Publications by authors named "Gregory L Fisher"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Demystifying and unravelling the molecular structure of the biopolymer sporopollenin.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 May;34(10):e8740

Department of Chemistry, Memorial University, 283 Prince Philip Dr., St John's, NL, A1B 3X7, Canada.

Rationale: We report the unsolved molecular structure of the complex biopolymer sporopollenin exine extracted from Lycopodium clavatum pollen grains.

Methods: TOF-SIMS and CID-MS/MS, MALDI-TOF-MS and CID-TOF/TOF-MS/MS were used for the analysis of this complex biopolymer sporopollenin exine extracted from Lycopodium clavatum pollen grains. Solid-state H- and C-NMR, 2D H- H NOESY, Rotor-synchronized C{ H} HSQC, and C{ H} multi CP-MAS NMR experiments were used to confirm the structural assigments revealed by MS and MS/MS studies. Finally, high-resolution XPS was used to check for the presence of aromatic components in sporopollenin.

Results: The combined MS and NMR analyses showed that sporopollenin contained poly(hydroxy acid) dendrimer-like networks with glycerol as a core unit, which accounted for the sporopollenin empirical formula. In addition, these analyses showed that the hydroxy acid monomers forming this network contained a β-diketone moiety. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS and MS/MS allowed us to identify a unique macrocyclic oligomeric unit composed of polyhydroxylated tetraketide-like monomers. Lastly, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) showed the absence of aromaticity in sporopollenin.

Conclusions: We report for the first time the two main building units that form the Lycopodium clavatum sporopollenin exine. The first building unit is a macrocyclic oligomer and/or polymer composed of polyhydroxylated tetraketide-like monomeric units, which represents the main rigid backbone of the sporopollenin biopolymer. The second building unit is the poly(hydroxy acid) network in which the hydroxyl end groups can be covalently attached by ether links to the hydroxylated macrocyclic backbone to form the sporopollenin biopolymer, a spherical dendrimer. Such spherical dendrimers are a typical type of microcapsule that have been used for drug delivery applications. Finally, HR-XPS indicated the total absence of aromaticity in the sporopollenin exine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8740DOI Listing
May 2020

Time-of-flight secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry depth profiling of organic light-emitting diode devices for elucidating the degradation process.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 Apr;34(7):e8640

ULVAC-PHI Inc., Chigasaki, Japan.

Rationale: Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) products based on display applications have become popular in the past 10 years, and new products are being commercialized with rapid frequency. Despite the many advantages of OLEDs, these devices still have a problem concerning lifetime. To gain an understanding of the degradation process, the authors have investigated the molecular information for deteriorated OLED devices using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS).

Methods: TOF-SIMS depth profiling is an indispensable method for evaluating OLED devices. However, the depth profiles of OLEDs are generally difficult due to the mass interference among organic compounds, including degradation products. In this study, the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) depth profiling method was used to characterize OLED devices.

Results: After degradation, defects comprised of small hydrocarbons were observed. Within the defect area, the diffusion of all OLED compounds was also observed. It is supposed that the source of the small hydrocarbons derives from decomposition of the OLED compounds and/or contaminants at the ITO interface.

Conclusions: The true compound distributions have been determined using MS/MS depth profiling methods. The results suggest that luminance decay is mainly due to the decomposition and diffusion of OLED compounds, and that OLED decomposition may be accelerated by adventitious hydrocarbons present at the ITO surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8640DOI Listing
April 2020

Mass Spectrometric Imaging Reveals Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Bioactive Lipids in Arteries Undergoing Restenosis.

J Proteome Res 2019 04 11;18(4):1669-1678. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

School of Pharmacy , University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison , Wisconsin 53705 , United States.

Restenosis, or renarrowing of the arterial lumen, is a common recurrent disease following balloon angioplasty and stenting treatments for cardiovascular disease. A major technical barrier for deciphering restenotic mechanisms is the dynamic, spatial profiling of bioactive lipids in the arterial wall, especially in small animals. Here, applying matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), we conducted the first lipidomic study of temporal-spatial profiling in a small animal model of angioplasty-induced restenosis. Cross sections were collected 3, 7, and 14 days after balloon angioplasty of rat carotid arteries. MALDI-MSI analyses showed that diacylglycerols (DAGs), signaling lipids associated with restenosis, and lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), whose function was uncharacterized in restenosis, dramatically increased at postangioplasty day 7 and day 14 in the neointimal layer of balloon-injured arteries compared to uninjured controls. In contrast, sphingomyelins (SMs) did not increase, but rather decreased at day 3, day 7, and day 14 in injured arteries versus the uninjured control arteries. These results revealed previously unexplored distinct temporal-spatial lipid dynamics in the restenotic arterial wall. Additionally, we employed time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) tandem MS imaging for both molecular identification and imaging at high spatial resolution. These imaging modalities provide powerful tools for unraveling novel mechanisms of restenosis involving lipids or small signaling molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481175PMC
April 2019

Biosynthetic investigation of γ-lactones in Sextonia rubra wood using in situ TOF-SIMS MS/MS imaging to localize and characterize biosynthetic intermediates.

Sci Rep 2019 02 13;9(1):1928. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

CNRS UMR8172 EcoFoG, AgroParisTech, CIRAD, INRA, Université des Antilles, Université de Guyane, 97300, Cayenne, France.

Molecular analysis by parallel tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging contributes to the in situ characterization of biosynthetic intermediates which is crucial for deciphering the metabolic pathways in living organisms. We report the first use of TOF-SIMS MS/MS imaging for the cellular localization and characterization of biosynthetic intermediates of bioactive γ-lactones rubrynolide and rubrenolide in the Amazonian tree Sextonia rubra (Lauraceae). Five γ-lactones, including previously reported rubrynolide and rubrenolide, were isolated using a conventional approach and their structural characterization and localization at a lateral resolution of ~400 nm was later achieved using TOF-SIMS MS/MS imaging analysis. 2D/3D MS imaging at subcellular level reveals that putative biosynthetic γ-lactones intermediates are localized in the same cell types (ray parenchyma cells and oil cells) as rubrynolide and rubrenolide. Consequently, a revised metabolic pathway of rubrynolide was proposed, which involves the reaction between 2-hydroxysuccinic acid and 3-oxotetradecanoic acid, contrary to previous studies suggesting a single polyketide precursor. Our results provide insights into plant metabolite production in wood tissues and, overall, demonstrate that combining high spatial resolution TOF-SIMS imaging and MS/MS structural characterization offers new opportunities for studying molecular and cellular biochemistry in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37577-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374367PMC
February 2019

Identification and High-Resolution Imaging of α-Tocopherol from Human Cells to Whole Animals by TOF-SIMS Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2018 08 12;29(8):1571-1581. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

M4i, The Maastricht Multi Modal Molecular Imaging Institute, Maastricht University, 6229 ER, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

A unique method for identification of biomolecular components in different biological specimens, while preserving the capability for high speed 2D and 3D molecular imaging, is employed to investigate cellular response to oxidative stress. The employed method enables observing the distribution of the antioxidant α-tocopherol and other molecules in cellular structures via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS (MS)) imaging in parallel with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) imaging, collected simultaneously. The described method is employed to examine a network formed by neuronal cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a model for investigating human neurons in vitro. The antioxidant α-tocopherol is identified in situ within different cellular layers utilizing a 3D TOF-SIMS tandem MS imaging analysis. As oxidative stress also plays an important role in mediating inflammation, the study was expanded to whole body tissue sections of M. marinum-infected zebrafish, a model organism for tuberculosis. The TOF-SIMS tandem MS imaging results reveal an increased presence of α-tocopherol in response to the pathogen. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-018-1979-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060986PMC
August 2018

Tandem Mass Spectrometry Imaging and in Situ Characterization of Bioactive Wood Metabolites in Amazonian Tree Species Sextonia rubra.

Anal Chem 2018 06 8;90(12):7535-7543. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles , CNRS UPR 2301, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay , Avenue de la Terrasse , 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette , France.

Driven by a necessity for confident molecular identification at high spatial resolution, a new time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) tandem mass spectrometry (tandem MS) imaging instrument has been recently developed. In this paper, the superior MS/MS spectrometry and imaging capability of this new tool is shown for natural product study. For the first time, via in situ analysis of the bioactive metabolites rubrynolide and rubrenolide in Amazonian tree species Sextonia rubra (Lauraceae), we were able both to analyze and to image by tandem MS the molecular products of natural biosynthesis. Despite the low abundance of the metabolites in the wood sample(s), efficient MS/MS analysis of these γ-lactone compounds was achieved, providing high confidence in the identification and localization. In addition, tandem MS imaging minimized the mass interferences and revealed specific localization of these metabolites primarily in the ray parenchyma cells but also in certain oil cells and, further, revealed the presence of previously unidentified γ-lactone, paving the way for future studies in biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b01157DOI Listing
June 2018

Observation of endoplasmic reticulum tubules via TOF-SIMS tandem mass spectrometry imaging of transfected cells.

Biointerphases 2018 02 26;13(3):03B409. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave, Urbana, Illinois 61801.

Advances in three-dimensional secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging have enabled visualizing the subcellular distributions of various lipid species within individual cells. However, the difficulty of locating organelles using SIMS limits efforts to study their lipid compositions. Here, the authors have assessed whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Tracker Blue White DPX, which is a commercially available stain for visualizing the endoplasmic reticulum using fluorescence microscopy, produces distinctive ions that can be used to locate the endoplasmic reticulum using SIMS. Time-of-flight-SIMS tandem mass spectrometry (MS) imaging was used to identify positively and negatively charged ions produced by the ER-Tracker stain. Then, these ions were used to localize the stain and thus the endoplasmic reticulum, within individual human embryonic kidney cells that contained higher numbers of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions on their surfaces. By performing MS imaging of selected ions in parallel with the precursor ion (MS) imaging, the authors detected a chemical interference native to the cell at the same nominal mass as the pentafluorophenyl fragment from the ER-Tracker stain. Nonetheless, the fluorine secondary ions produced by the ER-Tracker stain provided a distinctive signal that enabled locating the endoplasmic reticulum using SIMS. This simple strategy for visualizing the endoplasmic reticulum in individual cells using SIMS could be combined with existing SIMS methodologies for imaging intracellular lipid distribution and to study the lipid composition within the endoplasmic reticulum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.5019736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826739PMC
February 2018

Characterization of natural photonic crystals in iridescent wings of damselfly Chalcopteryx rutilans by FIB/SEM, TEM, and TOF-SIMS.

Biointerphases 2018 02 5;13(3):03B406. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The iridescent wings of the Chalcopterix rutilans damselfly (Rambur) (Odonata, Polythoridae) are investigated with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The electron microscopy images reveal a natural photonic crystal as the source of the varying colors. The photonic crystal has a consistent number and thickness (∼195 nm) of the repeat units on the ventral side of the wing, which is consistent with the red color visible from the bottom side of the wing in all regions. The dorsal side of the wing shows strong color variations ranging from red to blue depending on the region. In the electron microscopy images, the dorsal side of the wing exhibits varied number and thicknesses of the repeat units. The repeat unit spacings for the red, yellow/green, and blue regions are approximately 195, 180, and 145 nm, respectively. Three-dimensional analysis of the natural photonic crystals by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry reveals that changes in the relative levels of Na, K, and eumelanin are responsible for the varying dielectric constant needed to generate the photonic crystal. The photonic crystal also appears to be assembled with a chemical tricomponent layer structure due to the enhancement of the CHN species at every other interface between the high/low dielectric constant layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.5019725DOI Listing
February 2018

Visualizing molecular distributions for biomaterials applications with mass spectrometry imaging: a review.

J Mater Chem B 2017 Sep 30;5(36):7444-7460. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

M4I, The Maastricht MultiModal Molecular Imaging Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht 6229 ER, The Netherlands.

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a rapidly emerging field that is continually finding applications in new and exciting areas. The ability of MSI to measure the spatial distribution of molecules at or near the surface of complex substrates makes it an ideal candidate for many applications, including those in the sphere of materials chemistry. Continual development and optimization of both ionization sources and analyzer technologies have resulted in a wide array of MSI tools available, both commercially available and custom-built, with each configuration possessing inherent strengths and limitations. Despite the unique potential of MSI over other chemical imaging methods, their potential and application to (bio)materials science remains in our view a largely underexplored avenue. This review will discuss these techniques enabling high parallel molecular detection, focusing on those with reported uses in (bio)materials chemistry applications and highlighted with select applications. Different technologies are presented in three main sections; secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) MSI, and emerging MSI technologies with potential for biomaterial analysis. The first two sections (SIMS and MALDI) discuss well-established methods that are continually evolving both in technological advancements and in experimental versatility. In the third section, relatively new and versatile technologies capable of performing measurements under ambient conditions will be introduced, with reported applications in materials chemistry or potential applications discussed. The aim of this review is to provide a concise resource for those interested in utilizing MSI for applications such as biomimetic materials, biological/synthetic material interfaces, polymer formulation and bulk property characterization, as well as the spatial and chemical distributions of nanoparticles, or any other molecular imaging application requiring broad chemical speciation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7tb01100hDOI Listing
September 2017

Sequencing and Identification of Endogenous Neuropeptides with Matrix-Enhanced Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2017 08 3;89(16):8223-8227. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Maastricht MultiModal Molecular Imaging (M4I) Institute, Division of Imaging Mass Spectrometry, Maastricht University , Maastricht, 6229 ER, The Netherlands.

Matrix-enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) has overcome one of the biggest disadvantages of SIMS analysis by providing the ability to detect intact biomolecules at high spatial resolution. By increasing ionization efficiency and minimizing primary ion beam-induced fragmentation of analytes, ME-SIMS has proven useful for detection of numerous biorelevant species, now including peptides. We report here the first demonstration of tandem ME-SIMS for de novo sequencing of endogenous neuropeptides from tissue in situ (i.e., rat pituitary gland). The peptide ions were isolated for tandem MS analysis using a 1 Da mass isolation window, followed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) at 1.5 keV in a collision cell filled with argon gas, for confident identification of the detected peptide. Using this method, neuropeptides up to m/z 2000 were detected and sequenced from the posterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland. These results demonstrate the potential for ME-SIMS tandem MS development in bottom-up proteomics imaging at high-spatial resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566790PMC
August 2017

The Composition of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Surface Precipitates Determined at High Resolving Power by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

Microsc Microanal 2017 08 7;23(4):843-848. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

2Maastricht Multi-Modal Molecular Imaging (M4I) Institute,Maastricht University,6211 ER Maastricht,The Netherlands.

We present the first demonstration of a general method for the chemical characterization of small surface features at high magnification via simultaneous collection of mass spectrometry (MS) imaging and tandem MS imaging data. High lateral resolution tandem secondary ion MS imaging is employed to determine the composition of surface features on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) that precipitate during heat treatment. The surface features, probed at a lateral resolving power of<200 nm using a surface-sensitive ion beam, are found to be comprised of ethylene terephthalate trimer at a greater abundance than is observed in the surrounding polymer matrix. This is the first chemical identification of PET surface precipitates made without either an extraction step or the use of a reference material. The new capability employed for this study achieves the highest practical lateral resolution ever reported for tandem MS imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927617000654DOI Listing
August 2017

ToF-SIMS Parallel Imaging MS/MS of Lipid Species in Thin Tissue Sections.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1618:165-173

Maastricht MultiModal Molecular Imaging (M4I) Institute, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229, ER, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Unambiguous identification of detected species is essential in complex biomedical samples. To date, there are not many mass spectrometry imaging techniques that can provide both high spatial resolution and identification capabilities. A new and patented imaging tandem mass spectrometer, exploiting the unique characteristics of the nanoTOF II (Physical Electronics, USA) TOF-SIMS TRIFT instrument, was developed to address this.Tandem mass spectrometry is based on the selection of precursor ions from the full secondary ion spectrum (MS), followed by energetic activation and fragmentation, and collection of the fragment ions to obtain a tandem MS spectrum (MS). The PHI NanoTOF II mass spectrometer is equipped with a high-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation cell as well as a second time-of-flight analyzer developed for simultaneous ToF-SIMS and tandem MS imaging experiments.We describe here the results of a ToF-SIMS imaging experiment on a thin tissue section of an infected zebrafish as a model organism for tuberculosis. The focus is on the obtained ion distribution plot of a fatty acid as well as its identification by tandem mass spectrometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7051-3_14DOI Listing
February 2018

A New Method and Mass Spectrometer Design for TOF-SIMS Parallel Imaging MS/MS.

Anal Chem 2016 06 23;88(12):6433-40. Epub 2016 May 23.

Multi-Modal Molecular Imaging (M4I) Institute, Maastricht University , 6211 ER Maastricht, Netherlands.

We report a method for the unambiguous identification of molecules in biological and materials specimens at high practical lateral resolution using a new TOF-SIMS parallel imaging MS/MS spectrometer. The tandem mass spectrometry imaging reported here is based on the precise monoisotopic selection of precursor ions from a TOF-SIMS secondary ion stream followed by the parallel and synchronous collection of the product ion data. Thus, our new method enables simultaneous surface screening of a complex matrix chemistry with TOF-SIMS (MS(1)) imaging and targeted identification of matrix components with MS/MS (MS(2)) imaging. This approach takes optimal advantage of all ions produced from a multicomponent sample, compared to classical tandem mass spectrometric methods that discard all ions with the exception of specific ions of interest. We have applied this approach for molecular surface analysis and molecular identification on the nanometer scale. High abundance sensitivity is achieved at low primary ion dose density; therefore, one-of-a-kind samples may be relentlessly probed before ion-beam-induced molecular damage is observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01022DOI Listing
June 2016

Three-Dimensional Image of Cleavage Bodies in Nuclei Is Configured Using Gas Cluster Ion Beam with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry.

Sci Rep 2015 May 11;5:10000. Epub 2015 May 11.

Dept of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan.

Structural variations of DNA in nuclei are deeply related with development, aging, and diseases through transcriptional regulation. In order to bare cross sections of samples maintaining sub-micron structures, an Ar2500(+)-gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputter was recently engineered. By introducing GCIB sputter to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we analyzed the 3D configuration and chemical composition of subnuclear structures of pyramidal cells in the CA2 region in mouse brain hippocampus. Depth profiles of chemicals were analyzed as 3D distributions by combining topographic analyses. Signals corresponding to anions such as CN(-) and PO3(-) were distributed characteristically in the shape of cell organelles. CN(-) signals overlapped DAPI fluorescence signals corresponding to nuclei. The clusters shown by PO3(-) and those of adenine ions were colocalized inside nuclei revealed by the 3D reconstruction. Taking into account their size and their number in each nucleus, those clusters could be in the cleavage bodies, which are a kind of intranuclear structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep10000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426704PMC
May 2015

Three-dimensional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of a pharmaceutical in a coronary stent coating as a function of elution time.

Anal Chem 2009 Dec;81(24):9930-40

Physical Electronics, Incorporated, 18725 Lake Drive East, Chanhassen, Minnesota 55317, USA.

Three-dimensional (3D) chemical images reveal the surface and subsurface distribution of pharmaceutical molecules in a coronary stent coating and are used to visualize the drug distribution as a function of elution time. The coronary stent coating consists of 25% (w/w) sirolimus in a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) matrix and is spray-coated onto metal coupons. Information regarding the 3D distribution of sirolimus in PLGA as a function of elution time was obtained by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging using a Au(+) ion beam for analysis in conjunction with a C(60)(+) ion beam for sputter depth profiling. The examined formulation is shown to have large areas of the surface as well as subsurface channels that are composed primarily of the drug, followed by a drug-depleted region, and finally, a relatively homogeneous dispersion of the drug in the polymer matrix. Elution is shown to occur from the drug-enriched surface region on a relatively short time scale and more gradually from the subsurface regions of homogeneously dispersed drug. Bulk composition was also probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and confocal Raman imaging, the results of which substantiate the TOF-SIMS 3D images. Finally, the effectiveness of a C(60)(+) ion beam for use in 3D characterization of organic systems is demonstrated against another polyatomic ion source (e.g., SF(5)(+)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac901587kDOI Listing
December 2009

TOF-SIMS evidence of intercalated molecular gases and diffusion-limited reaction kinetics in an alpha particle-irradiated PTFE matrix.

J Phys Chem B 2006 Feb;110(4):1820-9

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT-16), Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA.

The chemical evolution of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) that is brought about by increasing levels of irradiation with alpha particles is accompanied by the emergence and proliferation of functionalized moieties. Families of reaction products specifically identified in the alpha-irradiated polymer matrix include hydride-, hydroxide-, and oxide-functionalized fluorocarbons. The data also indicate the emergence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrazine (N2H4), but no distinct evidence suggesting the formation of perfluorinated amines, amides, or cyanogens is found. In this article we substantiate the speciation of emergent species and reveal evidence of intercalated molecular gases with which alpha particle-generated radicals may react to form the observed products. Furthermore, we present evidence to suggest that the kinetics of alpha particle-induced reaction is limited by the diffusion of radicals within the polymer matrix. That is to say, chemical additives in the polymer matrix are shown to be scavengers of H*, O*, and F* radicals and limit the rates of reaction that produce functionalized fluorocarbon moieties. Above a threshold dose of alpha particles, the concentration of radicals exceeds that of the scavenger species, and free radical diffusion commences as evidenced by a sudden increase in the yield of reaction products. Samples of PTFE were irradiated to alpha doses in the range of 10(7) to 5 x 10(10) rad with 5.5 MeV 4He2+ ions from a tandem accelerator. Residual gas analysis (RGA) was utilized to monitor the liberation of molecular gases from PTFE during alpha particle irradiation of samples in vacuum. Static time-of-flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS), equipped with a 20 keV C60+ source, was employed to probe chemical changes as a function of alpha particle irradiation. Chemical images and high-resolution mass spectra were collected in both the positive and negative polarities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp055402dDOI Listing
February 2006

Bond insertion, complexation, and penetration pathways of vapor-deposited aluminum atoms with HO- and CH(3)O-terminated organic monolayers.

J Am Chem Soc 2002 May;124(19):5528-41

Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

The interaction of vapor-deposited Al atoms with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of HS-(CH(2))(16)-X (X = -OH and -OCH(3)) chemisorbed at polycrystalline Au[111] surfaces was studied using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Whereas quantum chemical theory calculations show that Al insertion into the C-C, C-H, C-O, and O-H bonds is favorable energetically, it is observed that deposited Al inserts only with the OH SAM to form an -O-Al-H product. This reaction appears to cease prior to complete -OH consumption, and is followed by formation of a few overlayers of a nonmetallic type of phase and finally deposition of a metallic film. In contrast, for the OCH(3) SAM, the deposited Al atoms partition along two parallel paths: nucleation and growth of an overlayer metal film, and penetration through the OCH(3) SAM to the monolayer/Au interface region. By considering a previous observation that a CH(3) terminal group favors penetration as the dominant initial process, and using theory calculations of Al-molecule interaction energies, we suggest that the competition between the penetration and overlayer film nucleation channels is regulated by small differences in the Al-SAM terminal group interaction energies. These results demonstrate the highly subtle effects of surface structure and composition on the nucleation and growth of metal films on organic surfaces and point to a new perspective on organometallic and metal-solvent interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0123453DOI Listing
May 2002