Publications by authors named "Gregory A Otterson"

144 Publications

First-Line Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Advanced NSCLC: 4-Year Outcomes From the Randomized, Open-Label, Phase 3 CheckMate 227 Part 1 Trial.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: In CheckMate 227, nivolumab plus ipilimumab prolonged overall survival (OS) versus chemotherapy in patients with tumor programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) greater than or equal to 1% (primary end point) or less than 1% (prespecified descriptive analysis). We report results with minimum 4 years' follow-up.

Methods: Adults with previously untreated stage IV or recurrent NSCLC were randomized (1:1:1) to nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab, or chemotherapy (PD-L1 ≥1%); or to nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy (PD-L1 <1%). Efficacy included OS and other measures. Safety included timing and management of immune-mediated adverse events (AEs). A post hoc analysis evaluated efficacy in patients who discontinued nivolumab plus ipilimumab due to treatment-related AEs (TRAEs).

Results: After 54.8 months' median follow-up, OS remained longer with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy in patients with PD-L1 greater than or equal to 1% (hazard ratio = 0.76; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.90) and PD-L1 less than 1% (0.64; 0.51-0.81); 4-year OS rate with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy was 29% versus 18% (PD-L1 ≥1%); and 24% versus 10% (PD-L1 <1%). Benefits were observed in both squamous and nonsquamous histologies. In a descriptive analysis, efficacy was improved with nivolumab plus ipilimumab relative to nivolumab (PD-L1 ≥1%) and nivolumab plus chemotherapy (PD-L1 <1%). Safety was consistent with previous reports. The most common immune-mediated AE with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab, and nivolumab plus chemotherapy was rash; most immune-mediated AEs (except endocrine events) occurred within 6 months from start of treatment and resolved within 3 months after, mainly with systemic corticosteroids. Patients who discontinued nivolumab plus ipilimumab due to TRAEs had long-term OS benefits, as seen in the all randomized population.

Conclusions: At more than 4 years' minimum follow-up, with all patients off immunotherapy treatment for at least 2 years, first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab continued to demonstrate durable long-term efficacy in patients with advanced NSCLC. No new safety signals were identified. Immune-mediated AEs occurred early and resolved quickly with guideline-based management. Discontinuation of nivolumab plus ipilimumab due to TRAEs did not have a negative impact on the long-term benefits seen in all randomized patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.09.010DOI Listing
October 2021

Advances in epigenetic therapeutics with focus on solid tumors.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 04 20;13(1):83. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, Columbus, OH, USA.

Epigenetic ("above genetics") modifications can alter the gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Aberrant epigenetic regulations in cancer include DNA methylation, histone methylation, histone acetylation, non-coding RNA, and mRNA methylation. Epigenetic-targeted agents have demonstrated clinical activities in hematological malignancies and therapeutic potential in solid tumors. In this review, we describe mechanisms of various epigenetic modifications, discuss the Food and Drug Administration-approved epigenetic agents, and focus on the current clinical investigations of novel epigenetic monotherapies and combination therapies in solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01069-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056722PMC
April 2021

Bone Metastases, Skeletal-Related Events, and Survival in Patients With Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Apr 20;19(8):915-921. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

3Division of Medical Oncology, and.

Background: Bone metastases and skeletal-related events (SREs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC). Data are limited on bone metastases and SREs in patients with mNSCLC treated using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and on the efficacy of bone-modifying agents (BMAs) in this setting. Here we report the incidence, impact on survival, risk factors for bone metastases and SREs, and impact of BMAs in patients with mNSCLC treated with ICIs in a multi-institutional cohort.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with mNSCLC treated with ICIs at 2 tertiary care centers from 2014 through 2017. Overall survival (OS) was compared between patients with and without baseline bone metastases using a log-rank test. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association between OS and the presence of bone metastases at ICI initiation, controlling for other confounding factors.

Results: We identified a cohort of 330 patients who had received ICIs for metastatic disease. Median patient age was 63 years, most patients were treated in the second line or beyond (n=259; 78%), and nivolumab was the most common ICI (n=211; 64%). Median OS was 10 months (95% CI, 8.4-12.0). In our cohort, 124 patients (38%) had baseline bone metastases, and 43 (13%) developed SREs during or after ICI treatment. Patients with bone metastases had a higher hazard of death after controlling for performance status, histology, line of therapy, and disease burden (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19-2.08; P=.001). Use of BMAs was not associated with OS or a decreased risk of SREs.

Conclusions: Presence of bone metastases at baseline was associated with a worse prognosis for patients with mNSCLC treated with ICI after controlling for multiple clinical characteristics. Use of BMAs was not associated with reduced SREs or a difference in survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7668DOI Listing
April 2021

Crizotinib in Patients With MET-Amplified NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 06 4;16(6):1017-1029. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Introduction: MET amplification is a rare, potentially actionable, primary oncogenic driver in patients with NSCLC.

Methods: The influence of MET amplification on the clinical activity of the ALK, ROS1, and MET inhibitor, crizotinib (250 mg twice daily), was examined in patients with NSCLC (NCT00585195) who were enrolled into high (≥4 MET-to-CEP7 ratio), medium (>2.2 to <4 MET-to-CEP7 ratio), or low (≥1.8 to ≤2.2 MET-to-CEP7 ratio) amplification categories. Retrospective next-generation sequencing profiling was performed on archival tumor tissue. End points included objective response rate (ORR), duration of response, and progression-free survival.

Results: A total of 38 patients with a MET-to-CEP7 ratio greater than or equal to 1.8 by local fluorescence in situ hybridization testing received crizotinib. All patients were response-assessable, among whom 21, 14, and 3 had high, medium, and low MET amplification, respectively. ORRs of 8 of 21 (38.1%), 2 of 14 (14.3%), and 1 of 3 (33.3%), median duration of response of 5.2, 3.8, and 12.2 months, and median progression-free survival values of 6.7, 1.9, and 1.8 months were observed for those with high, medium, and low MET amplification, respectively. MET amplification gene copy number greater than or equal to 6 was detected by next-generation sequencing in 15 of 19 (78.9%) analyzable patients. Of these 15 patients, objective responses were observed in six (40%), two of whom had concurrent MET exon 14 alterations. No responses were observed among five patients with concurrent KRAS, BRAF, or EGFR mutations.

Conclusions: Patients with high-level, MET-amplified NSCLC responded to crizotinib with the highest ORR. Use of combined diagnostics for MET and other oncogenes may potentially identify patients most likely to respond to crizotinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.02.010DOI Listing
June 2021

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Version 2.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 03 2;19(3):254-266. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

29Mayo Clinic Cancer Center.

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) address all aspects of management for NSCLC. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines regarding targeted therapies, immunotherapies, and their respective biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0013DOI Listing
March 2021

Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy toxicity and overall survival among older adults with advanced cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 06 21;12(5):813-819. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Div. of Medical Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Despite growing evidence that checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (IO) toxicity is associated with improved treatment response, the relationship between immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and overall survival (OS) among older adults [age ≥ 70 years (y)] remains unknown. The study goal was to determine differences in OS based on age and ≥ grade 3 (G3) irAEs.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 673 patients with advanced cancer. Patients who received ≥1 dose of IO at our institution from 2011 to 2018 were eligible. The primary outcome was OS from the start of first line of IO treatment, compared between four patient groups stratified by age and ≥ G3 irAEs with adjustment for patient characteristics using a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results And Conclusion: Among all 673 patients, 35.4% were ≥ 70y, 39.8% had melanoma, and 45.6% received single-agent nivolumab. Incidence and types of ≥G3 irAEs did not differ by age. Median OS was significantly longer for all patients with ≥G3 irAEs (unadjusted 21.7 vs. 11.9 months, P = 0.007). There was no difference in OS among patients ≥70y with ≥G3 irAEs (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.61-1.47, P = 0.79) in the multivariable analysis. Patients <70y with ≥G3 irAEs had significantly increased OS (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.21-0.52, P < 0.001). Younger patients, but not older adults, with high-grade irAEs experience strong survival benefit. This difference may be due to the toll of irAEs themselves or the effects of treatments for irAEs, such as corticosteroids. Factors impacting OS of older adults after irAEs must be determined and optimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2021.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184608PMC
June 2021

Comparative assessment of manual chart review and ICD claims data in evaluating immunotherapy-related adverse events.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Oct 24;70(10):2761-2769. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biomedical Informatics and Center for Biostatistics, The Ohio State University, A450B Starling Loving Hall Columbus, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to demonstrate that irAEs, specifically gastrointestinal and pulmonary, examined through International Classification of Disease (ICD) data leads to underrepresentation of true irAEs and overrepresentation of false irAEs, thereby concluding that ICD claims data are a poor approach to electronic health record (EHR) data mining for irAEs in immunotherapy clinical research.

Methods: This retrospective analysis was conducted in 1,063 cancer patients who received ICIs between 2011 and 2017. We identified irAEs by manual review of medical records to determine the incidence of each of our endpoints, namely colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, other irAE, or no irAE. We then performed a secondary analysis utilizing ICD claims data alone using a broad range of symptom and disease-specific ICD codes representative of irAEs.

Results: 16% (n = 174/1,063) of the total study population was initially found to have either pneumonitis 3% (n = 37), colitis 7% (n = 81) or hepatitis 5% (n = 56) on manual review. Of these patients, 46% (n = 80/174) did not have ICD code evidence in the EHR reflecting their irAE. Of the total patients not found to have any irAEs during manual review, 61% (n = 459/748) of patients had ICD codes suggestive of possible irAE, yet were not identified as having an irAE during manual review.

Discussion: Examining gastrointestinal and pulmonary irAEs through the International Classification of Disease (ICD) data leads to underrepresentation of true irAEs and overrepresentation of false irAEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02880-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Pembrolizumab Plus Ipilimumab or Placebo for Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer With PD-L1 Tumor Proportion Score ≥ 50%: Randomized, Double-Blind Phase III KEYNOTE-598 Study.

J Clin Oncol 2021 07 29;39(21):2327-2338. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

LungenClinic, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany.

Purpose: Pembrolizumab monotherapy is standard first-line therapy for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥ 50% without actionable driver mutations. It is not known whether adding ipilimumab to pembrolizumab improves efficacy over pembrolizumab alone in this population.

Methods: In the randomized, double-blind, phase III KEYNOTE-598 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03302234), eligible patients with previously untreated metastatic NSCLC with PD-L1 TPS ≥ 50% and no sensitizing or aberrations were randomly allocated 1:1 to ipilimumab 1 mg/kg or placebo every 6 weeks for up to 18 doses; all participants received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 35 doses. Primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival.

Results: Of the 568 participants, 284 were randomly allocated to each group. Median overall survival was 21.4 months for pembrolizumab-ipilimumab versus 21.9 months for pembrolizumab-placebo (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.37; = .74). Median progression-free survival was 8.2 months for pembrolizumab-ipilimumab versus 8.4 months for pembrolizumab-placebo (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.30; = .72). Grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 62.4% of pembrolizumab-ipilimumab recipients versus 50.2% of pembrolizumab-placebo recipients and led to death in 13.1% versus 7.5%. The external data and safety monitoring committee recommended that the study be stopped for futility and that participants discontinue ipilimumab and placebo.

Conclusion: Adding ipilimumab to pembrolizumab does not improve efficacy and is associated with greater toxicity than pembrolizumab monotherapy as first-line treatment for metastatic NSCLC with PD-L1 TPS ≥ 50% and no targetable or aberrations. These data do not support use of pembrolizumab-ipilimumab in place of pembrolizumab monotherapy in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03579DOI Listing
July 2021

First-Line Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab Versus Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC With 1% or Greater Tumor PD-L1 Expression: Patient-Reported Outcomes From CheckMate 227 Part 1.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 04 21;16(4):665-676. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Australia.

Introduction: In CheckMate 227 (NCT02477826), patients with treatment-naive stage IV or recurrent NSCLC and 1% or greater tumor programmed death ligand 1 expression had significantly improved overall survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy. We present the patient-reported outcomes (PROs).

Methods: Patients (N = 1189) were randomized to nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab, or chemotherapy. PROs were exploratory. Changes in Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) average symptom burden index, LCSS 3-item global index, EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), and EQ-5D utility index were analyzed descriptively. Mixed-effect model repeated measures and time-to-first deterioration and improvement analyses were conducted.

Results: PRO completion rates were generally greater than 80%. On-treatment improvements from baseline in LCSS measures of symptom burden and global health status with nivolumab plus ipilimumab generally met or exceeded the minimal important difference (smallest clinically meaningful change) from weeks 24 and 30, respectively; improvements with chemotherapy generally remained below the minimal important difference. Mean on-treatment EQ-5D VAS scores for both treatments approached the U.K. population norm at week 24, remaining so throughout the treatment period. Mixed-effect model repeated measures analyses revealed numerically greater improvements from baseline with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy across LCSS average symptom burden index and 3-item global index, and EQ-5D VAS and utility index. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab had delayed time-to-first deterioration (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.74 [0.56 to 0.98]) and a trend for more rapid time-to-first improvement (1.24 [0.98 to 1.59]) versus chemotherapy.

Conclusions: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab revealed delayed deterioration and numerical improvement in symptoms and health-related quality of life versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC and 1% or greater programmed death ligand 1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.12.019DOI Listing
April 2021

Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on Circulating Cell-Free DNA and Impact of Variation Allele Frequency.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 07 2;22(4):e519-e527. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH.

Background: Next-generation sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can identify sensitizing and resistance mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). cfDNA is helpful when tissue is insufficient for genomic testing or repeat biopsy is not feasible or poses unacceptable risk. Here we report the experience of cfDNA testing at the time of diagnosis and how this intervention can help avoid further invasive interventions, how it can be used to determine initiation of therapy, and how variation allele frequency of the somatic alteration affects response to subsequent treatment.

Patients And Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective study of patients with advanced NSCLC who had cfDNA from plasma tested using the Guardant360 panel, which identifies somatic genomic alterations by massive parallel sequencing of target genes. An institutional Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments tissue panel using fluorescence in situ hybridization (for MET, RET, ROS1, and ALK) and next-generation sequencing for selected genes was used for tissue analysis. Actionable mutations are those with US Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies (EGFR, ALK, ROS, BRAF, NTRK fusions) or therapies soon to be approved (RET fusions and MET amplifications, or MET exon 14 skipping mutation).

Results: A total of 163 blood samples from 143 patients were evaluated, 82 at diagnosis and 81 at disease progression. A total of 94 cases had tissue and cfDNA testing performed within 12 weeks of each other. Seventy-six (81%) of 94 cases were concordant, of which 22 cases were concordantly positive and 54 concordantly negative. Eighteen (19%) of 94 cases were discordant, of which 11 had negative blood and positive tissue results, and 7 had positive blood and negative tissue results. cfDNA testing had a sensitivity of 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51%, 83%), specificity of 89% (95% CI, 81%, 97%), negative predictive value of 83% (95% CI, 74%, 92%), and positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI, 60%, 91%). Nineteen (21%) of 82 cfDNA samples analyzed at diagnosis had actionable mutations identified (4 EGFR exon 19 deletion, 2 EGFR exon 21 L858R, 2 EGFR L861Q, 1 L861R, 4 EML4-ALK fusion, 2 CD74-ROS1 fusion, 2 MET exon 14 skipping mutation, 2 KIF5B-RET fusion). Of the 82 patients with cfDNA testing performed at the time of diagnosis, 8 patients (10%) initiated targeted therapy on the basis of cfDNA results only, with 6 patients experiencing partial response, 1 patient complete response, and 1 patient stable disease. The response rate for patients who initiated targeted therapies on the basis of cfDNA only at diagnosis was 88%. Variant allele frequency had no impact on response.

Conclusions: Initiation of targeted therapy for advanced NSCLC was feasible based only on identification of actionable mutations by cfDNA testing in 9% of the cases for which tissue diagnosis could not be obtained. Actionable targets were identified by cfDNA in 20% of the samples sent at diagnosis. A substantial number of patients benefited from cfDNA testing at initial diagnosis because it identified actionable mutations that led to appropriate targeted treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.11.007DOI Listing
July 2021

Association Between RBC Antigen Allo-Antibodies and Immune-Related Adverse Events During Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment for Advanced Cancers.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 17;12:11743-11749. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Division of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have become a primary treatment modality for patients with a variety of malignancies. Given their increasing use, it is essential to be familiar with their immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Here we report a severe case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with cold agglutinin precipitated by pembrolizumab, and a retrospective study of patients treated with ICI utilizing an institutional database where we analyzed the patterns of anti-RBC testing and their ability to predict irAE.

Methods: Patients treated with at least one dose of ICI (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4 inhibitors) for advanced cancer between November 2012 and September 2017 at our institution were included. Electronic Medical Records were reviewed to abstract data. Medians and 95% CIs were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and differences compared using the Log Rank test. Fisher's exact test and Chi square test were used to analyze clinical associations.

Results: We identified 1065 patients who received at least one dose of ICI: 180/1065 (17%) underwent direct antiglobulin test (DAT) or allo-antibody (alloAb) testing at any time; 127/1065 (12%) had either DAT or alloAb testing pre-ICI; 129 had either DAT or alloAb testing after ICI initiation; and 76 had either DAT or alloAb testing at both time points. There was a significant association between positive alloAb pre-ICI and the development of irAE while on ICI (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Given the increasing use of ICI, oncologists should be aware of potential irAEs with ICI. We found an association between the presence of an alloAb pre-ICI and the development of irAE, indicating that this previous non-self antigen response may predict immune adverse events. A larger prospective study is needed for systematic evaluation of the association between alloAb testing and irAE, and whether routine testing may inform clinical decision-making for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S264166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680604PMC
November 2020

Multisystem Immune-Related Adverse Events Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2020 12;6(12):1952-1956

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: The spectrum of individual immune-related adverse events (irAEs) from anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been reported widely, and their development is associated with improved patient survival across tumor types. The spectrum and impact on survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who develop multisystem irAEs from ICIs, has not been described.

Objective: To characterize multisystem irAEs, their association with survival, and risk factors for multisystem irAE development.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study carried out in 5 academic institutions worldwide included 623 patients with stage III/IV NSCLC, treated with anti-PD-(L)1 ICIs alone or in combination with another anticancer agent between January 2007 and January 2019.

Exposures: Anti-PD-(L)1 monotherapy or combinations.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Multisystem irAEs were characterized by combinations of individual irAEs or organ system involved, separated by ICI-monotherapy or combinations. Median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in PFS and OS between irAE groups were assessed by multivariable models. Risk for multisystem irAE was estimated as odds ratios by multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The 623 patients included in the study were mostly men (60%, n = 375) and White (77%, n = 480). The median (range) age was 66 (58-73) years, and 148 patients (24%) developed a single irAE, whereas 58 (9.3%) developed multisystem irAEs. The most common multisystem irAE patterns in patients receiving anti-PD-(L)1 monotherapy were pneumonitis thyroiditis (n = 7, 14%), hepatitis thyroiditis (n = 5, 10%), dermatitis pneumonitis (n = 5, 10%), and dermatitis thyroiditis (n = 4, 8%). Favorable Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) (ECOG PS = 0/1 vs 2; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94; P = .04) and longer ICI duration (aOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .001) were independent risk factors for development of multisystem irAEs. Patients with 1 irAE and multisystem irAEs demonstrated incrementally improved OS (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.66-1.12; P = .26; and aHR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85; P = . 005, respectively) and PFS (aHR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.85; P = .001; and aHR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P < .001, respectively) vs patients with no irAEs, in multivariable models adjusting for ICI duration.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study, development of multisystem irAEs was associated with improved survival in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596677PMC
December 2020

Brief report: inhaled corticosteroid use and the risk of checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis in patients with advanced cancer.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2020 Nov 29;69(11):2403-2408. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Division of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University, 320 W 10th Ave, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP) is an immune-related adverse event that may complicate treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and can cause significant morbidity. We sought to identify predictors for the development of CIP, and whether the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) at time of ICI may be protective.

Methods: Patients with advanced cancer treated with ICI from 2011 and 2018 were included in this study. CIP attribution to ICI was determined by treating physician at time of diagnosis. Predictors were assessed by univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: We identified 837 pts treated with ICI, of whom 30 (3.6%) developed grade 2 or higher CIP. 82 patients (9.8%) were receiving ICS at time of ICI and had increased risk of developing CIP with hazard ration (HR) of 4.22 (95% CI 1.93-9.21, p < 0.001) compared to those patients not receiving ICS. Patients with age ≥ 65 years had increased risk of developing CIP (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.02-4.40, p = 0.044), as did 209 patients with lung cancer (198 NSCLC and 11 SCLC) compared to other types of cancers (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.54-6.46, p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, age ≥ 65 years, lung cancer diagnosis, and ICS use remained statistically associated with the development of CIP, with adjusted HR for ICS 3.09 (95% CI 1.32-7.24, p = 0.009).

Conclusions: Patients treated with ICS at time of ICI initiation had an increased risk of developing CIP. We further identified older adults with age ≥ 65 years and lung cancers as independent risk factors for CIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02674-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572636PMC
November 2020

Clinical and Molecular Correlates of Tumor Mutation Burden in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Lung Cancer 2020 08 21;146:36-41. Epub 2020 May 21.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: Recent clinical studies have identified tumor mutation burden (TMB) as a promising therapeutic biomarker of anti-tumor immune checkpoint blockade. However, given the relatively slow turnaround time and high expense in measuring TMB, tobacco smoking history (TSH) is an attractive replacement biomarker. The carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoking may be modified by the protective effects of genome stability genes. This study aims to test the associations between tobacco smoking, genome stability gene inactivation, and TMB.

Methods: Publicly available TSH and DNA somatic alteration data from NSCLC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Correlations and enrichments were calculated with Spearman and Fisher's exact test methods, respectively. Multivariate modeling of TMB was performed with penalized linear regression.

Results: 85% of never smokers in adenocarcinomas (LUAD) had low TMB, but a positive TSH was not predictive of hypermutancy. The limited utility of TSH in predicting TMB was reproduced on an independent LUAD dataset. To expand our search for predictors of TMB, we further investigated the contributions of genome stability related genes (GSGs) to TMB. 242/461 (52%) and 300/465 (65%) patients with LUAD and squamous carcinomas (LUSC), respectively, showed evidence of loss of function in at least one of the 182 GSGs. 182 GSGs from 16 pathways were assessed for associations with TMB high tumor status using Fisher's exact test. We performed univariate gene and pathway enrichments in TMB high tumors and found roles forPOLE, REV3L, and FANCE genes, as well as several key GSG pathways.

Conclusions: This study comprehensively tested the association between GSG, tobacco smoking, and TMB in NSCLC. In LUAD, never-smoking status was predictive of low TMB, but overall TSH was not an adequate surrogate biomarker for TMB in NSCLC. Furthermore, we identified an association between GSG inactivation and TMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.05.021DOI Listing
August 2020

Inferring the role of the microbiome on survival in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: causal modeling, timing, and classes of concomitant medications.

BMC Cancer 2020 May 6;20(1):383. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: The microbiome has been shown to affect the response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) in a small number of cancers and in preclinical models. Here, we sought to broadly survey cancers to identify those in which the microbiome may play a prognostic role using retrospective analyses of patients with advanced cancer treated with ICIs.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 690 patients who received ICI therapy for advanced cancer. We used a literature review to define a causal model for the relationship between medications, the microbiome, and ICI response to guide the abstraction of electronic health records. Medications with precedent for changes to the microbiome included antibiotics, corticosteroids, proton pump inhibitors, histamine receptor blockers, non-steroid anti-inflammatories and statins. We tested the effect of medication timing on overall survival (OS) and evaluated the robustness of medication effects in each cancer. Finally, we compared the size of the effect observed for different classes of antibiotics to taxa that have been correlated to ICI response using a literature review of culture-based antibiotic susceptibilities.

Results: Of the medications assessed, only antibiotics and corticosteroids significantly associated with shorter OS. The hazard ratios (HRs) for antibiotics and corticosteroids were highest near the start of ICI treatment but remained significant when given prior to ICI. Antibiotics and corticosteroids remained significantly associated with OS even when controlling for multiple factors such as Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and stage. When grouping antibiotics by class, β-lactams showed the strongest association with OS across all tested cancers.

Conclusions: The timing and strength of the correlations with antibiotics and corticosteroids after controlling for confounding factors are consistent with the microbiome involvement with the response to ICIs across several cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06882-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201618PMC
May 2020

Correction to: Outcomes associated with immune-related adverse events in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with nivolumab: a pooled exploratory analysis from a global cohort.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2020 07;69(7):1189

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The second sentence of the section "irAEs and ICI efficacy" should read as.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02582-zDOI Listing
July 2020

A Phase II Study of the Multikinase Inhibitor Ponatinib in Patients With Advanced, -Rearranged NSCLC.

JTO Clin Res Rep 2020 Sep 24;1(3):100045. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, Center for Thoracic Cancers, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: rearrangements define a distinct molecular subset of NSCLC. The multikinase inhibitor ponatinib reveals potent activity in preclinical models of -rearranged NSCLC.

Methods: In this single-arm, multicenter, phase II trial, we evaluated the clinical activity of ponatinib in patients with advanced, previously treated, -rearranged NSCLC (NCT01813734). rearrangements were identified through fluorescence in situ hybridization or next-generation sequencing. Ponatinib was administered at a dose of 30 mg once daily. Patients without a documented objective response were eligible to dose-escalate ponatinib to 45 mg daily. The primary end point was objective response rate.

Results: Between August 2014 and December 2017, nine patients were enrolled. The median age was 58 years (range 49-73 y). Eight patients (89%) had a history of brain metastases. The median number of previous lines of therapy was three (range 1-5). Of the nine evaluated patients, five (55%) experienced tumor shrinkage from baseline, but no confirmed responses were observed (objective response rate 0%). The disease control rate was 55%. With a median follow-up of 9.33 months, the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.80 months (95% CI: 1.83-5.30) and 17.47 months (95% CI: 6.57-19.20), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash (n = 5; 56%), constipation (n = 4; 44%), and diarrhea (n = 4; 44%). No treatment-related thromboembolic or cardiac events were observed. The study was stopped prematurely owing to slow accrual and lack of clinical activity.

Conclusions: Ponatinib has limited clinical activity in patients with -rearranged NSCLC. Continued development of more potent and selective RET inhibitors is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtocrr.2020.100045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8474450PMC
September 2020

Minimally Invasive Lobectomy for Residual Primary Tumors of Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Treatment With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Case Series and Clinical Considerations.

Clin Lung Cancer 2020 07 25;21(4):e265-e269. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH; Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center- James and Solove Research Institute, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.02.016DOI Listing
July 2020

Outcomes associated with immune-related adverse events in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with nivolumab: a pooled exploratory analysis from a global cohort.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2020 Jul 5;69(7):1177-1187. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

Background: Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) comprise a distinct spectrum of auto-inflammatory manifestations triggered due to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Current data on the association of irAEs with outcomes in NSCLC treated with nivolumab are limited.

Methods And Objectives: We pooled data from 531 metastatic NSCLC patients from five centers treated with nivolumab after failing platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary objective was to investigate the relationship between irAEs with clinical benefit to nivolumab as well as to elucidate patterns of irAE-related ICI discontinuations and their impact on survival.

Results: 33.0% (173/531) of patients treated with nivolumab were noted to have an irAE. Patients with irAEs had a significantly longer median PFS [6.1 vs. 3.1 months, HR 0.68 95% CI (0.55-0.85); p = 0.001] and OS [14.9 vs. 7.4 months, HR 0.66 95% CI (0.52-0.82); p < 0.001)] compared to those without irAEs. In multivariate analysis, the presence of irAEs showed a significantly better PFS [HR 0.69, 95% CI (0.55-0.87); p = 0.002] and a trend for better OS [HR 0.62, 95% CI (0.55-1.03); p = 0.057]. Patients with permanent ICI discontinuation secondary to index irAE had a significantly shorter median PFS [2.3 vs. 6.6 months, HR 1.74 95% CI (1.06-2.80); p = 0.02] and median OS [3.6 vs. 17.6 months; HR 2.61 95% CI (1.61-4.21); p < 0.001] compared to those that did not have permanent ICI discontinuation.

Conclusions: Our pooled exploratory analysis demonstrates improved clinical benefit to nivolumab in NSCLC patients experiencing irAEs. We also observed negative impact of irAE-related treatment discontinuation on survival in this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02536-5DOI Listing
July 2020

Antitumor activity of crizotinib in lung cancers harboring a MET exon 14 alteration.

Nat Med 2020 01 13;26(1):47-51. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

MET exon 14 alterations are oncogenic drivers of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). These alterations are associated with increased MET activity and preclinical sensitivity to MET inhibition. Crizotinib is a multikinase inhibitor with potent activity against MET. The antitumor activity and safety of crizotinib were assessed in 69 patients with advanced NSCLCs harboring MET exon 14 alterations. Objective response rate was 32% (95% confidence interval (CI), 21-45) among 65 response-evaluable patients. Objective responses were observed independent of the molecular heterogeneity that characterizes these cancers and did not vary by splice-site region and mutation type of the MET exon 14 alteration, concurrent increased MET copy number or the detection of a MET exon 14 alteration in circulating tumor DNA. The median duration of response was 9.1 months (95% CI, 6.4-12.7). The median progression-free survival was 7.3 months (95% CI, 5.4-9.1). MET exon 14 alteration defines a molecular subgroup of NSCLCs for which MET inhibition with crizotinib is active. These results address an unmet need for targeted therapy in people with lung cancers with MET exon 14 alterations and adds to an expanding list of genomically driven therapies for oncogenic subsets of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0716-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500676PMC
January 2020

Entrectinib in ROS1 fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: integrated analysis of three phase 1-2 trials.

Lancet Oncol 2020 02 11;21(2):261-270. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Ignyta, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Recurrent gene fusions, such as ROS1 fusions, are oncogenic drivers of various cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Up to 36% of patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC have brain metastases at the diagnosis of advanced disease. Entrectinib is a ROS1 inhibitor that has been designed to effectively penetrate and remain in the CNS. We explored the use of entrectinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: We did an integrated analysis of three ongoing phase 1 or 2 trials of entrectinib (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2). The efficacy-evaluable population included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC who received entrectinib at a dose of at least 600 mg orally once per day, with at least 12 months' follow-up. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and previous cancer treatment (except for ROS1 inhibitors) was allowed. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with an objective response (complete or partial response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) and duration of response, and were evaluated by blinded independent central review. The safety-evaluable population for the safety analysis included all patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the three trials who received at least one dose of entrectinib (irrespective of dose or duration of follow-up). These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02097810 (STARTRK-1) and NCT02568267 (STARTRK-2), and EudraCT, 2012-000148-88 (ALKA-372-001).

Findings: Patients were enrolled in ALKA-372-001 from Oct 26, 2012, to March 27, 2018; in STARTRK-1 from Aug 7, 2014, to May 10, 2018; and in STARTRK-2 from Nov 19, 2015 (enrolment is ongoing). At the data cutoff date for this analysis (May 31, 2018), 41 (77%; 95% CI 64-88) of 53 patients in the efficacy-evaluable population had an objective response. Median follow-up was 15·5 monhts (IQR 13·4-20·2). Median duration of response was 24·6 months (95% CI 11·4-34·8). In the safety-evaluable population, 79 (59%) of 134 patients had grade 1 or 2 treatment-related adverse events. 46 (34%) of 134 patients had grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events, with the most common being weight increase (ten [8%]) and neutropenia (five [4%]). 15 (11%) patients had serious treatment-related adverse events, the most common of which were nervous system disorders (four [3%]) and cardiac disorders (three [2%]). No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Entrectinib is active with durable disease control in patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC, and is well tolerated with a manageable safety profile, making it amenable to long-term dosing in these patients. These data highlight the need to routinely test for ROS1 fusions to broaden therapeutic options for patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC.

Funding: Ignyta/F Hoffmann-La Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30690-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811790PMC
February 2020

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Version 1.2020.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019 12;17(12):1464-1472

1The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins.

The NCCN Guidelines for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) address all aspects of management for NSCLC. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates in immunotherapy. For the 2020 update, all of the systemic therapy regimens have been categorized using a new preference stratification system; certain regimens are now recommended as "preferred interventions," whereas others are categorized as either "other recommended interventions" or "useful under certain circumstances."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2019.0059DOI Listing
December 2019

Four-year survival with nivolumab in patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis.

Lancet Oncol 2019 10 14;20(10):1395-1408. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Phase 3 clinical data has shown higher proportions of patients with objective response, longer response duration, and longer overall survival with nivolumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to evaluate the long-term benefit of nivolumab and the effect of response and disease control on subsequent survival.

Methods: We pooled data from four clinical studies of nivolumab in patients with previously treated NSCLC (CheckMate 017, 057, 063, and 003) to evaluate survival outcomes. Trials of nivolumab in the second-line or later setting with at least 4 years follow-up were included. Comparisons of nivolumab versus docetaxel included all randomised patients from the phase 3 CheckMate 017 and 057 studies. We did landmark analyses by response status at 6 months to determine post-landmark survival outcomes. We excluded patients who did not have a radiographic tumour assessment at 6 months. Safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of nivolumab.

Findings: Across all four studies, 4-year overall survival with nivolumab was 14% (95% CI 11-17) for all patients (n=664), 19% (15-24) for those with at least 1% PD-L1 expression, and 11% (7-16) for those with less than 1% PD-L1 expression. In CheckMate 017 and 057, 4-year overall survival was 14% (95% CI 11-18) in patients treated with nivolumab, compared with 5% (3-7) in patients treated with docetaxel. Survival subsequent to response at 6 months on nivolumab or docetaxel was longer than after progressive disease at 6 months, with hazard ratios for overall survival of 0·18 (95% 0·12-0·27) for nivolumab and 0·43 (0·29-0·65) for docetaxel; for stable disease versus progressive disease, hazard ratios were 0·52 (0·37-0·71) for nivolumab and 0·80 (0·61-1·04) for docetaxel. Long-term data did not show any new safety signals.

Interpretation: Patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab achieved a greater duration of response compared with patients treated with docetaxel, which was associated with a long-term survival advantage.

Funding: Bristol-Myers Squibb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30407-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193685PMC
October 2019

Change in neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio during immunotherapy treatment is a non-linear predictor of patient outcomes in advanced cancers.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Oct 31;145(10):2541-2546. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 320 W 10th Ave, A450B Starling Loving Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is known to be prognostic for patients with advanced cancers treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), but has generally been evaluated as a single threshold value at baseline. We evaluated NLR at baseline and within first month during treatment in patients who received ICI for advanced cancer to evaluate the prognostic value of baseline and of changes from baseline to on-treatment NLR.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients with advanced cancer treated with ICI from 2011 to 2017 at the Ohio State University was performed. NLR was calculated at the initiation of ICI and repeated at median of 21 days. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the initiation of ICI to date of death or censored at last follow-up. Significance of Cox proportional hazards models were evaluated by log-rank test. Calculations were performed using the survival and survminer packages in R, and SPSS.

Results: 509 patients were identified and included in the analysis. Patients with baseline and on-treatment NLR < 5 had significantly longer OS (P < 0.001). The change in NLR overtime was a predictor of OS and was observed to be non-linear in nature. This property remained statistically significant with P < 0.05 after adjusting for age, body mass index, sex, cancer type, performance status, and days to repeat NLR measurement. Patients with a moderate decrease in NLR from baseline had the longest OS of 27.8 months (95% CI 21.8-33.8). Patients with significant NLR decrease had OS of 11.4 months (95% CI 6.1-16.7). Patients with a significant increase in NLR had the shortest OS of 5.0 months (95% CI 0.9-9.1).

Conclusions: We confirmed the prognostic value of NLR in patients with advanced cancer treated with ICIs. We found that change in NLR over time is a non-linear predictor of patient outcomes. Patients who had moderate decrease in NLR during treatment with ICI were found to have the longest survival, whereas a significant decrease or increase in NLR was associated with shorter survival. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a non-linear change in NLR over time that correlates with survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-02982-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751277PMC
October 2019

Homologous recombination and DNA repair mutations in patients treated with carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2019 08 17;134:167-173. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, United States.

Objectives: Chemotherapy remains a cornerstone treatment in non-small cell lung cancer either in combination with checkpoint inhibitors or as subsequent therapy. Identifying molecular predictors of response allows for optimal treatment selection. We performed genomic analysis on tumor samples of patients treated with carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel as part of a phase II trial to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of mutations in DNA repair pathway in patients treated with this regimen.

Materials And Methods: Next-generation sequencing libraries were produced using a capture-based targeted panel covering the coding exons of 278 genes on patients treated on clinical trial NCT00729612. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed as part of the clinical outcomes and correlated with mutation analysis.

Results: Of 63 patients enrolled, 25 patients had sufficient and acceptable DNA isolated from archival tumor samples for targeted sequencing. The most commonly altered pathways included DNA repair (DR) including Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination, JAK-STAT signaling, IGF-1, mTOR, and MAPK-ERK. Four patients with mutations in homologous recombination mutations had a shorter PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.54, 95% CI 1.2, 17.1, p = 0.026) and OS (HR = 6.3, 95% CI 1.8, 21.3, p = 0.003).

Conclusion: In this analysis of patients with predominantly squamous cell non-small cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel in a phase II trial, patients with mutations in homologous recombination pathways had shorter overall and progression-free survival. Validation on additional datasets of patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and immunotherapy combinations is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194132PMC
August 2019

Immunotherapy in inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a review.

Drugs Context 2019 17;8:212578. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center.

The leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States continues to be lung cancer. Approximately 25-30% of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Concurrent chemoradiation with a platinum-based doublet is the current standard of care for patients with inoperable stage III NSCLC. Unfortunately, only 15-20% of patients treated with definitive chemoradiation are alive at 5 years. Thus, there has been a major unmet need in this area. In this article, we summarize the current status and ongoing clinical trials incorporating immunotherapy into the management of inoperable stage III NSCLC, and we also present our perspective on the future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7573/dic.212578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586171PMC
June 2019

Resumption of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy After Immune-Mediated Colitis.

J Clin Oncol 2019 10 4;37(30):2738-2745. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy often is suspended because of immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis (IMDC). We examined the rate of and risk factors for IMDC recurrence after ICI resumption.

Methods: This retrospective multicenter study examined patients who resumed ICI therapy after improvement of IMDC between January 2010 and November 2018. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses assessed the association of clinical covariates and IMDC recurrence.

Results: Of the 167 patients in our analysis, 32 resumed an anti-cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte-4 (CTLA-4) agent, and 135 an anti-programmed cell death 1 or ligand 1 (PD-1/L1) agent. The median age was 60 years (interquartile range [IQR], 50-69 years). The median duration from IMDC to restart of ICI treatment was 49 days (IQR, 23-136 days). IMDC recurred in 57 patients (34%) overall (44% of those receiving an anti-CTLA-4 and 32% of those receiving an anti-PD-1/L1); 47 of these patients (82%) required immunosuppressive therapy for recurrent IMDC, and all required permanent discontinuation of ICI therapy. The median duration from ICI resumption to IMDC recurrence was 53 days (IQR, 22-138 days). On multivariable logistic regression, patients who received anti-PD-1/L1 therapy at initial IMDC had a higher risk of IMDC recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 3.45; 95% CI, 1.59 to 7.69; = .002). Risk of IMDC recurrence was higher for patients who required immunosuppression for initial IMDC (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.08 to 9.62; = .019) or had a longer duration of IMDC symptoms in the initial episode (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03; = .031). Risk of IMDC recurrence was lower after resumption of anti-PD-1/L1 therapy than after resumption of anti-CTLA-4 therapy (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.81; = .019).

Conclusion: One third of patients who resumed ICI treatment after IMDC experienced recurrent IMDC. Recurrence of IMDC was less frequent after resumption of anti-PD-1/L1 than after resumption of anti-CTLA-4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800279PMC
October 2019

Agents to treat mutant lung cancer.

Drugs Context 2019 13;8:212566. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The James Cancer Center and Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

mutations are seen in up to 3.5-4% of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. mutations account for 50% of these cases, and the remaining mutations are non-V600E. The biologic behavior of -mutated lung tumors tends to be more aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy, but responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as BRAF inhibitors with or without MEK inhibitors have provided another effective tool to attain better response rates when compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. New strategies such as immunotherapy are becoming as well another option to treat in the second-line setting patients with -mutated NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7573/dic.212566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419923PMC
March 2019

Type of TP53 mutation influences oncogenic potential and spectrum of associated K-ras mutations in lung-specific transgenic mice.

Int J Cancer 2019 11 13;145(9):2418-2426. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Human & Molecular Genetics, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, The Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

TP53 and K-ras mutations are two of the major genetic alterations in human nonsmall cell lung cancers. The association between these two genes during lung tumorigenesis is unknown. We evaluated the potential of two common Type I (273H, contact) and Type II (175H, conformational) TP53 mutations to induce lung tumors in transgenic mice, as well as K-ras status, and other driver mutations in these tumors. Among 516 (138 nontransgenic, 207 SPC-TP53-273H, 171 SPC-TP53-175H) mice analyzed, 91 tumors, all adenocarcinomas, were observed. Type II mutants developed tumors more frequently (as compared to nontransgenics, p = 0.0003; and Type I, p = 0.010), and had an earlier tumor onset compared to Type I (p = 0.012). K-ras mutations occurred in 21 of 50 (42%) of murine lung tumors sequenced. For both the nontransgenic and the SPC-TP53-273H transgenics, tumor K-ras codon 12-13 mutations occurred after 13 months with a peak incidence at 16-18 months. However, for the SPC-TP53-175H transgenics, K-ras codon 12-13 mutations were observed as early as 6 months, with a peak incidence between the ages of 10-12 months. Codons 12-13 transversion mutations were the predominant changes in the SPC-TP53-175H transgenics, whereas codon 61 transition mutations were more common in the SPC-TP53-273H transgenics. The observation of accelerated tumor onset, early appearance and high frequency of K-ras codon 12-13 mutations in the Type II TP53-175H mice suggests an enhanced oncogenic function of conformational TP53 mutations, and gains in early genetic instability for tumors containing these mutations compared to contact mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32279DOI Listing
November 2019
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