Publications by authors named "Gregor Novljan"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Citrate-induced local ionized calcium decrease in pediatric hemodialysis settings: An in-vitro study.

J Vasc Access 2021 Mar 22:11297298211002576. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Pediatric Nephrology Department, Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Citrate is instilled into the dialysis catheter to prevent clotting and to maintain patency between dialysis sessions. A significant amount of citrate leaks from the catheter at the injection time, which decreases the blood ionized calcium concentration (Ca) due to chelation. We aimed to evaluate the local impact of concentrated (i.e. 30%) citrate spilling on Ca at the catheter tip in real-time pediatric conditions.

Methods: An in-vitro model was constructed, involving an ion-selective electrode (Ca-ISE). A pre-curved catheter and the Ca-ISE were submerged in a glass vessel with the tips positioned adjacent to each other. The vessel was filled with 30 and 80 ml of normal saline with added calcium to simulate normal right atrium size in children and adults, respectively, and normal blood Ca. The amount of instilled citrate matched the filling volume of the catheter. Measurements were performed with 4% and 30% citrate solutions.

Results: The mean Ca measured at the tip of the catheter was 0.457 and 0.058 mmol/l when using 4% and 30% citrate, respectively ( < 0.001). The mean Ca recorded in 30 and 80 ml after instilling 30 % citrate was 0.058 and 0.055 mmol/l, respectively ( = 0.878).

Conclusions: The spilling of 30% citrate caused a strikingly greater decrease of Ca at the catheter tip than the standard 4% citrate. The atrial volume did not influence the test results implying similar safety concerns for pediatric and adult patients. The used static experimental setting might have overestimated the spilling effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11297298211002576DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical practice recommendations for recurrence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis/steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 Dec 30:e13955. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Pediatrics II, University Hospital of Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Recurrence of primary disease is one of the major risks for allograft loss after pediatric RTx. The risk of recurrence of FSGS/SRNS after pediatric RTx in particular can be up to 86% in idiopathic cases. There is a need for consensus recommendations on its prevention and treatment. The CERTAIN study group has therefore performed a thorough literature search based on the PICO model of clinical questions to formulate educated statements to guide the clinician in the process of decision-making. A set of educated statements on prevention and treatment of FSGS/SRNS after pediatric RTx has been generated after careful evaluation of available evidence and thorough panel discussion. We do not recommend routine nephrectomy prior to transplantation; neither do we recommend abstaining from living donation. Special attendance needs to be given to those patients who had already experienced graft loss due to FSGS/SRNS recurrence. Early PE or IA with or without high-dose CsA and/or rituximab seems to be most promising to induce remission. The educated statements presented here acknowledge that FSGS/SRNS recurrence after pediatric RTx remains a major concern and is associated with shorter graft survival or even graft loss. The value of any recommendation needs to take into account that evidence is based on cohorts that differ in ethnicity, pre-transplant history, immunosuppressive regimen, definition of recurrence (eg, clinical and/or histological diagnosis) and treatment modalities of recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13955DOI Listing
December 2020

Results in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry suggest disparities in access to kidney transplantation but little variation in graft survival of children across Europe.

Kidney Int 2020 08 26;98(2):464-475. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

One of the main objectives of the European health policy framework is to ensure equitable access to high-quality health services across Europe. Here we examined country-specific kidney transplantation and graft failure rates in children and explore their country- and patient-level determinants. Patients under 20 years of age initiating kidney replacement therapy from January 2007 through December 2015 in 37 European countries participating in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry were included in the analyses. Countries were categorized as low-, middle-, and high-income based on gross domestic product. At five years of follow-up, 4326 of 6909 children on kidney replacement therapy received their first kidney transplant. Overall median time from kidney replacement therapy start to first kidney transplantation was 1.4 (inter quartile range 0.3-4.3) years. The five-year kidney transplantation probability was 48.8% (95% confidence interval: 45.9-51.7%) in low-income, 76.3% (72.8-79.5%) in middle-income and 92.3% (91.0-93.4%) in high-income countries and was strongly associated with macro-economic factors. Gross domestic product alone explained 67% of the international variation in transplantation rates. Compared with high-income countries, kidney transplantation was 76% less likely to be performed in low-income and 58% less likely in middle-income countries. Overall five-year graft survival in Europe was 88% and showed little variation across countries. Thus, despite large disparities transplantation access across Europe, graft failure rates were relatively similar. Hence, graft survival in low-risk transplant recipients from lower-income countries seems as good as graft survival among all (low-, medium-, and high-risk) graft recipients from high-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.03.029DOI Listing
August 2020

Association between timing of dialysis initiation and clinical outcomes in the paediatric population: an ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 11;34(11):1932-1940

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: There is no consensus regarding the timing of dialysis therapy initiation for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in children. As studies investigating the association between timing of dialysis initiation and clinical outcomes are lacking, we aimed to study this relationship in a cohort of European children who started maintenance dialysis treatment.

Methods: We used data on 2963 children from 21 different countries included in the European Society of Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry who started renal replacement therapy before 18 years of age between 2000 and 2014. We compared two groups according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at start: eGFR ≥8 mL/min/1.73 m2 (early starters) and eGFR <8 mL/min/1.73 m2 (late starters). The primary outcomes were patient survival and access to transplantation. Secondary outcomes were growth and cardiovascular risk factors. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for selection- and lead time-bias.

Results: The median eGFR at the start of dialysis was 6.1 for late versus 10.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 for early starters. Early starters were older [median: 11.0, interquartile range (IQR): 5.7-14.5 versus 9.4, IQR: 2.6-14.1 years]. There were no differences observed between the two groups in mortality and access to transplantation at 1, 2 and 5 years of follow-up. One-year evolution of height standard deviation scores was similar among the groups, whereas hypertension was more prevalent among late initiators. Sensitivity analyses resulted in similar findings.

Conclusions: We found no evidence for a clinically relevant benefit of early start of dialysis in children with ESKD. Presence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, should be taken into account when deciding to initiate or postpone dialysis in children with ESKD, as this affects the survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfz069DOI Listing
November 2019

Hemodialysis vascular access and subsequent transplantation: a report from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.

Pediatr Nephrol 2019 04 26;34(4):713-721. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Children's Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Current guidelines advocate use of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) over central venous catheter (CVC) for children starting hemodialysis (HD). European data on current practice, determinants of access choice and switches, patient survival, and access to transplantation are limited.

Methods: We included incident patients from 18 European countries who started HD from 2000 to 2013 for whom vascular access type was reported to the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, logistic and Cox regression models, and cumulative incidence competing risk analysis.

Results: Three hundred ninety-three (55.1%) of 713 children started HD with a CVC and were more often females, younger, had more often an unknown diagnosis, glomerulonephritis, or vasculitis, and lower hemoglobin and height-SDS at HD initiation. AVF patients were 91% less likely to switch to a second access, and two-year patient survival was 99.6% (CVC, 97.2%). Children who started with an AVF were less likely to receive a living donor transplant (adjusted HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.16-0.54) and more likely to receive a deceased donor transplant (adjusted HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.17-1.93), even after excluding patients who died or were transplanted in the first 6 months.

Conclusions: CVC remains the most frequent type of vascular access in European children commencing HD. Our results suggest that the choice for CVC is influenced by the time of referral, rapid onset of end-stage renal disease, young age, and an expected short time to transplantation. The role of vascular access type on the pattern between living and deceased donation in subsequent transplantation requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-018-4129-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394682PMC
April 2019

Does Guidewire Exchange Influence Infection Rate Related to Catheters Used for Vascular Access in Children on Chronic Hemodialysis?

Ther Apher Dial 2017 Feb 27;21(1):57-61. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Children's hospital, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

A central venous catheter (CVC) can either be inserted "de novo" or placed by guidewire exchange (GWE). From September 1998 to September 2015, 32 children (19 boys, 13 girls) were hemodialyzed in our unit by using a CVC. The mean age at CVC insertion was 12.6 ± 0.5 years. A total of 121 uncuffed catheters were placed, either "de novo" or by GWE in 64 (52.9%) and 57 (47.1%) cases, respectively. The most frequent cause for line revision was catheter dysfunction in 40/121 (33.1%) patients. The overall incidence of bacteremia was 1.5/1000 catheter-days. The incidence in newly inserted and GWE catheters was 1.4 and 1.7/1000 catheter-days, respectively. The difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.939). The infection rate correlated with patient age, and was higher in younger children (P = 0.006). GWE is an effective option of line revision, and did not influence the infection rate in our study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12481DOI Listing
February 2017

End-Stage Renal Disease in an Infant With Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome.

Ther Apher Dial 2016 Jun;20(3):318-21

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare, autosomal dominant, skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the NOTCH2 signaling pathway for which genetic testing has recently become available. Renal abnormalities are associated in at least 10% of cases. We present an 8-year-old Caucasian boy, born with multiple dysmorphic features consistent with HJCYS. Imaging of the urinary tract revealed bilateral cystic dysplastic kidneys with associated vesicoureteral reflux. Renal function has been impaired since birth and deteriorated progressively to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by the age of two and a half years, when peritoneal dialysis was initiated and only recently renal transplantation was performed. Additional congenital abnormalities and multisystem involvement in HJCYS further complicated management, and he developed refractory anemia. Molecular diagnosis was confirmed by identification of a truncating mutation in exon 34 of NOTCH2. Although, renal abnormalities are considered an integral part of the HJCYS, published reports on ESRD are scarce. In those few published cases, where ESRD was recognized, renal failure developed either in late adolescence or adulthood. This is the first report of early ESRD occurring in a child. Patients with HJCYS may need chronic renal replacement therapy even in early childhood. The management of these children can be challenging given the multisystemic manifestations of HJCYS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12444DOI Listing
June 2016

Post-Transplant Recurrence of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in a Child With Heterozygous Mutations in NPHS1 and NPHS2.

Ther Apher Dial 2016 Jun;20(3):312-7

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Renal transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children, but some primary diseases can recur after transplantation, and recurrence accounts for a significant proportion of graft losses, being second only to acute rejection. The risk of disease recurrence is highest among patients with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), presumably due to a circulating permeability factor. Less is clear about the genetic forms of FSGS, where the data regarding the frequency of recurrence are rather conflicting. We present a 12-year-old girl with rapidly progressive FSGS and end-stage renal disease in her native kidneys associated with heterozygous mutations in NPHS1 and in NPHS2, suffering from early post-transplant recurrence. On the basis of reviewed literature, and until further and more conclusive evidence considering pathogenicity is provided, we propose that FSGS patients with heterozygous mutations in NPHS1 or NPHS2 should be considered as having idiopathic FSGS, and post-transplant recurrence should be anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12443DOI Listing
June 2016

Fate of Central Venous Catheters Used for Acute Extracorporeal Treatment in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: A Single Center Experience.

Ther Apher Dial 2016 Jun;20(3):308-11

Department of Nephrology, Division of Internal Clinics, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Renal replacement treatment (RRT) is required in severe acute kidney injury, and a functioning central venous catheter (CVC) is crucial. Twenty-eight children younger than 16 years have been treated at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana between 2003 and 2012 with either acute hemodialysis (HD) and/or plasma exchange (PE), and were included in our study. The age of the patients ranged from 2 days to 14.1 years. Sixty-six CVCs were inserted (52% de novo, 48% guide wire). The sites of insertion were the jugular vein in 20% and the femoral vein in 80%. Catheters were in function from 1 day to 27 days. The most common cause for CVC removal or exchange was catheter dysfunction (50%). CVCs were mostly inserted in the femoral vein, which is the preferred site of insertion in acute HD/PE because of the smaller number of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12442DOI Listing
June 2016

Chronic Hemodialysis in Small Children.

Ther Apher Dial 2016 Jun;20(3):302-7

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

When peritoneal dialysis is inapplicable, chronic hemodialysis (HD) becomes the only available treatment option in small children. Due to small patient size, central venous catheters (CVC) are mainly used for vascular access. Over the past 4 years, four children weighing less than 15 kg received chronic HD in our unit. A total of 848 dialysis sessions were performed. Altogether, 21 catheters were inserted. In all but one occasion, uncuffed catheters were used. Catheter revision was performed 15 times during the study period, either due to infection or catheter malfunction. The median number of catheter revisions and the median line survival was 3.0/patient-year and 53 days (range; 6-373 days), respectively. There were 14 episodes of catheter related infections requiring 11 CVC revisions (78.6%). The median rate of line infections was 2.8/patient-year. Chronic HD in small children is demanding and labor intensive. Issues pertain mainly to CVCs and limit its long-term use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12441DOI Listing
June 2016

Renal Replacement Therapy in Slovenia: Excerpts From 2013 Data.

Ther Apher Dial 2016 Jun;20(3):223-8

Department of Nephrology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana.

This report provides a summary of the 2013 Slovenian renal replacement therapy (RRT) data, obtained from 24 renal centers: 23 dialysis and one transplant center, referring from 31 December 2013, with 100% response rate to individual patient questionnaires. Slovenia had a population of 2 061 085 on 1 January 2014. The total number of patients treated by RRT was 2077, i.e. 1008.3 per million of population (pmp); 1349 (65%) were treated by hemodialysis, 52 (2.5%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 676 (32.5%) had a functioning kidney graft. A total of 260 incident patients, 126.2 pmp (at day one), started RRT, their median age was 69 years, 59.8% were men,. 58.5% of hemodialysis patients were treated with on-line hemodiafiltration. Vascular access was arteriovenous fistula in 79%, polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 8%, and catheter in 13% of patients, mean blood flow 276 ± 41 mL/min, 5.5% dialyzed in a single-needle mode. The crude death rate was 11.4% in all RRT patients (incident patients day 1 included, 15.9% in hemodialysis, 12.3% in peritoneal dialysis, 2.1% in transplant recipients). 60 kidney transplantations were performed in 2013, from deceased donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12427DOI Listing
June 2016

Anemia in children following renal transplantation-results from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.

Pediatr Nephrol 2016 Feb 18;31(2):325-33. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

University of Heidelberg Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of sub-target hemoglobin (Hb) levels in children with a renal allograft and to identify potential determinants associated with these Hb levels.

Methods: Data from 3669 children with a functioning renal allograft, aged <18 years between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, from 20 European countries were retrieved from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry, providing 16,170 Hb measurements.

Results: According to the NKF/KDOQI classification and the UK-NICE guidelines, 49.8 and 7.8% of the patients, respectively, were anemic. Hb levels were strongly associated with graft function, with Hb levels of 12.6 g/dl in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 1, declining to 10.7 g/dl in children with CKD stage 5 (P < 0.001). Higher Hb levels were associated with the use of tacrolimus compared to ciclosporin (0.14 g/dl; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.27; P = 0.002). Low Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of graft failure (P = 0.01) or combined graft failure and death (P < 0.01), but not with death alone (not significant).

Conclusions: Anemia is present in a significant proportion of European pediatric kidney transplant recipients and is associated with renal allograft dysfunction and type of immunosuppressants used. In our patient cohort, higher Hb levels were associated with better graft and patient survival and less hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-015-3201-8DOI Listing
February 2016

Fulminant peritonitis presumably caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus in a girl on peritoneal dialysis.

Ther Apher Dial 2013 Aug;17(4):431-7

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Peritonitis is a significant complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the most common cause of technique failure. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a cytotoxin produced by certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), causes destruction of neutrophils, and is associated with severe invasive infections. We present a 2.5-year-old girl on PD, who presented suddenly with an unusually fulminant and protracted course of peritonitis. Only a few hours after the onset of clinical signs, septic shock developed. PVL-positive methicillin-sensitive SA (MSSA) was grown and initial empiric antibiotic treatment changed to flucloxacillin and rifampicin in order to minimize toxin production. In spite of adequate antibiotic treatment and PD-catheter removal, recovery was slow. No PD-related peritonitis in children associated with PVL-producing strains have been reported so far and no specific recommendation exists for treatment. We speculate that PVL contributed to the severity and outcome of peritonitis in our patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12092DOI Listing
August 2013

Renal replacement therapy in Slovenia: excerpts from 2011 data.

Ther Apher Dial 2013 Aug;17(4):357-62

Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Slovenia.

This report provides a summary of the 2011 Slovenian renal replacement therapy (RRT) data. Data were obtained from 24 renal centers: 23 dialysis and one transplant center, referred as of 31 December 2011, with 100% response rate to individual patient questionnaires. Slovenia has a population of approximately 2 million (2 052 496 in 2011). The total number of patients treated by RRT was 2011,that is, 980 per million of population (pmp); 0.4% decrease compared to 2010. 1347 (67.0%) were treated by hemodialysis, 60 (3.0%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 604 (30.0%) had a functioning kidney graft. A total of 236 incident patients, 115 pmp (at day one), started RRT, their median age was 68 years, 64.8% were men, 36.4% were diabetics. Regarding hemodialysis patients, 59.3% were treated with on-line hemodiafiltration, 86% with ultrapure dialysis fluid. Median weekly duration of hemodialysis was 12.5 h, median dry body weight 70 kg, mean blood flow 275 ± 46 mL/min, 7.1% were dialyzed in a single-needle mode. Vascular accesses were native arteriovenous fistula in 79%, polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 6%, and catheter in 15%. The crude death rate was 15.9% in dialysis patients, 1.9% in transplant recipients, and 12.0% in all RRT patients (both dialysis and transplant, incident patients at day 1 included). Slovenia has been a member of Eurotransplant since 2000. Forty-six kidney transplantations were performed in 2011, all from deceased donors. A slight decrease in prevalent number of RRT patients was observed in 2011, for the first time in 40 years. The number and proportion of patients with functioning kidney grafts is increasing, reaching 30% in 2011.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12078DOI Listing
August 2013

Demographics of blood pressure and hypertension in children on renal replacement therapy in Europe.

Kidney Int 2011 Nov 3;80(10):1092-8. Epub 2011 Aug 3.

ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Hypertension is a well-known complication in children on renal replacement therapy and an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in later life. In order to define the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension among children, we enrolled 3337 pediatric patients from 15 countries in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry of whom 464 were on hemodialysis, 851 on peritoneal dialysis, and 2023 had received a renal allograft. Hypertension was defined as either systolic or diastolic blood pressures in the 95th percentile or greater for age, height, and gender or use of antihypertensive medication. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, duration, and modality of renal replacement therapy. In 10 countries in which information on the use of antihypertensive medication was available, hypertension was present in over two-thirds of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or transplant patients. Blood pressure values above the 95th percentile were significantly more prevalent in very young patients (under 3 years) compared to 13- to 17-year olds (odds ratio 2.47), during the first year compared to over 5 years of renal replacement therapy (odds ratio 1.80), and in patients on hemodialysis compared to transplant recipients or those on peritoneal dialysis (odds ratios of 2.48 and 1.59, respectively). Over time, mean blood pressures decreased in both hemodialysis and transplant patients, but not in peritoneal dialysis patients. Hence, our findings highlight the extent of the problem of hypertension in children with end-stage renal disease in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2011.232DOI Listing
November 2011

Detection of dialysis access induced limb ischemia by infrared thermography in children.

Ther Apher Dial 2011 Jun;15(3):298-305

Departments of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

High arteriovenous fistula (AV fistula) blood flow may impair distal limb perfusion and cause irreversible ischemic damage. Since tissue temperature reflects blood perfusion, we tried to assess distal blood flow using an infrared camera. We examined all 12 patients with an AV fistula in our dialysis unit. Seven were pediatric patients aged 11.0-18.9 years (mean 14.9 years) and five were adults aged 26.9-62.1 years (mean 38.6 years). Infrared thermal imaging (thermography) of their hands was performed after the completion of their regular dialysis sessions. In each patient, the spot temperature of each fingertip on both hands was assessed separately, with three measurements being performed for each measuring point. The mean spot temperature of all fingertips was calculated for each hand and the results compared. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) indicated distal perfusion insufficiency. Perfusion of the hands was also assessed by inspecting the visualized temperature distribution on the thermal image. Finally, we compared the results to the clinical findings in relevant patients. In 8/12 patients (66.7%), the mean spot temperature of the fingertips was statistically significantly lower on the fistula side (P < 0.05). Only 4/12 patients (33.3%) had clinical symptoms, and all were detected by thermography. Abnormal findings were more frequent in elderly patients. Although we realize that the diagnosis of steal syndrome is primarily clinical, thermography might be a safe, noninvasive, cheap tool for the timely detection of children at risk of developing symptoms of hand ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-9987.2011.00955.xDOI Listing
June 2011

Vascular access in children on chronic hemodialysis: a Slovenian experience.

Ther Apher Dial 2011 Jun;15(3):292-7

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The aim of our study was to report our experience with arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and non-cuffed central venous catheters (CVCs) in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD). The children with ESRD (18 years or younger) who were hemodialyzed at the Center of Dialysis and Transplantation, Children's Hospital, Ljubljana, in the period between December 1998 and December 2010 were included in our retrospective study. We recorded the data considering the CVCs and AVFs used for HD. Thirty-one children (13 females, 18 males) with ESRD received HD treatment. The mean patient age when HD was started was 13.3 ± 3.4 years. Altogether, 35 AVFs were created, and the primary failure rate was 25.7% (9/35). The time to maturation was 4.0 ± 2.5 months. The mean patency of the AVF was 42.5 ± 51.9 months. Seventy-seven CVCs (non-cuffed) were inserted in the observation period; 89.6% of the CVCs were inserted in the jugular vein, and citrate locking was used in the interdialysis period. The CVCs were removed after 0.1-17.4 months (3.6 ± 3.7 months). The incidence of bacteremia was 0.9 episodes per 1000 catheter days. The preferred vascular accesses for pediatric hemodialysis are native AVFs; however, a single lumen, non-cuffed, citrate-locked CVC placed in a jugular vein can be acceptable as a long-term vascular access when AVF cannot be constructed or used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-9987.2011.00954.xDOI Listing
June 2011

Ultrasound detection of vesicoureteral reflux in children.

J Urol 2010 Jul 20;184(1):319-24. Epub 2010 May 20.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Pediatric Radiology Unit (DK, AK), University Medical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Purpose: We present different ultrasound techniques to detect vesicoureteral reflux in children with special emphasis on voiding urosonography.

Materials And Methods: Urinary tract infection is a common problem in children that may be related to vesicoureteral reflux. Currently there is no consensus on investigations in children after the first urinary tract infection. The least invasive imaging with the smallest radiation burden should be used in children. Ultrasound to detect reflux meets several of these criteria. The development of echo enhancing agents has markedly improved reflux visualization by ultrasound.

Results: We discuss the clinical relevance of voiding urosonography. We reviewed the currently available literature and the results of our studies of this issue. We also describe our endeavors to avoid catheterization and detect vesicoureteral reflux based on various sonomorphological features, ie indirect voiding urosonography and ureteral jet Doppler waveform analysis, to avoid applying any substance into the bladder.

Conclusions: Voiding urosonography is safe and reliable to detect vesicoureteral reflux. When indicated, considerably decreased radiation exposure can be achieved by voiding urosonography instead of established cystography methods. Indirect voiding urosonography and ureteral jet Doppler waveform analysis could be an alternative to invasive voiding cystography, at least in children older than 3 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.057DOI Listing
July 2010

Determinants of eGFR at start of renal replacement therapy in paediatric patients.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010 Oct 15;25(10):3325-32. Epub 2010 Apr 15.

ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry, Department of Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Few studies have investigated the determinants of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in paediatric patients starting on dialysis or with a transplant.

Methods: Data were collected as part of the European Society of Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association registry from 14 European countries and referred to incident paediatric patients starting on renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 2002 and 2007 under the age of 18 years. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Schwartz formula. Data were adjusted for age, gender, treatment modality at start, primary cause of renal failure (PRD) and regions in Europe (eGFR(adj)).

Results: Median eGFR in the 938 patients starting RRT was 10.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (5th and 95th percentile: 4.0-26.9). Twenty-six patients (2.8%), mainly infants with Finnish-type nephropathy, started with eGFR levels >50 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Younger age, female gender, starting on dialysis and having a short time between the first visit to a paediatric nephrologist (PN) and start of RRT were associated with lower eGFR at start of RRT. Gender differences were only present during adolescent age and disappeared when using the same K value for both genders. The various PRDs showed large differences in the rate of decline in eGFR between the first visit to a PN and start of RRT; however, this did not result in differences in eGFR(adj) at start of RRT.

Conclusions: The main determinants of eGFR at start of RRT were age, gender, treatment modality at start, and the time between the first visit to a PN and start of RRT. Research is needed to determine the consequences of these differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq215DOI Listing
October 2010

Catheter-free methods for vesicoureteric reflux detection: our experience and a critical appraisal of existing data.

Pediatr Nephrol 2010 Jul 13;25(7):1201-6. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

Paediatric Radiology Unit, University Medical Centre, Bohoriceva 20, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

In recent years, the exact role of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in general has become controversial, though in some groups of children the knowledge of the existence or non-existence of VUR is still a very important issue. The number of techniques available for the assessment of VUR is increasing, and a new classification taking into account their real characteristics (direct/indirect, catheter-using/catheter-free, radiation-giving/radiation-free) has been proposed. The purpose of the following review is to evaluate the currently available evidence supporting the use of various catheter-free methods for VUR detection. We believe that as the clinical role of VUR has been questioned, it is even more important for the method of its detection to be user-friendly as regards catheterisation, radiation and availability. There is still no evidence supporting the assertion that any of the catheter-free methods of VUR detection might be the optimal one for any child. However, there are some groups of children who would benefit from using them. New studies using new, catheter-free methods of VUR detection or a combination of two or more of the methods described may prove useful in improving sensitivity and providing additional data on this important issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-009-1391-7DOI Listing
July 2010

Cyclic voiding urosonography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children.

Pediatr Nephrol 2003 Oct 29;18(10):992-5. Epub 2003 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Children's Hospital, Stare pravde 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Three methods are currently used to identify vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children, namely X-ray voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), radionuclide voiding cystography (RVC), and, recently, echo-enhanced voiding urosonography (VUS). It is known that the sensitivity of VCUG and RVC for detecting VUR can be improved by using cyclic procedures, such as repeated bladder filling and voiding. The purpose of our prospective study was to evaluate whether the cyclic procedure is superior to the conventional (one cycle only) procedure in VUS also. VUS was performed in 49 patients, aged 1.4-15.8 years (mean 4.1 years). After the first micturition, the catheter was left in place and the whole procedure was repeated under the same conditions. The results of the first and second cycles and the combined procedure were compared. In the initial cycle, 7 of 35 (20%) refluxing renal units that were detected in the second cycle and 4 of 26 (15%) children with at least unilateral VUR were missed. Cyclic VUS detected 25% more VURs than the conventional (one cycle only) VUS ( P=0.049) and revealed 50% more VUR III than the first cycle. Our results suggest that cyclic VUS is superior to conventional VUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-003-1228-8DOI Listing
October 2003

Sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting renal parenchymal defects in children.

Pediatr Nephrol 2002 Dec 14;17(12):1059-62. Epub 2002 Nov 14.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Center, Stare pravde 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Renal parenchymal defects (RPD) -- scars, hypoplasia/dysplasia -- in children are a major risk factor for chronic renal failure. Most authors would agree that RPD should be detected and followed by a 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan (DMSA), as ultrasonography (US) does not seem to be sensitive enough for this purpose. However, it might well be that DMSA is too sensitive and detects RPD that are too small to be clinically significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of US in identifying patients with clinically significant RPD and in detecting RPD of various grades as seen by DMSA. In 89 children with abnormal DMSA, a second DMSA, US, and other tests for evaluating renal function were performed at least 1 year after the first DMSA. The extent of RPD detected by DMSA and US was correlated with renal function parameters. In all 5 patients with diminished renal function, RPD were detected by both DMSA scan and US. In addition, US detected clinically insignificant RPD in 48 of 67 cases (71.6%). The present study has shown that, compared with DMSA, US is sensitive enough to detect clinically significant RPD in children. The substitution of DMSA with US would be beneficial, as this would eliminate radiation exposure, reduce costs, and increase availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-002-1007-yDOI Listing
December 2002