, noninterventional registry study for multiple myeloma patients who received stem cell mobilization regimens with and without plerixafor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 18;55(2):356-366. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

Plerixafor plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for collection and subsequent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This international, multicenter, noninterventional registry study (NCT01362972), evaluated long-term outcomes for MM patients who received plerixafor versus other mobilization regimens. The comparisons were: G-CSF + plerixafor (G-CSF + P) versus G-CSF-; G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G-CSF + C); and G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C. Propensity score matching was used to balance groups. Primary outcome measures were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) after transplantation. After propensity matching, 77 versus 41 patients in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF cohorts, 129 versus 129 in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + C cohorts, and 117 versus 117 in the G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C cohorts were matched, respectively. Propensity score matching resulted in a smaller sample size and imbalances were not completely overcome. For both PFS and OS, the upper limits of the hazard ratio 95% confidence intervals exceeded prespecified boundaries; noninferiority was not demonstrated. CIR rates were higher in the plerixafor cohorts. G-CSF + P remains an option for the mobilization of HSCs in poor mobilizers with MM with no substantial differences in PFS, OS, and CIR in comparison with other regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0676-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995780PMC
February 2020

Age-dependent determinants of infectious complications profile in children and adults after hematopoietic cell transplantation: lesson from the nationwide study.

Ann Hematol 2019 Sep 18;98(9):2197-2211. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

Incidence and outcome of microbiologically documented bacterial/viral infections and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children and adults after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were compared in 650 children and 3200 adults in multicenter cross-sectional nationwide study. Infections were diagnosed in 60.8% children and 35.0% adults, including respectively 69.1% and 63.5% allo-HCT, and 33.1% and 20.8% auto-HCT patients. The incidence of bacterial infections was higher in children (36.0% vs 27.6%; p < 0.0001). Infections with Gram-negative bacteria were more frequent than Gram-positives in adults (64.6% vs 44.8%; p < 0.0001). Outcome of bacterial infections was better in children (95.5% vs 91.4%; p = 0.0011). The IFD incidence (25.3% vs 6.3%; p < 0.0001) and outcome (88.0% vs 74.9%; p < 0.0001) were higher in children. The incidence of viral infections was higher in children after allo-HCT (56.3% vs 29.3%; p < 0.0001), and auto-HCT (6.6% vs 0.8%; p < 0.0001). Outcome of viral infections was better in children (98.6% vs 92.3%; p = 0.0096). Infection-related mortality was 7.8% in children and 18.4% in adults (p < 0.0001). No child after auto-HCT died of infection. Adult age, mismatched transplants, acute leukemia, chronic GVHD, CMV reactivation, infection with Gram-negatives, and duration of infection > 21 days were risk factors for death from infection. In conclusion, pediatric patients have 2.9-fold higher incidence and 2.5-fold better outcome of infections than adults after HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03755-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700048PMC
September 2019

Gonadal Function after Busulfan Compared with Treosulfan in Children and Adolescents Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 11;25(9):1786-1791. Epub 2019 May 11.

St. Anna Children's Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.005DOI Listing
September 2019

Indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe, 2019.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 10 5;54(10):1525-1552. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Hopital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

This is the seventh special EBMT report on the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Our aim is to provide general guidance on transplant indications according to prevailing clinical practice in EBMT countries and centres. In order to inform patient decisions, these recommendations must be considered together with the risk of the disease, the risk of the transplant procedure and the results of non-transplant strategies. In over two decades since the first report, the EBMT indications manuscripts have incorporated changes in transplant practice coming from scientific and technical developments in the field. In this same period, the establishment of JACIE accreditation has promoted high quality and led to improved outcomes of patient and donor care and laboratory performance in transplantation and cellular therapy. An updated report with operating definitions, revised indications and an additional set of data with overall survival at 1 year and non-relapse mortality at day 100 after transplant in the commonest standard-of-care indications is presented. Additional efforts are currently underway to enable EBMT member centres to benchmark their risk-adapted outcomes as part of the Registry upgrade Project 2020 against national and/or international outcome data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0516-2DOI Listing
October 2019
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