Publications by authors named "Gro Tunheim"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination of Norwegian teenagers with a quadrivalent ACWY conjugate vaccine.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Feb 25:1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

In Norway, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is higher among 16-19-year-olds than in the general population. Most IMD cases among teenagers are caused by serogroup Y. Since 2011, one dose of meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine (MCV4) has been recommended for teenagers with out-of-pocket payment. The teenagers are usually vaccinated through the school health service at age 18. This study aimed to estimate costs and health gains of introducing MCV4 to Norwegian teenagers through the national immunization program (NIP). A Markov model was used to analyze the cost-effectiveness of universal MCV4 vaccination of either 15-year-olds or 18-years-olds. Occurrences of IMD were simulated from 15 until 23 years of age. Costs were estimated from a healthcare perspective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of vaccine price, vaccination uptake, IMD incidence and discount rate. Compared to today's practice of vaccinating 18-year-olds with out-of-pocket payment, introducing MCV4 to 15-year-olds in a NIP-setting, with 90% vaccine uptake and 50% rebate on vaccine price, prevented 3.2 hospitalizations, 0.20 sequelae and 0.47 deaths among 15-23-year-olds, annually. Total costs were reduced by €30,000 and 9.7 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were gained per birth cohort. The probability of cost-effectiveness was 99.0%, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of €86,000/QALY for severe diseases in Norway. Cost-effectiveness was highly dependent on vaccine price. Vaccination of 18-year-olds in a NIP-setting was also cost-effective, but less than NIP-vaccination of 15-year-olds. Introduction of MCV4 to the 15-year-olds in the Norwegian NIP is likely to be cost-effective given a rebate on the vaccine price.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1880209DOI Listing
February 2021

Detection of anti-NS1 antibodies after pandemic influenza exposure: Evaluation of a serological method for distinguishing H1N1pdm09 infected from vaccinated cases.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2020 05 19;14(3):294-301. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Reliable exposure information is crucial for assessing health outcomes of influenza infection and vaccination. Current serological methods are unable to distinguish between anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies induced by infection or vaccination.

Objectives: We aimed to explore an alternative method for differentiating influenza infection and vaccination.

Methods: Sera from animals inoculated with influenza viruses or purified H1N1pdm09 HA were obtained. Human samples were selected from a pregnancy cohort established during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Unvaccinated, laboratory-confirmed cases (N = 18), vaccinated cases without influenza-like-illness (N = 18) and uninfected, unvaccinated controls (N = 18) were identified based on exposure data from questionnaires, national registries and maternal hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres at delivery. Animal and human samples were tested for antibodies against the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and HA from H1N1pdm09, using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS).

Results: Anti-NS1 H1N1pdm09 antibodies were detected in sera from experimentally infected, but not from vaccinated, animals. Anti-HA H1N1pdm09 antibodies were detectable after either of these exposures. In human samples, 28% of individuals with laboratory-confirmed influenza were seropositive for H1N1pdm09 NS1, whereas vaccinated cases and controls were seronegative. There was a trend for H1N1pdm09 NS1 seropositive cases reporting more severe and longer duration of symptomatic illness than seronegative cases. Anti-HA H1N1pdm09 antibodies were detected in all cases and in 61% of controls.

Conclusions: The LIPS method could differentiate between sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated animals. However, in human samples obtained more than 6 months after the pandemic, LIPS was specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for ascertaining cases by exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182603PMC
May 2020

Antibody levels in a cohort of pregnant women after the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: Waning and association with self-reported severity and duration of illness.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 03 1;13(2):191-200. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: A population-based pregnancy cohort was established in Norway to study potential effects of exposure to the 2009 influenza pandemic or pandemic vaccination during pregnancy.

Objectives: We studied maternal A(H1N1)pdm09-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI)-titer levels and waning in women with influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy compared to vaccinated women. Moreover, we studied the association between HI-titers and self-reported severity and duration of ILI.

Methods: HI-titers against the pandemic virus were measured in maternal blood samples obtained at birth, 3-9 months after exposure, and linked with information about pregnancy, influenza and vaccination from national registries and a cohort questionnaire.

Results: Among 1821 pregnant women included, 43.7% were unvaccinated and 19.3% of these had ILI. HI-titers were low (geometric mean titer (GMT) 11.3) in the unvaccinated women with ILI. Higher HI-titers (GMT 37.8) were measured in the vaccinated women. Estimated HI-titer waning was similar for vaccinated women and women with ILI. Most ILI episodes were moderate and lasted 3-5 days. Women with ILI reporting specific influenza symptoms such as fever or cough had higher HI-titers than women without these symptoms. Women who reported being "very ill" or illness duration of >5 days had higher HI-titers than women reporting less severe illness or illness of shorter duration, respectively.

Conclusions: Antibody waning was similar in vaccinated women and women with ILI. More severe ILI or longer duration of illness was associated with higher HI-titers. Most unvaccinated pregnant women with ILI had low HI-titers, probably due to moderate illness and HI-titer waning between exposure and sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379636PMC
March 2019

Risk of pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes after maternal A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza: a Norwegian population-based cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Oct 22;18(1):525. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Modelling, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The effects of maternal influenza infection on the fetus remain unclear. We studied mild influenza and influenza antibodies in relation to birth weight and risks of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA) birth among the unvaccinated participants in the Norwegian Influenza Pregnancy Cohort.

Methods: Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound were recruited from four hospitals in Norway shortly after the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. The present study was restricted to unvaccinated participants who were pregnant during the pandemic. Information on the participants was obtained through questionnaires and linkage with national registries. Maternal blood samples were collected at delivery. Women with laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza, a clinical diagnosis of influenza, or self-reported influenza during the pandemic were classified as having had influenza. A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibodies in serum were detected with the hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Detection of antibodies was considered an indicator of infection during the pandemic in the unvaccinated participants. Odds ratios were estimated with logistic regression. Quantile regression was used to estimate differences in the distribution of birth weight.

Results: Among the 1258 women included in this study, there were 37 cases of pre-eclampsia, 41 births were PTB, and 103 births were SGA. 226 women (18.0%) had influenza during the pandemic. The majority of cases did not receive medical care, and only a small proportion (1.3%) of the cases were hospitalized. Thus, the cases consisted primarily of women with mild illness. No significant associations between influenza and risk of pre-eclampsia, PTB, or SGA birth were observed. Detection of A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibodies was associated with a lower 10th percentile of birth weight, β = - 159 g (95% CI - 309, - 9).

Conclusions: Mild influenza illness during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia, PTB or SGA birth. However, influenza infection during pregnancy may reduce the birth weight of the smallest children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3435-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196446PMC
October 2018

Outer membrane vesicles extracted from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X for prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa.

Pharmacol Res 2017 Jul 8;121:194-201. Epub 2017 May 8.

Finlay Institute, P.O. Box 16000, La Lisa, Havana, Cuba.

Meningococcal disease is caused mainly by serogroups A, B, C, Y, W of N. meningitidis. However, numerous cases of meningitis caused by serogroup X N. meningitidis (MenX) have recently been reported in several African countries. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against this pathogen and most of the MenX cases have been caused by meningococci from clonal complex (c.c) 181. Detergent extracted meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (dOMV) vaccines have previously shown to be safe and effective against epidemics of serogroup B meningococcal disease in all age groups. The aim of this work is therefore to obtain, characterize and evaluate the vaccine potential of dOMVs derived from a MenX strain (OMVx). Three experimental lots of OMVx were prepared by deoxycholate extraction from the MenX strain BF 2/97. Size and morphology of the vesicles was determined by Dynamic Light Scattering and electron microscopy, whereas the antigenic composition was characterized by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. OMVx were thereafter adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (OMVx/AL) and two doses of OMVx were administered s.c. to groups of Balb/c mice three weeks apart. The immunogenicity and functional antibody activities in sera were evaluated by ELISA (anti-OMVx specific IgG responses) and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) assay. The size range of OMVx was shown to be between 90 and 120nm, whereas some of the antigens detected were the outer membrane proteins PorA, OpcA and RmpM. The OMVx/AL elicited high anti-OMVx antibody responses with bactericidal activity and no bactericidal activity was observed in the control group of no immunised mice. The results demonstrate that OMVx are immunogenic and could form part of a future vaccine to prevent the majority of meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2017.04.030DOI Listing
July 2017

Immune responses of a meningococcal A + W outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine with and without aluminium hydroxide adjuvant in two different mouse strains.

APMIS 2016 Nov 20;124(11):996-1003. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH), Domain for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Oslo, Norway.

Meningococci (Neisseria meningiditis) of serogroups A and W have caused large epidemics of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa for decades, and affordable and multivalent vaccines, effective in all age groups, are needed. A bivalent serogroup A and W (A + W) meningococcal vaccine candidate consisting of deoxycholate-extracted outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from representative African disease isolates was previously found to be highly immunogenic in outbred mice when formulated with the adjuvant aluminium hydroxide (AH). OMV has been shown to have inherent adjuvant properties. In order to study the importance of AH and genetical differences between mice strains on immune responses, we compared the immunogenicity of the A + W OMV vaccine when formulated with or without AH in inbred C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice (Th1 and Th2 dominant strains, respectively). The immunogenicity of the vaccine was found to be comparable in the two mice strains despite their different immune profiles. Adsorption to AH increased anti-OMV IgG levels and serum bactericidal activity (SBA). The immune responses were increased by each dose for the adsorbed vaccine, but the third dose did not significantly improve the immunogenicity further. Thus, a vaccine formulation with the A and W OMV will likely benefit from including AH as adjuvant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12589DOI Listing
November 2016

Maternal plasma total neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan levels during pregnancy in relation to asthma development in the offspring.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 11 20;138(5):1319-1325.e4. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Neopterin levels and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios (KTRs) increase with IFN-γ stimulation, indicating T1 immunity, and thus might be inversely associated with asthma.

Objective: We sought to examine the association of maternal neopterin levels and KTRs during pregnancy with asthma in the offspring.

Methods: We analyzed the associations of maternal plasma total neopterin levels and KTRs in midpregnancy with asthma at age 7 years among 2883 children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Asthma was classified either based on registered dispensed asthma medications in the Norwegian Prescription Database or maternal report. We calculated adjusted relative risks using log-binomial regression.

Results: The median gestational week of blood sampling was 18 weeks (interquartile range, 17-19 weeks). The risk of dispensed asthma medications at age 7 years was highest among children of mothers in the highest quartile of neopterin levels, whereas the risk was similar in the 3 lowest quartiles. The adjusted relative risk of dispensed asthma medications was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.16-2.38) when comparing children of mothers in the highest quartile with those in the 3 lowest quartiles. A similar association was observed for maternal report of asthma at age 7 years. When we evaluated allergic versus nonallergic asthma, neopterin levels tended to be associated with nonallergic asthma. Maternal KTR was not associated with asthma development.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that high maternal levels of neopterin, a marker of cellular immune activation, during pregnancy were positively associated with asthma in offspring. Experimental studies would be needed to further elucidate underlying mechanisms.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073035PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.02.032DOI Listing
November 2016

Immune Responses in Acute and Convalescent Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Disease during the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Norway.

PLoS One 2015 25;10(11):e0143281. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Division of Infectious Disease Control, Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Increased understanding of immune responses influencing clinical severity during pandemic influenza infection is important for improved treatment and vaccine development. In this study we recruited 46 adult patients during the 2009 influenza pandemic and characterized humoral and cellular immune responses. Those included were either acute hospitalized or convalescent patients with different disease severities (mild, moderate or severe). In general, protective antibody responses increased with enhanced disease severity. In the acute patients, we found higher levels of TNF-α single-producing CD4+T-cells in the severely ill as compared to patients with moderate disease. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a subset of acute patients with peptide T-cell epitopes showed significantly lower frequencies of influenza specific CD8+ compared with CD4+ IFN-γ T-cells in acute patients. Both T-cell subsets were predominantly directed against the envelope antigens (HA and NA). However, in the convalescent patients we found high levels of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells directed against conserved core antigens (NP, PA, PB, and M). The results indicate that the antigen targets recognized by the T-cell subsets may vary according to the phase of infection. The apparent low levels of cross-reactive CD8+ T-cells recognizing internal antigens in acute hospitalized patients suggest an important role for this T-cell subset in protective immunity against influenza.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143281PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659565PMC
June 2016

Epitope specific T-cell responses against influenza A in a healthy population.

Immunology 2016 Feb 8;147(2):165-77. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Division of Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Pre-existing human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity may be a useful correlate of protection against severe influenza disease. Identification and evaluation of common epitopes recognized by T cells with broad cross-reactivity is therefore important to guide universal influenza vaccine development, and to monitor immunological preparedness against pandemics. We have retrieved an optimal combination of MHC class I and class II restricted epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database (www.iedb.org), by defining a fitness score function depending on prevalence, sequence conservancy and HLA super-type coverage. Optimized libraries of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes were selected from influenza antigens commonly present in seasonal and pandemic influenza strains from 1934 to 2009. These epitope pools were used to characterize human T-cell responses in healthy donors using interferon-γ ELISPOT assays. Upon stimulation, significant CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were induced, primarily recognizing epitopes from the conserved viral core proteins. Furthermore, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were phenotypically characterized regarding functionality, cytotoxic potential and memory phenotype using flow cytometry. Optimized sets of T-cell peptide epitopes may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of clinical trials, the immune status of a population to predict immunological preparedness against pandemics, as well as being candidates for universal influenza vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.12548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717245PMC
February 2016

The specificity of targeted vaccines for APC surface molecules influences the immune response phenotype.

PLoS One 2013 11;8(11):e80008. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Institute of Immunology, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway ; K.G. Jebsen Centre for Influenza Vaccine Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Different diseases require different immune responses for efficient protection. Thus, prophylactic vaccines should prime the immune system for the particular type of response needed for protection against a given infectious agent. We have here tested fusion DNA vaccines which encode proteins that bivalently target influenza hemagglutinins (HA) to different surface molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC). We demonstrate that targeting to MHC class II molecules predominantly induced an antibody/Th2 response, whereas targeting to CCR1/3/5 predominantly induced a CD8(+)/Th1 T cell response. With respect to antibodies, the polarizing effect was even more pronounced upon intramuscular (i.m) delivery as compared to intradermal (i.d.) vaccination. Despite these differences in induced immune responses, both vaccines protected against a viral challenge with influenza H1N1. Substitution of HA with ovalbumin (OVA) demonstrated that polarization of immune responses, as a consequence of APC targeting specificity, could be extended to other antigens. Taken together, the results demonstrate that vaccination can be tailor-made to induce a particular phenotype of adaptive immune responses by specifically targeting different surface molecules on APCs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080008PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823800PMC
August 2014

Recombinant antibodies for delivery of antigen: a single loop between beta-strands in the constant region can accommodate long, complex and tandem T cell epitopes.

Int Immunol 2008 Mar 4;20(3):295-306. Epub 2008 Feb 4.

Center for Immune Regulation, Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Oslo and Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Norway.

Recombinant antibodies are increasingly used for efficient delivery of T cell epitopes to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), both for vaccination purposes and for immune modulation. We have previously shown that recombinant antibodies can accommodate single T cell epitopes inserted into loops between beta-strands in constant (C) domains. Such recombinant antibodies have in addition been equipped with variable regions that target APCs for increased delivery of C region T cell epitopes. We here show that loop 6 (loop FG) in C(H)1 of human gamma 3 can be exchanged with (i) long T cell epitopes up to 37 amino acids, (ii) epitopes with complex secondary structure such as gluten epitopes with a type II polyproline helical confirmation and (iii) two tandemly linked T cell epitopes. T cell responses increased with T cell epitope elongation, presumably due to a positive influence of flanking residues. Recombinant antibodies targeted to either CD14 on monocytes or HLA-DP on monocytes and dendritic cells gave similar results and were 2-4 logs more efficient at stimulating human T cells than were non-targeted controls. Thus, single loops in C regions of recombinant antibodies seem versatile and may be used for delivery of lengthy, complex and multiple T cell epitopes to human APCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxm141DOI Listing
March 2008

Human receptors of innate immunity (CD14, TLR2) are promising targets for novel recombinant immunoglobulin-based vaccine candidates.

Vaccine 2007 Jun 20;25(24):4723-34. Epub 2007 Apr 20.

Institute of Immunology, University of Oslo and Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Sognsvannsveien 20, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Experiments in mice have suggested that engagement of receptors of innate immunity has an adjuvant effect on adaptive immune responses. Such studies need to be extended to humans. We have here constructed recombinant scFv-based vaccine candidate proteins (vaccibodies) that target human TLR2 and CD14 for delivery of large antigens. Vaccibodies are homodimers, each chain consisting of scFv specific for surface molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC), a homodimerization motif, and an antigenic unit. The TLR2- and CD14-specific vaccibodies bound their respective target receptors expressed on transfected CHO cells and PBMC. Large proteins such as paired mouse Ckappa-domains (229 aa) and fragment C of tetanus toxin (TetC, 451 aa) could be expressed as antigenic units with intact serological determinants detected by mAb or polyclonal antisera. In the presence of monocytes, TLR2- and CD14-specific vaccibodies having either Ckappa or TetC as antigenic unit were 100-10,000 more efficient at stimulating T cell clones in vitro compared to non-targeted vaccibodies expressing the same antigens. The results show that TLR2 and CD14 are efficient targets for delivery of antigen to APC for stimulation of HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T cells. Thus, receptors of innate immunity should be further explored as targets for vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.04.004DOI Listing
June 2007

Endocytic pathways regulate Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and link innate and adaptive immunity.

EMBO J 2006 Feb 9;25(4):683-92. Epub 2006 Feb 9.

Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Immune responses are initiated when molecules of microbial origin are sensed by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We now report the identification of essential molecular components for the trafficking of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex. LPS was endocytosed by a receptor-mediated mechanism dependent on dynamin and clathrin and colocalized with TLR4 on early/sorting endosomes. TLR4 was ubiquitinated and associated with the ubiquitin-binding endosomal sorting protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs. Inhibition of endocytosis and endosomal sorting increased LPS signaling. Finally, the LPS receptor complex was sorted to late endosomes/lysosomes for degradation and loading of associated antigens onto HLA class II molecules for presentation to CD4+ T cells. Our results show that endosomal trafficking of the LPS receptor complex is essential for signal termination and LPS-associated antigen presentation, thus controlling both innate and adaptive immunity through TLR4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7600991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1383569PMC
February 2006

Human CD14 is an efficient target for recombinant immunoglobulin vaccine constructs that deliver T cell epitopes.

J Leukoc Biol 2005 Mar 2;77(3):303-10. Epub 2004 Dec 2.

University of Oslo and Rikshospitalet University Hospital, N-0027 Oslo, Norway.

It has been shown in the mouse that recombinant immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules with T cell epitopes inserted into the constant domain (Troybodies) can target antigen-presenting cells (APC) for efficient delivery of T cell epitopes. Here, we have extended the Troybody concept to human applications. Moreover, we show that a receptor of innate immunity, CD14, which is a part of the lipopolysaccharide receptor complex on monocyte APC, is an efficient target. For construction of CD14-specific Troybodies, we used rearranged variable(diversity)joining regions cloned from the 3C10 mouse B cell hybridoma. As a model T cell epitope, amino acids 40-48 of mouse Ckappa, presented on human leukocyte antigen-DR4, were inserted into a loop connecting beta-strands in C(H)1 of human gamma3. In the presence of monocytes, CD14-specific Troybodies were >100 times as efficient as a nontargeting control antibody (Ab) at stimulating Ckappa(40-48)-specific/DR4-restricted T cells. Presentation was dependent on the conventional processing pathway for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Enhanced presentation of the Ckappa epitope was most likely a result of increased loading of MHC class II molecules, as the CD14-specific monoclonal Ab 3C10 did not induce maturation of the APC. The results show that CD14, a receptor of innate immunity, may be a promising target of recombinant Ig-based vaccines for elicitation of T cell responses in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0804480DOI Listing
March 2005