Publications by authors named "Grete Hasvold"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Determination of Tacrolimus Concentration and Protein Expression of P-Glycoprotein in Single Human Renal Core Biopsies.

Ther Drug Monit 2018 06;40(3):292-300

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Background: Tacrolimus (TAC) is currently the cornerstone of immunosuppressive protocols for renal transplant recipients. Despite therapeutic whole blood monitoring, TAC is associated with nephrotoxicity, and it has been hypothesized that intrarenal accumulation of TAC and/or its metabolites are involved. As TAC is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the expression and activity of this efflux transporter could influence the levels of TAC in renal tissue. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for quantification of TAC in tissue homogenates from single human renal core biopsies. The secondary aim was to provide measures of P-gp expression and of the demethylated metabolites of TAC in the same renal biopsy.

Methods: Human renal tissue, with and without clinical TAC exposure, was used for method development and validation. Homogenates were prepared with bead-beating, and concentrations of TAC and its demethylated metabolites were analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after protein precipitation. A Western blot method was used for semiquantification of P-gp expression in the homogenates. The final methods were applied to renal core biopsies from 2 transplant patients.

Results: The TAC assay showed within- and between-run mean accuracy between 99.7% and 107% and coefficients of variation ≤6.7%. Matrix effects were nonsignificant, and samples were stable for 3 months preanalytically when stored at -80°C. TAC concentrations in the renal core biopsies were 62.6 and 43.7 pg/mg tissue. The methods for measurement of desmethyl-TAC and P-gp expression were suitable for semiquantification in homogenates from renal core biopsies.

Conclusions: These methods may be valuable for the elucidation of the pharmacokinetic mechanisms behind TAC-induced nephrotoxicity in renal transplant recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000510DOI Listing
June 2018

TLR9 stimulation of B-cells induces transcription of p53 and prevents spontaneous and irradiation-induced cell death independent of DNA damage responses. Implications for Common variable immunodeficiency.

PLoS One 2017 3;12(10):e0185708. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

In the present study, we address the important issue of whether B-cells protected from irradiation-induced cell death, may survive with elevated levels of DNA damage. If so, such cells would be at higher risk of gaining mutations and undergoing malignant transformation. We show that stimulation of B-cells with the TLR9 ligands CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) prevents spontaneous and irradiation-induced death of normal peripheral blood B-cells, and of B-cells from patients diagnosed with Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The TLR9-mediated survival is enhanced by the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA). Importantly, neither stimulation of B-cells via TLR9 alone or with RA increases irradiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA damage responses such as activation of ATM and DNA-PKcs. We prove that elevated levels of γH2AX imposed by irradiation of stimulated B-cells is not due to induction of DNA double strand breaks, but merely reflects increased levels of total H2AX upon stimulation. Interestingly however, we unexpectedly find that TLR9 stimulation of B-cells induces low amounts of inactive p53, explained by transcriptional induction of TP53. Taken together, we show that enhanced survival of irradiated B-cells is not accompanied by elevated levels of DNA damage. Our results imply that TLR9-mediated activation of B-cells not only promotes cell survival, but may via p53 provide cells with a barrier against harmful consequences of enhanced activation and proliferation. As CVID-derived B-cells are more radiosensitive and prone to undergo apoptosis than normal B-cells, our data support treatment of CVID patients with CpG-ODN and RA.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185708PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5626471PMC
October 2017

Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Respond to Short-Term Hypoxia by Secreting Factors Beneficial for Human Islets In Vitro and Potentiate Antidiabetic Effect In Vivo.

Cell Med 2017 14;9(3):103-116. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Department of Transplant Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) release factors beneficial for islets in vitro and protect against hyperglycemia in rodent models of diabetes. Oxygen tension has been shown to induce metabolic changes and alter ASCs' release of soluble factors. The effects of hypoxia on the antidiabetic properties of ASCs have not been explored. To investigate this, we incubated human ASCs for 48 h in 21% (normoxia) or 1% O (hypoxia) and compared viability, cell growth, surface markers, differentiation capability, and soluble factors in the conditioned media (CM). Human islets were exposed to CM from ASCs incubated in either normoxia or hypoxia, and islet function and apoptosis after culture with or without proinflammatory cytokines were measured. To test hypoxic preconditioned ASCs' islet protective effects in vivo, ASCs were incubated for 48 h in normoxia or hypoxia before being injected into Balb/c Rag 1 immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced insulitis. Progression of diabetes and insulin content of pancreas were measured. We found that incubation in hypoxia was well tolerated by ASCs and that levels of VEGF-A, FGF-2, and bNGF were elevated in CM from ASCs incubated in hypoxia compared to normoxia, while levels of HGF, IL-8, and CXCL1 were reduced. CM from ASCs incubated in hypoxia significantly improved human islet function and reduced apoptosis after culture, and reduced cytokine-induced apoptosis. In our mouse model, pancreas insulin content was higher in both groups receiving ASCs compared to control, but the mice receiving preconditioned ASCs had lower random and fasting blood glucose, as well as improved oral glucose tolerance compared to untreated mice. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that the islet protective potential of ASCs improves in hypoxia, and we give insight into factors involved in this. Finally we show that hypoxic preconditioning potentiates ASCs' antidiabetic effect in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/215517917X693401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509020PMC
April 2017

Combined inhibition of Wee1 and Chk1 gives synergistic DNA damage in S-phase due to distinct regulation of CDK activity and CDC45 loading.

Oncotarget 2017 Feb;8(7):10966-10979

Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, N-0310, Norway.

Recent studies have shown synergistic cytotoxic effects of simultaneous Chk1- and Wee1-inhibition. However, the mechanisms behind this synergy are not known. Here, we present a flow cytometry-based screen for compounds that cause increased DNA damage in S-phase when combined with the Wee1-inhibitor MK1775. Strikingly, the Chk1-inhibitors AZD7762 and LY2603618 were among the top candidate hits of 1664 tested compounds, suggesting that the synergistic cytotoxic effects are due to increased S-phase DNA damage. Combined Wee1- and Chk1-inhibition caused a strong synergy in induction of S-phase DNA damage and reduction of clonogenic survival. To address the underlying mechanisms, we developed a novel assay measuring CDK-dependent phosphorylations in single S-phase cells. Surprisingly, while Wee1-inhibition alone induced less DNA damage compared to Chk1-inhibition, Wee1-inhibition caused a bigger increase in S-phase CDK-activity. However, the loading of replication initiation factor CDC45 was more increased after Chk1- than Wee1-inhibition and further increased by the combined treatment, and thus correlated well with DNA damage. Therefore, when Wee1 alone is inhibited, Chk1 suppresses CDC45 loading and thereby limits the extent of unscheduled replication initiation and subsequent S-phase DNA damage, despite very high CDK-activity. These results can explain why combined treatment with Wee1- and Chk1-inhibitors gives synergistic anti-cancer effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5355238PMC
February 2017

Hypoxia-induced alterations of G2 checkpoint regulators.

Mol Oncol 2016 05 8;10(5):764-73. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, 0310 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Hypoxia promotes an aggressive tumor phenotype with increased genomic instability, partially due to downregulation of DNA repair pathways. However, genome stability is also surveilled by cell cycle checkpoints. An important issue is therefore whether hypoxia also can influence the DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we show that hypoxia (24 h 0.2% O2) alters the expression of several G2 checkpoint regulators, as examined by microarray gene expression analysis and immunoblotting of U2OS cells. While some of the changes reflected hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression, the levels of several G2 checkpoint regulators, in particular Cyclin B, were reduced in G2 phase cells after hypoxic exposure, as shown by flow cytometric barcoding analysis of individual cells. These effects were accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of a Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) target in G2 phase cells after hypoxia, suggesting decreased CDK activity. Furthermore, cells pre-exposed to hypoxia showed increased G2 checkpoint arrest upon treatment with ionizing radiation. Similar results were found following other hypoxic conditions (∼0.03% O2 20 h and 0.2% O2 72 h). These results demonstrate that the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint can be altered as a consequence of hypoxia, and we propose that such alterations may influence the genome stability of hypoxic tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molonc.2015.12.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423158PMC
May 2016

Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases.

Front Genet 2015 27;6:70. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital , Oslo, Norway ; Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital , Oslo, Norway.

Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin, or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2015.00070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4343027PMC
March 2015

The efficacy of CHK1 inhibitors is not altered by hypoxia, but is enhanced after reoxygenation.

Mol Cancer Ther 2013 May 1;12(5):705-16. Epub 2013 May 1.

Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Inhibitors of CHK1 are in clinical trials for cancer treatment in combination with DNA-damaging agents. Importantly, it was previously suggested that hypoxic cancer cells may be particularly sensitive to CHK1 inhibition. However, this suggestion was based on studies in severe, toxic levels of hypoxia (anoxia). The influence of less severe hypoxia on the efficacy of CHK1 inhibitors, administered either as single agents or in combination with other treatments, remains to be investigated. Here, we have assayed the effects of the CHK1 inhibitors, AZD7762 and UCN-01, during various hypoxic conditions and after reoxygenation in the absence and presence of ionizing radiation. Treatment with CHK1 inhibitors during acute or prolonged hypoxia (< 0.03%, 0.2%, and 1% O2; 3 h or 20-24 h) gave similar effects on cell survival as treatment with these inhibitors during normoxia. CHK1 inhibitors combined with ionizing radiation showed similar radiosensitization in hypoxic and normoxic cells. However, when the inhibitors were administered after reoxygenation following prolonged hypoxia (< 0.03% and 0.2%; 20-24 h), we observed decreased cell survival and stronger induction of the DNA damage marker, γH2AX, in S-phase cells. This was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of the single-stranded DNA-binding replication protein A. These results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of CHK1 inhibitors are enhanced after reoxygenation following prolonged hypoxia, most likely due to the increased replication-associated DNA damage. Combining CHK1 inhibitors with other treatments that cause increased reoxygenation, such as fractionated radiotherapy, might therefore be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-0879DOI Listing
May 2013

Hypoxia-induced gene expression in chemoradioresistant cervical cancer revealed by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

Cancer Res 2012 Oct 13;72(20):5285-95. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

Department of Radiation Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Nydalen, Norway.

Knowledge of the molecular background of functional magnetic resonance (MR) images is required to fully exploit their potential in cancer management. We explored the prognostic impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters in cervical cancer combined with global gene expression data to reveal their underlying molecular phenotype and construct a representative gene signature for the relevant parameter. On the basis of 78 patients with cervical cancer subjected to curative chemoradiotherapy, we identified the prognostic DCE-MRI parameter A(Brix) by pharmacokinetic analysis of pretreatment images based on the Brix model, in which tumors with low A(Brix) appeared to be most aggressive. Gene set analysis of 46 tumors with pairwise DCE-MRI and gene expression data showed a significant correlation between A(Brix) and the hypoxia gene sets, whereas gene sets related to other tumor phenotypes were not significant. Hypoxia gene sets specific for cervical cancer created in cell culture experiments, including both targets of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1α) and the unfolded protein response, were the most significant. In the remaining 32 tumors, low A(Brix) was associated with upregulation of HIF1α protein expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, consistent with increased hypoxia. On the basis of the hypoxia gene sets, a signature of 31 genes that were upregulated in tumors with low A(Brix) was constructed. This DCE-MRI hypoxia gene signature showed prognostic impact in an independent validation cohort of 109 patients. Our findings reveal the molecular basis of an aggressive hypoxic phenotype and suggest the use of DCE-MRI to noninvasively identify patients with hypoxia-related chemoradioresistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-1085DOI Listing
October 2012

The protein phosphatase 1 regulator PNUTS is a new component of the DNA damage response.

EMBO Rep 2010 Nov 1;11(11):868-75. Epub 2010 Oct 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The function of protein phosphatase 1 nuclear-targeting subunit (PNUTS)--one of the most abundant nuclear-targeting subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c)--remains largely uncharacterized. We show that PNUTS depletion by small interfering RNA activates a G2 checkpoint in unperturbed cells and prolongs G2 checkpoint and Chk1 activation after ionizing-radiation-induced DNA damage. Overexpression of PNUTS-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)--which is rapidly and transiently recruited at DNA damage sites--inhibits G2 arrest. Finally, γH2AX, p53-binding protein 1, replication protein A and Rad51 foci are present for a prolonged period and clonogenic survival is decreased in PNUTS-depleted cells after ionizing radiation treatment. We identify the PP1c regulatory subunit PNUTS as a new and integral component of the DNA damage response involved in DNA repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/embor.2010.134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2966950PMC
November 2010
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