Publications by authors named "Gretchen L Snyder"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Selective PDE1 inhibition ameliorates vascular function, reduces inflammatory response, and lowers blood pressure in ageing animals.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Erasmus MC, Netherlands

Diminished nitric oxide - cGMP -mediated relaxation plays a crucial role in cardiovascular ageing, leading to decreased vasodilation, vascular hypertrophy and stiffening, and ultimately cardiovascular dysfunction. Ageing is the time-related worsening of physiological function due to complex cellular and molecular interactions, and is at least partly driven by DNA damage. Genetic deletion of the DNA repair enzyme ERCC1 endonuclease in mice provides us an efficient tool to accelerate vascular ageing, explore mechanisms, and test potential treatments. Previously we identified the cGMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterase 1 as a potential treatment target in vascular ageing. In the present study, we studied the effect of acute and chronic treatment with ITI-214, a selective phosphodiesterase 1 inhibitor on vascular ageing features in mice. Compared to wild-type mice, mice at the age of 14 weeks showed decreased reactive hyperemia, diminished endothelium-dependent and -independent responses of arteries in organ baths, carotid wall hypertrophy, and elevated circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Acute ITI-214 treatment in organ baths restored the arterial endothelium-independent vasodilation in mice. An 8-week treatment with 100 mg/kg/d ITI-214 improved endothelium-independent relaxation in both aorta and coronary arteries, at least partly restored the diminished reactive hyperemia, lowered the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, normalized the carotid hypertrophy, and ameliorated inflammatory responses exclusively in mice. These findings suggest PDE1 inhibition would provide a powerful tool for nitric oxide - cGMP augmentation and have significant therapeutic potential to battle arteriopathy related to ageing. The findings implicate the key role of PDE1 in vascular function and might be of clinical importance for prevention of mortalities and morbidities related to vascular complications during ageing, as well as for progeria patients that show a high risk of cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.121.000628DOI Listing
June 2021

A review of the pharmacology and clinical profile of lumateperone for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Adv Pharmacol 2021 29;90:253-276. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., The Alexandria Center for Life Science, New York, NY, United States.

Schizophrenia is associated with a tremendous individual and societal burden. The disease is characterized by a complex set of symptoms including psychosis, hallucinations, delusions and related positive symptoms combined with social function deficits, cognitive disturbances and, often, devastating mood disorder, such as comorbid depression. Management of the disease often requires lifelong pharmacotherapy. However, many pharmacotherapies do not improve all symptoms (e.g., social withdrawal, depression, cognitive deficits) and can be associated with intolerable side effects such as weight gain and metabolic disturbances, motor dysfunction and endocrine dysregulation. Lumateperone (ITI-007, CAPLYTA™) is a novel antipsychotic agent, discovered and developed by Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc. (ITCI) and approved for treatment of schizophrenia in adults in December 2019. Lumateperone simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission, three key neurotransmitters implicated in schizophrenia. It achieves efficacy with a favorable safety profile. The clinical development program included 20 clinical trials with over 1900 individuals exposed to lumateperone. The program demonstrated the efficacy for lumateperone in two positive well controlled trials in patients with schizophrenia. The unique pharmacology of lumateperone supports the observed benefits across a wide range of symptoms, including social function and depression, and supports its favorable safety profile. Here, we review the discovery of lumateperone's unique biological effects and its clinical actions in the treatment of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2020.09.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Inhibition of calcium-calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase (PDE1) suppresses inflammatory responses.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2020 01 23;102:103449. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., The Alexandria Center for Life Sciences, 430 East 29th St Suite 900, New York, NY 10016, United States of America.

A novel, potent, and highly specific inhibitor of calcium-calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterases (PDE) of the PDE1 family, ITI-214, was used to investigate the role of PDE1 in inflammatory responses. ITI-214 dose-dependently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in an immortalized murine microglial cell line, BV2 cells. RNA profiling (RNA-Seq) was used to analyze the impact of ITI-214 on the BV2 cell transcriptome in the absence and the presence of LPS. ITI-214 was found to regulate classes of genes that are involved in inflammation and cell migration responses to LPS exposure. The gene expression changes seen with ITI-214 treatment were distinct from those elicited by inhibitors of other PDEs with anti-inflammatory activity (e.g., a PDE4 inhibitor), indicating a distinct mechanism of action for PDE1. Functionally, ITI-214 inhibited ADP-induced migration of BV2 cells through a P2Y12-receptor-dependent pathway, possibly due to increases in the extent of cAMP and VASP phosphorylation downstream of receptor activation. Importantly, this effect was recapitulated in P2 rat microglial cells in vitro, indicating that these pathways are active in native microglial cells. These studies are the first to demonstrate that inhibition of PDE1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects through effects on microglia signaling pathways. The ability of PDE1 inhibitors to prevent or dampen excessive inflammatory responses of BV2 cells and microglia provides a basis for exploring their therapeutic utility in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased inflammation and microglia proliferation such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2019.103449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783477PMC
January 2020

PDE Inhibitors for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;17:385-409

Clinical Development, Intra-Cellular Therapies Inc (ITI), 430 East 29th Street, Suite 900, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disorder affecting over 1% of the world's population. Dopamine system dysfunction is strongly implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Data support the long-standing concept of schizophrenia as a disease characterized by hyperactivity within midbrain (striatal D2) dopamine systems. In addition, there is now considerable evidence that glutamate neurotransmission, mediated through NMDA-type receptors, is deficient in patients with schizophrenia and that hypoactivity in cortical dopamine and glutamate pathways is a key feature of this serious mental disorder. While current antipsychotic medications-with a common mechanism involving dopamine D2 receptor antagonism or pre-synaptic partial agonism-adequately address positive symptoms of the disease, such as the acute hallucinations and delusions, they fail to substantially improve negative features, such as social isolation, and can further compromise poor cognitive function associated with schizophrenia. In fact, cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. The treatment of cognitive impairment and other residual symptoms associated with schizophrenia, therefore, remains a significant unmet medical need. With current cell-surface receptor-based pharmacology falling short of addressing these core cognitive symptoms, more recent approaches to treatment development have focused on processes within the cell. In this review, we discuss the importance of cyclic nucleotide (cNT) phosphodiestereases (PDEs)-intracellular enzymes that control the activity of key second messenger signaling pathways in the brain-which have been proposed as targets for new schizophrenia therapies. We also discuss the challenge facing those developing drugs to target specific PDE enzymes involved in psychopathology without involving other systems that produce concomitant side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58811-7_14DOI Listing
January 2018

Preclinical profile of ITI-214, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 1, for enhancement of memory performance in rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016 Sep 24;233(17):3113-24. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Intra-Cellular Therapies Inc., 430 East 29th Street, Suite 900, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Rationale: Therapeutic agents for memory enhancement in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, are urgently needed.

Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the preclinical profile of ITI-214, a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1).

Methods: ITI-214 was assayed for inhibition of PDE1 versus other PDE enzyme families using recombinant human PDE enzymes and for off-target binding to 70 substrates (General SEP II diversity panel; Caliper Life Sciences). Effects of ITI-214 (0.1-10 mg/kg, po) on memory performance were assayed in rats using the novel object recognition (NOR) paradigm, with drug given at specified time points prior to or following exposure to objects in an open field. ITI-214 was evaluated for potential drug-drug interaction with risperidone in rats using conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and pharmacokinetic assessments.

Results: ITI-214 inhibited PDE1A (K i = 33 pmol) with >1000-fold selectivity for the nearest other PDE family (PDE4D) and displayed minimal off-target binding interactions in a 70-substrate selectivity profile. By using specific timing of oral ITI-214 administration, it was demonstrated in the NOR that ITI-214 is able to enhance acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval memory processes. All memory effects were in the absence of effects on exploratory behavior. ITI-214 did not disrupt the risperidone pharmacokinetic profile or effects in CAR.

Conclusions: ITI-214 improved the memory processes of acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval across a broad dose range (0.1-10 mg/kg, po) without disrupting the antipsychotic-like activity of a clinical antipsychotic medication, specifically risperidone. Clinical development of ITI-214 is currently in progress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-016-4346-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4980415PMC
September 2016

Dopamine Targeting Drugs for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Past, Present and Future.

Curr Top Med Chem 2016 ;16(29):3385-3403

Intra-Cellular Therapies Inc, 430 East 29th Street, Suite 900, New York, NY 10016, United States.

Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1% of the world's population. This disease is associated with considerable morbidity placing a major financial burden on society. Antipsychotics have been the mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia for decades. The traditional typical and atypical antipsychotics demonstrate clinical efficacy in treating positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, while are largely ineffective and may worsen negative symptoms, such as blunted affect and social withdrawal, as well as cognitive function. The inability to treat these latter symptoms may contribute to social function impairment associated with schizophrenia. The dysfunction of multiple neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia suggests that drugs selectively targeting one neurotransmission pathway are unlikely to meet all the therapeutic needs of this heterogeneous disorder. Often, however, the unintentional engagement of multiple pharmacological targets or even the excessive engagement of intended pharmacological targets can lead to undesired consequences and poor tolerability. In this article, we will review marketed typical and atypical antipsychotics and new therapeutic agents targeting dopamine receptors and other neurotransmitters for the treatment of schizophrenia. Representative typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs and new investigational drug candidates will be systematically reviewed and compared by reviewing structure-activity relationships, pharmacokinetic properties, drug metabolism and safety, pharmacological properties, preclinical data in animal models, clinical outcomes and associated side effects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5112764PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026616666160608084834DOI Listing
February 2017

Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosphodiesterase 1 for the Treatment of Cognitive Impairment Associated with Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Diseases.

J Med Chem 2016 Feb 2;59(3):1149-64. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc. , 430 East 29th Street, Suite 900, New York, New York 10016, United States.

A diverse set of 3-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinones was designed and synthesized. The structure-activity relationships of these polycyclic compounds as phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) inhibitors were studied along with their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Systematic optimizations of this novel scaffold culminated in the identification of a clinical candidate, (6aR,9aS)-2-(4-(6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)benzyl)-5-methyl-3-(phenylamino)-5,6a,7,8,9,9a-hexahydrocyclopenta[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazolo[4,3-e]pyrimidin-4-(2H)-one phosphate (ITI-214), which exhibited picomolar inhibitory potency for PDE1, demonstrated excellent selectivity against all other PDE families and showed good efficacy in vivo. Currently, this investigational new drug is in Phase I clinical development and being considered for the treatment of several indications including cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, and other central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01751DOI Listing
February 2016

Functional profile of a novel modulator of serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmission.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2015 Feb 15;232(3):605-21. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., 3960 Broadway, New York, NY, 10032, USA,

Rationale: Schizophrenia remains among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders, and current treatment options are accompanied by unwanted side effects. New treatments that better address core features of the disease with minimal side effects are needed.

Objectives: As a new therapeutic approach, 1-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-((6bR, 10aS)-3-methyl-2,3,6b,9,10,10a-hexahydro-1H,7H-pyrido[3',4':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]quinoxalin-8-yl)-butan-1-one (ITI-007) is currently in human clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here, we characterize the preclinical functional activity of ITI-007.

Results: ITI-007 is a potent 5-HT2A receptor ligand (K i  = 0.5 nM) with strong affinity for dopamine (DA) D2 receptors (K i  = 32 nM) and the serotonin transporter (SERT) (K i  = 62 nM) but negligible binding to receptors (e.g., H1 histaminergic, 5-HT2C, and muscarinic) associated with cognitive and metabolic side effects of antipsychotic drugs. In vivo it is a 5-HT2A antagonist, blocking (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI)-induced headtwitch in mice with an inhibitory dose 50 (ID50) = 0.09 mg/kg, per oral (p.o.), and has dual properties at D2 receptors, acting as a postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonist to block D-amphetamine hydrochloride (D-AMPH) hyperlocomotion (ID50 = 0.95 mg/kg, p.o.), yet acting as a partial agonist at presynaptic striatal D2 receptors in assays measuring striatal DA neurotransmission. Further, in microdialysis studies, this compound significantly and preferentially enhances mesocortical DA release. At doses relevant for antipsychotic activity in rodents, ITI-007 has no demonstrable cataleptogenic activity. ITI-007 indirectly modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by increasing phosphorylation of GluN2B-type N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and preferentially increases phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) in mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine systems.

Conclusion: The combination of in vitro and in vivo activities of this compound support its development for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric and neurologic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3704-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4302236PMC
February 2015

Discovery of a tetracyclic quinoxaline derivative as a potent and orally active multifunctional drug candidate for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders.

J Med Chem 2014 Mar 5;57(6):2670-82. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc. , 3960 Broadway, New York, New York 10032, United States.

We report the synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a class of tetracyclic butyrophenones that exhibit potent binding affinities to serotonin 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D2 receptors. This work has led to the discovery of 4-((6bR,10aS)-3-methyl-2,3,6b,9,10,10a-hexahydro-1H,7H-pyrido[3',4':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]quinoxalin-8-yl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-butan-1-one 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (ITI-007), which is a potent 5-HT(2A) antagonist, postsynaptic D2 antagonist, and inhibitor of serotonin transporter. This multifunctional drug candidate is orally bioavailable and exhibits good antipsychotic efficacy in vivo. Currently, this investigational new drug is under clinical development for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401958nDOI Listing
March 2014

Intracellular signaling and approaches to the treatment of schizophrenia and associated cognitive impairment.

Curr Pharm Des 2014 ;20(31):5093-103

Intra-Cellular Therapies Inc, 3960 Broadway, New York, NY 10032.

Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disorder affecting over 1% of the world's population. Dopamine system dysfunction is strongly implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Data support the long-standing concept of schizophrenia as a disease characterized by hyperactivity within midbrain (striatal D2) dopamine systems. In addition, there is now considerable evidence that glutamate neurotransmission, mediated through NMDA-type receptors, is deficient in schizophrenic patients and that hypoactivity in cortical dopamine and glutamate pathways is a key feature of the schizophrenic brain. While current antipsychotic medications-typically dopamine D2 antagonists-adequately address positive symptoms of the disease, such as the acute hallucinations and delusions, they fail to substantially improve negative features, such as social isolation, and can further compromise poor cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. In fact, cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. The treatment of cognitive impairment and other residual symptoms associated with schizophrenia, therefore, remains a significant unmet medical need. With current cell-surface receptor-based pharmacology falling short of addressing these core symptoms associated with schizophrenia, more recent approaches to treatment development have focused on processes within the cell. In this review, we discuss the importance of a number of intracellular targets, including cyclic nucleotide phosphodiestereases, and non-phosphodiesterase approaches such as ITI-007, which have been proposed to regulate hyperdopaminergic function, hypoglutamatergic function and/or the delicate balance of the two associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We also discuss the challenge facing those developing drugs to target specific pathways involved in psychopathology without involving other systems that produce concomitant side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612819666131216115417DOI Listing
May 2016

Muscarinic receptors acting at pre- and post-synaptic sites differentially regulate dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons.

Neuropharmacology 2012 Dec 7;63(7):1248-57. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan.

Muscarinic receptors, activated by acetylcholine, play critical roles in the functional regulation of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. However, the muscarinic receptor signaling pathways are not fully elucidated due to their complexity. In this study, we investigated the function of muscarinic receptors in the striatum by monitoring DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32 kDa) phosphorylation at Thr34 (the PKA-site) using mouse striatal slices. Treatment of slices with a non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine (10 μM), rapidly and transiently increased DARPP-32 phosphorylation. The increase in DARPP-32 phosphorylation was completely abolished either by a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist (SCH23390), tetrodotoxin, genetic deletion of M5 receptors, muscarinic toxins for M1 and M4 receptors, or 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of dopaminergic neurons, whereas it was enhanced by nicotine. Analysis in D(1)-DARPP-32-Flag/D(2)-DARPP-32-Myc transgenic mice revealed that oxotremorine increases DARPP-32 phosphorylation selectively in D(1)-type/striatonigral, but not in D(2)-type/striatopallidal, neurons. When D(1) and D(2) receptors were blocked by selective antagonists to exclude the effects of released dopamine, oxotremorine increased DARPP-32 Thr34 phosphorylation only in D(2)-type/striatopallidal neurons. This increase required activation of M1 receptors and was dependent upon adenosine A(2A) receptor activity. The results demonstrate that muscarinic receptors, especially M5 receptors, act at presynaptic dopaminergic terminals, regulate the release of dopamine in cooperation with nicotinic receptors, and activate D(1) receptor/DARPP-32 signaling in the striatonigral neurons. Muscarinic M1 receptors expressed in striatopallidal neurons interact with adenosine A(2A) receptors and activate DARPP-32 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.07.046DOI Listing
December 2012

Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition enhances the dopamine D1 receptor/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling cascade in frontal cortex.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2012 Feb 11;219(4):1065-79. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan.

Rationale: Alteration of dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex, especially hypofunction of dopamine D1 receptors, contributes to psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. D1 receptors signal through the cAMP/PKA second messenger cascade, which is modulated by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate cyclic nucleotides. Though several PDEs are expressed in cortical neurons, the PDE4 enzyme family (PDE4A-D) has been implicated in the control of cognitive function. The best studied isoform, PDE4B, interacts with a schizophrenia susceptibility factor, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1).

Objectives: We explore the control of mouse frontal cortex dopamine D1 receptor signaling and associated behavior by PDE4.

Results: Inhibition of PDE4 by rolipram induced activation of cAMP/PKA signaling in cortical slices and in vivo, leading to the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and other postsynaptic and presynaptic PKA-substrates. Rolipram also enhanced DARPP-32 phosphorylation invoked by D1 receptor activation. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4D expression in DARPP-32-positive neurons in layer VI of frontal cortex, most likely in D1 receptor-positive, glutamatergic corticothalamic pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, the ability of rolipram treatment to improve the performance of mice in a sensorimotor gating test was DARPP-32-dependent.

Conclusions: PDE4, which is co-expressed with DARPP-32 in D1 receptor-positive cortical pyramidal neurons in layer VI, modulates the level of D1 receptor signaling and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the frontal cortex, likely influencing cognitive function. These biochemical and behavioral actions of PDE4 inhibitors may contribute to the hypothesized antipsychotic actions of this class of compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2436-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3539205PMC
February 2012

Advanced research on dopamine signaling to develop drugs for the treatment of mental disorders: biochemical and behavioral profiles of phosphodiesterase inhibition in dopaminergic neurotransmission.

J Pharmacol Sci 2010 12;114(1):6-16. Epub 2010 Aug 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan.

Dopamine plays a central role in the regulation of psychomotor functions. The effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade and therefore controlled by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Multiple PDEs with different substrate specificities and subcellular localization are expressed in the striatum, and the functional roles of PDE10A, PDE4, and PDE1B are extensively studied. Biochemical and behavioral profiles of PDE inhibition by selective inhibitors and/or genetic deletion related to dopaminergic neurotransmission are compared among those PDEs. The inhibition of PDE up-regulates cAMP/PKA signaling in three neuronal subtypes, resulting in the stimulation of dopamine synthesis at dopaminergic terminals, the inhibition of dopamine D(2)-receptor signaling in striatopallidal neurons, and the stimulation of dopamine D(1)-receptor signaling in striatonigral neurons. Predominant roles of PDE families or isoforms are implicated in each neuronal subtype: PDE4 at dopaminergic terminals, PDE10A and PDE4 in striatopallidal neurons, and PDE1B in striatonigral neurons. PDE10A and PDE4 inhibition may exhibit D(2) antagonist-like, antipsychotic effects, whereas PDE1B inhibition may exhibit D(1) agonist-like effects in the striatum. Development of PDE isoform-specific inhibitors is essential for better understanding of the function of each PDE isoform and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.10r01fmDOI Listing
August 2011

Discovery of novel alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Aug 25;20(16):4825-30. Epub 2010 Jun 25.

Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., New York, NY, 10032, United States.

Two distinct families of small molecules were discovered as novel alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists by pharmacophore-based virtual screening. These novel antagonists exhibited selectivity for the neuronal alpha7 subtype over other nAChRs and good brain penetration. Neuroprotection was demonstrated by representative compounds 7i and 8 in a mouse seizure-like behavior model induced by the nerve agent diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). These novel nAChR antagonists have potential use as antidote for organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.06.103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000800PMC
August 2010

Nerve agent exposure elicits site-specific changes in protein phosphorylation in mouse brain.

Brain Res 2010 Jun 25;1342:11-23. Epub 2010 Apr 25.

Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc. (ITI), Audubon Business and Technology Center, 3960 Broadway, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds cause toxic symptoms, including convulsions, coma, and death, as the result of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The development of effective treatments to block these effects and attenuate long-term cognitive and motor disabilities that result from OP intoxication is hampered by a limited understanding of the CNS pathways responsible for these actions. We employed a candidate method (called CNSProfile) to identify changes in the phosphorylation state of key neuronal phosphoproteins evoked by the OP compound, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Focused microwave fixation was used to preserve the phosphorylation state of phosphoproteins in brains of DFP-treated mice; hippocampus and striatum were analyzed by immunoblotting with a panel of phospho-specific antibodies. DFP exposure elicited comparable effects on phosphorylation of brain phosphoproteins in both C57BL/6 and FVB mice. DFP treatment significantly altered phosphorylation at regulatory residues on glutamate receptors, including Serine897 (S897) of the NR1 NMDA receptor. NR1 phosphorylation was bi-directionally regulated after DFP in striatum versus hippocampus. NR1 phosphorylation was reduced in striatum, but elevated in hippocampus, compared with controls. DARPP-32 phosphorylation in striatum was selectively increased at the Cdk5 kinase substrate, Threonine75 (T75). Phencynonate hydrochloride, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, prevented seizure-like behaviors and the observed changes in phosphorylation induced by DFP. The data reveal region-specific effects of nerve agent exposure on intracellular signaling pathways that correlate with seizure-like behavior and which are reversed by the muscarinic receptor blockade. This approach identifies specific targets for nerve agents, including substrates for Cdk5 kinase, which may be the basis for new anti-convulsant therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2885509PMC
June 2010

Distinct roles of PDE4 and PDE10A in the regulation of cAMP/PKA signaling in the striatum.

J Neurosci 2008 Oct;28(42):10460-71

Department of Pharmacology, Kurume University School of Medicine and Japan Science of Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan.

Phosphodiesterase (PDE) is a critical regulator of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in cells. Multiple PDEs with different substrate specificities and subcellular localization are expressed in neurons. Dopamine plays a central role in the regulation of motor and cognitive functions. The effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade, and therefore controlled by PDE activity. We used in vitro and in vivo biochemical techniques to dissect the roles of PDE4 and PDE10A in dopaminergic neurotransmission in mouse striatum by monitoring the ability of selective PDE inhibitors to regulate phosphorylation of presynaptic [e.g., tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)] and postsynaptic [e.g., dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32 kDa (DARPP-32)] PKA substrates. The PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram, induced a large increase in TH Ser40 phosphorylation at dopaminergic terminals that was associated with a commensurate increase in dopamine synthesis and turnover in striatum in vivo. Rolipram induced a small increase in DARPP-32 Thr34 phosphorylation preferentially in striatopallidal neurons by activating adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling in striatum. In contrast, the PDE10A inhibitor, papaverine, had no effect on TH phosphorylation or dopamine turnover, but instead robustly increased DARPP-32 Thr34 and GluR1 Ser845 phosphorylation in striatal neurons. Inhibition of PDE10A by papaverine activated cAMP/PKA signaling in both striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, resulting in potentiation of dopamine D(1) receptor signaling and inhibition of dopamine D(2) receptor signaling. These biochemical results are supported by immunohistochemical data demonstrating differential localization of PDE10A and PDE4 in striatum. These data underscore the importance of individual brain-enriched cyclic-nucleotide PDE isoforms as therapeutic targets for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders affecting dopamine neurotransmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2518-08.2008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2814340PMC
October 2008

General anesthetics selectively modulate glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling via site-specific phosphorylation in vivo.

Neuropharmacology 2007 Oct 24;53(5):619-30. Epub 2007 Jul 24.

Department of Neuropharmacology, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc. (ITI), Audubon Business and Technology Center, 3960 Broadway, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Isoflurane, propofol and ketamine are representative general anesthetics with distinct molecular mechanisms of action that have neuroprotective properties in models of excitotoxic ischemic damage. We characterized the effects of these agents on neuronal glutamate and dopamine signaling by profiling drug-induced changes in brain intracellular protein phosphorylation in vivo to test the hypothesis that they affect common downstream effectors. Anesthetic-treated and control mice were killed instantly by focused microwave irradiation, frontal cortex and striatum were removed, and the phosphorylation profile of specific neuronal signaling proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting with a panel of phospho-specific antibodies. At anesthetic doses that produced loss of righting reflex, isoflurane, propofol, and ketamine all reduced phosphorylation of the activating residue T183 of ERK2 (but not of ERK1); S897 of the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit; and S831 (but not S845) of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit in cerebral cortex. At sub-anesthetic doses, these drugs only reduced phosphorylation of ERK2. Isoflurane and ketamine also reduced phosphorylation of spinophilin at S94, but oppositely regulated phosphorylation of presynaptic (tyrosine hydroxylase) and postsynaptic (DARPP-32) markers of dopaminergic neurotransmission in striatum. These data reveal both shared and agent-specific actions of CNS depressant drugs on critical intracellular protein phosphorylation signaling pathways that integrate multiple second messenger systems. Reduced phosphorylation of ionotropic glutamate receptors by all three anesthetics indicates depression of normal glutamatergic synaptic transmission and reduced potential excitotoxicity. This novel approach indicates a role for phosphorylation-mediated down-regulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission by general anesthetics and identifies specific in vivo targets for focused evaluation of anesthetic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.07.008DOI Listing
October 2007

Evaluation of neuronal phosphoproteins as effectors of caffeine and mediators of striatal adenosine A2A receptor signaling.

Brain Res 2007 Jan 6;1129(1):1-14. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Adenosine A(2A) receptors are predominantly expressed in the dendrites of enkephalin-positive gamma-aminobutyric acidergic medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Evidence indicates that these receptors modulate striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission and regulate motor control, vigilance, alertness, and arousal. Although the physiological and behavioral correlates of adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling have been extensively studied using a combination of pharmacological and genetic tools, relatively little is known about the signal transduction pathways that mediate the diverse biological functions attributed to this adenosine receptor subtype. Using a candidate approach based on the coupling of these receptors to adenylate cyclase-activating G proteins, a number of membranal, cytosolic, and nuclear phosphoproteins regulated by PKA were evaluated as potential mediators of adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling in the striatum. Specifically, the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680, was used to determine whether the phosphorylation state of each of the following PKA targets is responsive to adenosine A(2A) receptor stimulation in this tissue: Ser40 of tyrosine hydroxylase, Ser9 of synapsin, Ser897 of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, Ser845 of the GluR1 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptor, Ser94 of spinophilin, Thr34 of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, M(r) 32,000, Ser133 of the cAMP-response element-binding protein, Thr286 of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr183/Tyr185 of the p44 and p42 isoforms, respectively, of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Although the substrates studied differed considerably in their responsiveness to selective adenosine A(2A) receptor activation, the phosphorylation state of all postsynaptic PKA targets was up-regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner by treatment with CGS 21680, whereas presynaptic PKA substrates were unresponsive to this agent, consistent with the postsynaptic localization of adenosine A(2A) receptors. Finally, the phosphorylation state of these proteins was further assessed in vivo by systemic administration of caffeine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.10.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1847645PMC
January 2007

Spinophilin is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II resulting in regulation of its binding to F-actin.

J Neurochem 2004 Jul;90(2):317-24

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

Spinophilin is a protein phosphatase-1- and actin-binding protein that modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine morphology. We have recently shown that the interaction of spinophilin with the actin cytoskeleton depends upon phosphorylation by protein kinase A. We have now found that spinophilin is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in neurons. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, located within the post-synaptic density of dendritic spines, is known to play a role in synaptic plasticity and is ideally positioned to regulate spinophilin. Using tryptic phosphopeptide mapping, site-directed mutagenesis and microsequencing analysis, we identified two sites of CaMKII phosphorylation (Ser-100 and Ser-116) within the actin-binding domain of spinophilin. Phosphorylation by CaMKII reduced the affinity of spinophilin for F-actin. In neurons, phosphorylation at Ser-100 by CaMKII was Ca(2+) dependent and was associated with an enrichment of spinophilin in the synaptic plasma membrane fraction. These results indicate that spinophilin is phosphorylated by multiple kinases in vivo and that differential phosphorylation may target spinophilin to specific locations within dendritic spines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02491.xDOI Listing
July 2004

Regulation of AMPA receptor dephosphorylation by glutamate receptor agonists.

Neuropharmacology 2003 Nov;45(6):703-13

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Phosphorylation of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR1 at Ser(845) enhances AMPA channel activity. This study demonstrates that Ser(845) is rapidly dephosphorylated upon AMPA receptor activation in nucleus accumbens slices. AMPA-induced dephosphorylation at Ser(845) was blocked by CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist, by nifedipine, an L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist, or by cyclosporin A, a calcineurin inhibitor. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) treatment also decreased phosphorylation of Ser(845), an effect that was blocked by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, but not by nifedipine. Accumbens neurons are enriched for dopamine- and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32), a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) when phosphorylated by PKA (at Thr(34)). We tested the hypothesis that the AMPA/KA or NMDA-stimulated dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 via calcineurin, leading to increased PP1 activity and dephosphorylation of GluR1. AMPA or NMDA treatment decreased phospho-Thr(34)-DARPP-32 levels, effects that were blocked by receptor antagonists, or cyclosporin A. However, dephosphorylation of Ser(845) mediated by AMPA or NMDA receptors was unaffected in DARPP-32/inhibitor-1 knockout mice. These data suggest that AMPA- or NMDA-induced dephosphorylation of GluR1 at Ser(845) occurs by a mechanism that is independent of DARPP-32 and PP1, but involves activation of calcineurin. Thus, Ca(2+)-dependent dephosphorylation of GluR1 may serve as a negative feedback mechanism for the regulation of AMPA receptor activity in neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0028-3908(03)00319-8DOI Listing
November 2003

Phosphorylation of spinophilin modulates its interaction with actin filaments.

J Biol Chem 2003 Jan 1;278(2):1186-94. Epub 2002 Nov 1.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

Spinophilin is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)- and actin-binding protein that modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine morphology. We report that spinophilin is phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase A (PKA). Phosphorylation of spinophilin was stimulated by treatment of neostriatal neurons with a dopamine D1 receptor agonist or with forskolin, consistent with spinophilin being a substrate for PKA in intact cells. Using tryptic phosphopeptide mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and microsequencing analysis, we identified two major sites of phosphorylation, Ser-94 and Ser-177, that are located within the actin-binding domain of spinophilin. Phosphorylation of spinophilin by PKA modulated the association between spinophilin and the actin cytoskeleton. Following subcellular fractionation, unphosphorylated spinophilin was enriched in the postsynaptic density, whereas a pool of phosphorylated spinophilin was found in the cytosol. F-actin co-sedimentation and overlay analysis revealed that phosphorylation of spinophilin reduced the stoichiometry of the spinophilin-actin interaction. In contrast, the ability of spinophilin to bind to PP1 remained unchanged. Taken together, our studies suggest that phosphorylation of spinophilin by PKA modulates the anchoring of the spinophilin-PP1 complex within dendritic spines, thereby likely contributing to the efficacy and plasticity of synaptic transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M205754200DOI Listing
January 2003

Phosphodiesterase 1B knock-out mice exhibit exaggerated locomotor hyperactivity and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in response to dopamine agonists and display impaired spatial learning.

J Neurosci 2002 Jun;22(12):5188-97

Division of Developmental Biology, Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039, USA.

Using homologous recombination, we generated mice lacking phosphodiesterase-mediated (PDE1B) cyclic nucleotide-hydrolyzing activity. PDE1B(-/-) mice showed exaggerated hyperactivity after acute D-methamphetamine administration. Striatal slices from PDE1B(-/-) mice exhibited increased levels of phospho-Thr34 DARPP-32 and phospho-Ser845 GluR1 after dopamine D1 receptor agonist or forskolin stimulation. PDE1B(-/-) and PDE1B(+/-) mice demonstrated Morris maze spatial-learning deficits. These results indicate that enhancement of cyclic nucleotide signaling by inactivation of PDE1B-mediated cyclic nucleotide hydrolysis plays a significant role in dopaminergic function through the DARPP-32 and related transduction pathways.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6757711PMC
June 2002