Publications by authors named "Gregory A Simchick"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Engineered glycomaterial implants orchestrate large-scale functional repair of brain tissue chronically after severe traumatic brain injury.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 5;7(10). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) survivors experience permanent functional disabilities due to significant volume loss and the brain's poor capacity to regenerate. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) are key regulators of growth factor signaling and neural stem cell homeostasis in the brain. However, the efficacy of engineered CS (eCS) matrices in mediating structural and functional recovery chronically after sTBI has not been investigated. We report that neurotrophic factor functionalized acellular eCS matrices implanted into the rat M1 region acutely after sTBI significantly enhanced cellular repair and gross motor function recovery when compared to controls 20 weeks after sTBI. Animals subjected to M2 region injuries followed by eCS matrix implantations demonstrated the significant recovery of "reach-to-grasp" function. This was attributed to enhanced volumetric vascularization, activity-regulated cytoskeleton (Arc) protein expression, and perilesional sensorimotor connectivity. These findings indicate that eCS matrices implanted acutely after sTBI can support complex cellular, vascular, and neuronal circuit repair chronically after sTBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe0207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935369PMC
March 2021

Exploring the predictive value of lesion topology on motor function outcomes in a porcine ischemic stroke model.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 15;11(1):3814. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Harnessing the maximum diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by including stroke lesion location in relation to specific structures that are associated with particular functions will likely increase the potential to predict functional deficit type, severity, and recovery in stroke patients. This exploratory study aims to identify key structures lesioned by a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) that impact stroke recovery and to strengthen the predictive capacity of neuroimaging techniques that characterize stroke outcomes in a translational porcine model. Clinically relevant MRI measures showed significant lesion volumes, midline shifts, and decreased white matter integrity post-MCAO. Using a pig brain atlas, damaged brain structures included the insular cortex, somatosensory cortices, temporal gyri, claustrum, and visual cortices, among others. MCAO resulted in severely impaired spatiotemporal gait parameters, decreased voluntary movement in open field testing, and higher modified Rankin Scale scores at acute timepoints. Pearson correlation analyses at acute timepoints between standard MRI metrics (e.g., lesion volume) and functional outcomes displayed moderate R values to functional gait outcomes. Moreover, Pearson correlation analyses showed higher R values between functional gait deficits and increased lesioning of structures associated with motor function, such as the putamen, globus pallidus, and primary somatosensory cortex. This correlation analysis approach helped identify neuroanatomical structures predictive of stroke outcomes and may lead to the translation of this topological analysis approach from preclinical stroke assessment to a clinical biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83432-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884696PMC
February 2021

Reactive Oxygen Species-Triggered Dissociation of a Polyrotaxane-Based Nanochelator for Enhanced Clearance of Systemic and Hepatic Iron.

ACS Nano 2021 01 30;15(1):419-433. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, United States.

Chronic blood transfusions are used to alleviate anemic symptoms in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients but can eventually result in iron overload (IO) and subsequently lead to severe oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Deferoxamine (DFO) is clinically approved to treat transfusional IO, but the use of the iron chelator is hindered by nonspecific toxicity and poor pharmacokinetic (PK) properties in humans, resulting in the need to administer the drug long-term infusion regimens that can often lead to poor patient compliance. Herein, a nanochelator system that uses the characteristic IO physiological environment to dissociate was prepared through the incorporation of DFO and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive thioketal groups into an α-cyclodextrin-based polyrotaxane platform (rPR-DFO). ROS-induced dissociation of this nanochelator (. 10 nm) into constructs averaging 2 nm in diameter significantly increased urine and fecal elimination of excess iron . In addition to significantly improved PK properties, rPR-DFO was well-tolerated in mice and no adverse side effects were noted in single high dose or multiple dose acute toxicity studies. The overall features of rPR-DFO as a promising system for iron chelation therapy can be attributed to a combination of the nanochelator's improved PK, favorable distribution to the liver, and ROS-induced dissociation properties into constructs <6 nm for faster renal elimination. This ROS-responsive nanochelator design may serve as a promising alternative for safely prolonging the circulation of DFO and more rapidly eliminating iron chelates from the body in iron chelation therapy regimens requiring repeated dosing of nanochelators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c01083DOI Listing
January 2021

Tracking and Quantification of Magnetically Labeled Stem Cells using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Adv Funct Mater 2016 Jun 17;26(22):3899-3915. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Bioimaging Research Center, Regenerative Bioscience Center, and Department of Physics University of Georgia, Athens, GA. 30602, USA.

Stem cell based therapies have critical impacts on treatments and cures of diseases such as neurodegenerative or cardiovascular disease. In vivo tracking of stem cells labeled with magnetic contrast agents is of particular interest and importance as it allows for monitoring of the cells' bio-distribution, viability, and physiological responses. Herein, recent advances are introduced in tracking and quantification of super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles-labeled cells with magnetic resonance imaging, a noninvasive approach that can longitudinally monitor transplanted cells. This is followed by recent translational research on human stem cells that are dual-labeled with green fluorescence protein (GFP) and SPIO nanoparticles, then transplanted and tracked in a chicken embryo model. Cell labeling efficiency, viability, and cell differentiation are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201504444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526633PMC
June 2016