Publications by authors named "Gregory R Collier"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic variation in PARL influences mitochondrial content.

Hum Genet 2010 Feb 28;127(2):183-90. Epub 2009 Oct 28.

Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA.

Given their involvement in processes necessary for life, mitochondrial damage and subsequent dysfunction can lead to a wide range of human diseases. Previous studies of both animal models and humans have suggested that presenilins-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) is a key regulator of mitochondrial integrity and function, and plays a role in cellular apoptosis. As a surrogate measure of mitochondrial integrity, we previously measured mitochondrial content in a Caucasian population consisting of large extended pedigrees, with results highlighting a substantial genetic component to this trait. To assess the influence of variation in the PARL gene on mitochondrial content, we re-sequenced 6.5 kb of the gene, identifying 16 SNPs and genotyped these in 1,086 Caucasian individuals, distributed across 170 families. Statistical genetic analysis revealed that one promoter variant, T-191C, exhibited significant effects (after correction for multiple testing) on mitochondrial content levels. Comparison of the transcription factor binding characteristics of the T-191C promoter SNP by EMSA indicates preferential binding of nuclear factors to the T allele, suggesting functional variation in PARL expression. These results suggest that genetic variation within PARL influences mitochondrial abundance and integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-009-0756-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829432PMC
February 2010

Discovery of expression QTLs using large-scale transcriptional profiling in human lymphocytes.

Nat Genet 2007 Oct 16;39(10):1208-16. Epub 2007 Sep 16.

Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas 78245, USA.

Quantitative differences in gene expression are thought to contribute to phenotypic differences between individuals. We generated genome-wide transcriptional profiles of lymphocyte samples from 1,240 participants in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. The expression levels of 85% of the 19,648 detected autosomal transcripts were significantly heritable. Linkage analysis uncovered >1,000 cis-regulated transcripts at a false discovery rate of 5% and showed that the expression quantitative trait loci with the most significant linkage evidence are often located at the structural locus of a given transcript. To highlight the usefulness of this much-enlarged map of cis-regulated transcripts for the discovery of genes that influence complex traits in humans, as an example we selected high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration as a phenotype of clinical importance, and identified the cis-regulated vanin 1 (VNN1) gene as harboring sequence variants that influence high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng2119DOI Listing
October 2007

Identification of novel genes expressed during rhabdomyosarcoma differentiation using cDNA microarrays.

Pathol Int 2006 May;56(5):246-55

Center for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.

Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are highly aggressive tumors that are thought to arise as a consequence of the regulatory disruption of the growth and differentiation of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Normal myogenesis is characterized by the expression of the myogenic regulatory factor gene family but, despite their expression in RMS, these tumor cells fail to complete the latter stages of myogenesis. The RMS cell line RD-A was treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to induce differentiation and cultured for 10 days. RNA was extracted on days 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10. A human skeletal muscle cDNA microarray was developed and used to analyze the global gene expression of RMS tumors over the time-course of differentiation. As a comparison, the genes identified were subsequently examined during the differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cultures. Prothymosin alpha (PTMA), and translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 10 (Tim10), two genes not previously implicated in RMS, showed reduced expression during differentiation. Marked differences in the expression of PTMA and Tim10 were observed during the differentiation of human primary skeletal muscle cells. These results identify several new genes with potential roles in the myogenic arrest present in rhabdomyosarcoma. PTMA expression in RMS biopsy samples might prove to be an effective diagnostic marker for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1827.2006.01958.xDOI Listing
May 2006

Elevation in Tanis expression alters glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in H4IIE cells.

Diabetes 2003 Apr;52(4):929-34

Metabolic Research Unit, School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.

Increased hepatic glucose output and decreased glucose utilization are implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. We previously reported that the expression of a novel gene, Tanis, was upregulated in the liver during fasting in the obese/diabetic animal model Psammomys obesus. Here, we have further studied the protein and its function. Cell fractionation indicated that Tanis was localized in the plasma membrane and microsomes but not in the nucleus, mitochondria, or soluble protein fraction. Consistent with previous gene expression data, hepatic Tanis protein levels increased more significantly in diabetic P. obesus than in nondiabetic controls after fasting. We used a recombinant adenovirus to increase Tanis expression in hepatoma H4IIE cells and investigated its role in metabolism. Tanis overexpression reduced glucose uptake, basal and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, and glycogen content and attenuated the suppression of PEPCK gene expression by insulin, but it did not affect insulin-stimulated insulin receptor phosphorylation or triglyceride synthesis. These results suggest that Tanis may be involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, and increased expression of Tanis could contribute to insulin resistance in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.52.4.929DOI Listing
April 2003

Voluntary food intake by elite female cyclists during training and racing: influence of daily energy expenditure and body composition.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2002 Sep;12(3):249-67

School of Health Sciences, Deakin Univesrity, Burwood Victoria, Australia.

We estimated self-reported energy intake (EI) and cycling energy expenditure (CEE) during racing and training over 26 days (9 days recovery [REC], 9 days training [TRN], and 8 days racing [RACE], which included a 5-day stage race) for 8 members of the Australian National Training Squad [mean SD; 25.1 4.0 years, 59.2 4.4 kg, 3.74 0.24 L min-1 VO 2 peak, 13.6 4.5 % Body fat (% B fat)]. After 70 days of training and racing, average body mass increased by 1.1 kg (95%CI 0.5 to 1.7 kg; p <.01) and average % B fat decreased by 0.9% (95%CI 1.7 to 0.1%; p <.05). These minor changes, however, were not considered clinically significant. CEE was different between RACE, TRN, and REC (2.15 0.18 vs. 1.73 0.25 vs. 0.72 0.15 MJ d-1, p <.05). Reported EI for RACE and TRN were higher than REC (14.87 3.03, 13.70 4.04 vs. 11.98 3.57 MJ d-1, p <.05). Reported intake of carbohydrate for RACE and TRN were also higher than REC (588 122, 536 130 vs. 448 138 g d-1, p <.05). Reported intake of fat (59 21 68 21 g d-1) was similar during RACE, TRN, and REC, whereas protein intake tended to be higher during TRN (158 49 g d-1) compared to RACE and REC (136 33; 130 33 g d-1). There was a relationship between average CEE and average EI over the 26 days (r = 0.77, p <.05), but correlations between CEE and EI for each of the women varied (r = 0.02 to 0.67). There was a strong trend for an inverse relationship between average EI and % Bf at (r = -.68, p =.06, n = 8). In this study, increases in reported EI during heavy training and racing were the result of an increase in carbohydrate intake. Most but not all cyclists modulated EI based on CEE. Research is required to determine whether physiological or psychological factors are primarily responsible for the observed relationship between CEE and EI and also the inverse correlation between % B fat and EI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.12.3.249DOI Listing
September 2002

Exercise training increases lipid metabolism gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002 Jul;283(1):E66-72

School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia.

The effects of a single bout of exercise and exercise training on the expression of genes necessary for the transport and beta-oxidation of fatty acids (FA), together with the gene expression of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of FA homeostasis were investigated. Seven human subjects (3 male, 4 female, 28.9 +/- 3.1 yr of age, range 20-42 yr, body mass index 22.6 kg/m(2), range 17-26 kg/m(2)) underwent a 9-day exercise training program of 60 min cycling per day at 63% peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak); 104 +/- 14 W). On days 1 and 9 of the program, muscle biopsies were sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, at the completion of exercise, and again 3 h postexercise. Gene expression of key components of FA transport [FA translocase (FAT/CD36), plasma membrane-associated FA-binding protein], beta-oxidation [carntine palmitoyltransferase(CPT) I, beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase] and transcriptional control [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPAR gamma, PPAR gamma coactivator 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c] were unaltered by exercise when measured at the completion and at 3 h postexercise. Training increased total lipid oxidation by 24% (P < 0.05) for the 1-h cycling bout. This increased capacity for lipid oxidation was accompanied by an increased expression of FAT/CD36 and CPT I mRNA. Similarly, FAT/CD36 protein abundance was also upregulated by exercise training. We conclude that enhanced fat oxidation after exercise training is most closely associated with the genes involved in regulating FA uptake across the plasma membrane (FAT/CD36) and across the mitochondrial membrane (CPT I).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00475.2001DOI Listing
July 2002

MERP1: a mammalian ependymin-related protein gene differentially expressed in hematopoietic cells.

Gene 2002 Mar;286(2):249-57

Stem Cell Laboratory, The Douglas Hocking Research Institute, Barwon Health, The Geelong Hospital, Geelong, VIC, 3220, Australia.

We have utilized differential display polymerase chain reaction to investigate the gene expression of hematopoietic progenitor cells from adult bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. A differentially expressed gene was identified in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, with low expression in CD34- cells. We have obtained the full coding sequence of this gene which we designated human mammalian ependymin-related protein 1 (MERP1). Expression of MERP1 was found in a variety of normal human tissues, and is 4- and 10-fold higher in adult bone marrow and umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells, respectively, compared to CD34- cells. Additionally, MERP1 expression in a hematopoietic stem cell enriched population was down-regulated with proliferation and differentiation. Conceptual translation of the MERP1 open reading frame reveals significant homology to two families of glycoprotein calcium-dependant cell adhesion molecules: ependymins and protocadherins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1119(02)00434-1DOI Listing
March 2002

Leptin inhibits osteoclast generation.

J Bone Miner Res 2002 Feb;17(2):200-9

Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences: Barwon Health, The Geelong Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Originally, leptin was described as a product of adipocytes that acts on the hypothalamus to regulate appetite. However, subsequently, it has been shown that leptin receptors are distributed widely and that leptin has diverse functions, including promotion of hemopoietic and osteoblastic differentiation. It has been recognized for some time that both serum leptin and bone mass are correlated positively to body fat mass and, recently, we have shown a direct positive relationship between serum leptin and bone mass in nonobese women. We now report that leptin inhibits osteoclast generation in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and murine spleen cells incubated on bone in the presence of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hM-CSF) and human soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (sRANKL). The half-maximal concentration inhibitory of leptin was approximately 20 nM in the presence of sRANKL at 40 ng/ml but decreased to approximately 2 nM when sRANKL was used at 5 ng/ml. The majority of the inhibitory effect occurred in the first week of the 3-week cultures. Inhibition did not occur when the PBMC cultures were washed vigorously to remove nonadherent cells or when purified CD14+ monocytes were used to generate osteoclasts, indicating an indirect or permissive effect via CD14- PBMC. Leptin increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in PBMC but not in CD14+ cells, suggesting that the inhibitory effect may be mediated by the RANKL/RANK/OPG system. Leptin may act locally to increase bone mass and may contribute to linkage of bone formation and resorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.2.200DOI Listing
February 2002