Publications by authors named "Gregory F Keenan"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Infliximab treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease.

J Pediatr 2008 Dec 30;153(6):833-8. Epub 2008 Jul 30.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objective: To investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody infliximab in subjects with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistant Kawasaki disease (KD).

Study Design: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, prospective trial of second IVIG infusion (2 g/kg) versus infliximab (5 mg/kg) in 24 children with acute KD and fever after initial treatment with IVIG. Primary outcome measures were the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of infliximab. Secondary outcome measures were duration of fever and changes in markers of inflammation.

Results: Study drug infusions were associated with cessation of fever within 24 hours in 11 of 12 subjects treated with infliximab and in 8 of 12 subjects retreated with IVIG. No infusion reactions or serious adverse events were attributed to either study drug. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups in the change from baseline for laboratory variables, fever, or echocardiographic assessment of coronary arteries.

Conclusions: Both infliximab and a second IVIG infusion were safe and well tolerated in the subjects with KD who were resistant to standard IVIG treatment. The optimal management of patients resistant to IVIG remains to be determined.
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December 2008

A retrospective analysis of low-field strength magnetic resonance imaging and the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Curr Med Res Opin 2007 May;23(5):961-8

Denver Arthritis Clinic, Denver, CO 80230, USA.

Objective: To assess how in-office magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the hand/wrist or feet are utilized in a rheumatology practice to make clinical evaluations regarding therapeutic options for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

Methods: In a large clinical practice, a retrospective review was conducted on the first 300 RA patients who had office-based MRI scans at baseline. Information was collected on demographics, baseline therapy, and whether any change in therapy occurred at the time of the MRI scans. MR images of the affected wrist were obtained with a low-field strength dedicated extremity unit.

Results: Of the 300 patients, 99 patients (33%) had MRIs that exhibited signs of erosions, joint space narrowing, or bone edema. These patients were classified as MRI-positive. The remaining 201 patients (67%) were classified as MRI-negative. A substantial majority (85%) of MRI-positive patients received a change in their therapeutic regimen, compared with only 9.5% of the MRI-negative patients (p < 0.001). In the 84 MRI-positive patients who had their therapy changed, 65% received a new prescription for a biologic or an increase in the dose of their existing biologic and 34% of the MRI-positive patients received a DMARD. In the 19 MRI-negative patients with a therapeutic change, 11% received a biologic agent and 88% received a DMARD. The major limitation of this study is that it was a retrospective analysis and the assessments of MRI findings were qualitative.

Conclusion: In this large population of RA patients, there was an association between MRI detection of joint space narrowing, erosions, and/or bone edema and change in therapeutic management.
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May 2007

Response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis receiving infliximab plus methotrexate or methotrexate alone.

J Rheumatol 2007 May 15;34(5):952-7. Epub 2007 Apr 15.

Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Medicine, Medical Affairs, and Immunology, Centocor Research and Development, Inc., Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355, USA.

Objective: We assessed whether the addition of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent to methotrexate (MTX) therapy might alter the response of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to pneumococcal vaccination.

Methods: Seventy patients with early RA (n = 20, 36, and 14 in the infliximab 3 mg/kg plus MTX, infliximab 6 mg/kg plus MTX, and placebo plus MTX groups, respectively) were included in an analysis of patients enrolled in an ASPIRE substudy. Patients received 0.5 ml pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax) 34 weeks after initiation of study treatment; patient sera were collected 4 weeks later (week 38). Antibody responses were tested using enzyme immunoassay methods for reactivity to a panel of 12 serotypes of the pneumococcal vaccine.

Results: No significant difference in response to Pneumovax was observed between the infliximab plus MTX and placebo plus MTX groups. Roughly 80%-85% of patients responded to at least one serotype; however, only 20%-25% of patients in the different treatment groups responded to at least 6 different serotypes. Comparable proportions of patients in the 3 treatment groups responded to an increasing number (> or = 1 to > or = 6) of different serotypes. Patients < 45 years of age and those receiving oral corticosteroids generally appeared to respond better than those age 45 to 65 years and those not receiving oral corticosteroids.

Conclusion: All treatment groups in this study had lower responses to vaccine than would be expected in the normal population. However, the addition of the anti-TNF agent infliximab to MTX therapy did not appear to affect the response of patients with RA to pneumococcal vaccination.
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May 2007

Outcome of pregnancy in women receiving infliximab for the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2004 Dec;99(12):2385-92

Division of Gastroenterology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-5066, USA.

Objectives: Infliximab is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD). We report the first large series of pregnancy outcomes in women with RA and CD exposed to infliximab.

Methods: The infliximab safety database was queried for all reports of pregnancy. Data were extracted regarding the indication for infliximab, timing of infliximab relative to conception, pregnancy course, and pregnancy outcome. The proportion of live births, miscarriages, and therapeutic terminations for women directly exposed to infliximab before or during confirmed pregnancy were compared to those expected for the general U.S. population of pregnant women and pregnant women with CD not exposed to infliximab.

Results: Of the 146 identified pregnancies, 131 involved women exposed directly to infliximab and outcome data were available for 96 of these women. Live births occurred in 67% (64/96), miscarriages in 15% (14/96), and therapeutic termination in 19% (18/96) of the pregnancies directly exposed to infliximab with available outcome data. These results are similar to those expected for the general U.S. population of pregnant women or pregnant women with CD not exposed to infliximab.

Conclusion: Data from the infliximab safety database suggest that infliximab exposure during pregnancy results in outcomes that do not differ from those in the U.S. population of pregnant women and pregnant women with CD not exposed to infliximab. No increased risk of adverse outcome was detected, however, follow-up of larger numbers of pregnant women exposed to infliximab will be necessary to definitively exclude any fetal risk.
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December 2004

Infliximab (REMICADE) therapy in the treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease.

Am J Gastroenterol 2003 Apr;98(4):833-8

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104- 4399, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a single infusion of infliximab in the treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD).

Methods: A total of 21 pediatric CD patients were enrolled at seven study centers and randomized to receive a single infusion of infliximab 1 mg/kg (n = 6), 5 mg/kg (n = 7), or 10 mg/kg (n = 8) over at least 2 hrs at week 0 in this multicenter, open-label, dose-blinded trial. Efficacy assessments, including the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI), modified CDAI, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) determinations, were made at screening and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. Adverse events were assessed throughout study participation.

Results: Improvements in the PCDAI, modified CDAI, ESR, and CRP were observed with all infliximab doses, beginning at week 1. On average, all treated patients experienced approximately 50% improvement in the PCDAI by week 2. By week 12, the PCDAI remained approximately 30% improved from baseline. During the study, all 21 patients (100%) achieved a clinical response, and 10 patients (48%) achieved clinical remission. There were no infusion reactions in any of the treatment arms.

Conclusions: The results of this trial suggest that infliximab may be safe and effective as short-term therapy of medically refractory moderate to severe CD in a pediatric population.
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April 2003

Open label study to assess infliximab safety and timing of onset of clinical benefit among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

J Rheumatol 2002 Apr;29(4):667-77

Centocor Inc., Malvern, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To assess the timing of onset of clinical benefit following the initial infusion of infliximab and to obtain additional safety experience of infliximab when given in an office setting to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, the safety of reducing the infusion time from 2 hours to 1 hour was evaluated.

Methods: Patients (n = 553) with active RA despite receiving methotrexate (MTX) were treated with infliximab 3 mg/kg given over 2 h at baseline (Week 0), and Weeks 2, 6, and 14 in this multicenter open-label trial. Patients continued to receive a stable dose of MTX (> or = 7.5 mg/wk). At selected sites, patients tolerating the first 4 infusions were eligible to receive 2 additional infusions at twice the usual infusion rate (given over 1 h). Patients returned for efficacy assessments at 48 h following the initial infusion and several times throughout study participation.

Results: By 48 h following the first infusion, significant (p < 0.001) improvements were observed in duration of morning stiffness (34% mean improvement), physician's global disease assessment scores (30%), patient's global disease assessment scores (25%), and patient's pain assessment scores (30%). By Week 16, 52 to 63% mean improvements in these efficacy variables were observed (p < 0.001), the significant improvement was maintained through the end of study participation in the subset of patients who received the additional 1 h infliximab infusions. Through 16 weeks, 10% (54/553) of patients reported an adverse event associated with at least 1 of the 4 infusion procedures; the majority were mild and transient in nature. In the subset of 197 patients who received 2 additional infusions over 1 h, no increase in the frequency or severity of infusion-related adverse events was observed compared to the 2 h infusion.

Conclusion: Infliximab administered to patients with RA in an outpatient setting resulted in significant clinical improvement within 48 h that was sustained with additional infusions. Approximately 10% of patients experienced an infusion reaction, highlighting the need for direct supervision over patient treatment. Patients who tolerated infliximab infusions given over 2 h also tolerated a 1 h infusion.
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April 2002