Publications by authors named "Grazia Maria Borrelli"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genomic Approaches to Identify Molecular Bases of Crop Resistance to Diseases and to Develop Future Breeding Strategies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 21;22(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops, S.S. 673, Km 25,200, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

Plant diseases are responsible for substantial crop losses each year and affect food security and agricultural sustainability. The improvement of crop resistance to pathogens through breeding represents an environmentally sound method for managing disease and minimizing these losses. The challenge is to breed varieties with a stable and broad-spectrum resistance. Different approaches, from markers to recent genomic and 'post-genomic era' technologies, will be reviewed in order to contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of host-pathogen interactions and genes, including those with small phenotypic effects and mechanisms that underlie resistance. An efficient combination of these approaches is herein proposed as the basis to develop a successful breeding strategy to obtain resistant crop varieties that yield higher in increasing disease scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196592PMC
May 2021

Analysis of metabolic and mineral changes in response to salt stress in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) genotypes, which differ in salinity tolerance.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 26;133:57-70. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'Analisi dell'Economia Agraria, Centro di Ricerca Cerealicoltura e Colture Industriali, S.S. 673, Km 25,200, 71122, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

The key mechanisms of salinity tolerance (ST) in durum wheat were investigated, with five genotypes used to determine changes in morpho-physiological traits and mineral and metabolite contents after exposure to 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Plant growth impairment was evident at the highest salt level. Under this condition, a wide range of shoot Na contents and ST were observed within genotypes. However, no significant correlation was seen between ST and Na exclusion from the shoots, which indicates that tissue tolerance also has a role. Consistent with this, there was significant correlation between ST and the Na:K ratio in the shoots. Indeed, the maintenance of the shoot Na and K homeostasis was found to be essential to achieve osmotic adjustment, which relied substantially on inorganic osmolytes, and to avoid toxicity symptoms, such as chlorophyll loss, which appeared only at the highest salinity level. Consistently, the metabolite changes occurred mainly in the shoots, with a dual response to salinity: (i) a conserved response that was common to all the genotypes and resulted in the accumulation of proline and in the depletion of organic acids, including some intermediates of the Krebs cycle; and (ii) a genotype-specific response that involved the accumulation of GABA, threonine, leucine, glutamic acid, glycine, mannose and fructose and appeared related to the different tolerance of genotypes to salinity. The lower magnitude of response to salinity detected in the roots confirmed the major role of the shoots in the determination of ST of durum wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.10.025DOI Listing
December 2018

Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

Food Chem 2016 Aug 5;205:187-95. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'Analisi dell'Economia Agraria-Centro di Ricerca per la Cerealicoltura (CREA-CER), S.S. 673 km 25.200, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (p<0.05) reduced the content of anthocyanins (21.42 μg/g vs. 46.32 μg/g) and carotenoids (3.77 μg/g vs. 4.04 μg/g) with respect to the pasteurisation process involved in fresh pasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.014DOI Listing
August 2016

Proteomic study of a tolerant genotype of durum wheat under salt-stress conditions.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2014 Feb 15;406(5):1423-35. Epub 2013 Dec 15.

Department of Chemistry, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy,

Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting crop growth and productivity. Duilio is a wheat genotype that shows tolerant behavior in both salt-stress and drought-stress conditions. Toward better understanding of the biochemical response to salinity in this genotype of durum wheat, a comparative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis based on normalized spectral abundance factors was conducted on wheat leaf samples subjected to increasing salt-stress levels (100 and 200 mmol L(-1) NaCl) with respect to untreated samples. We found significant changes in 71 proteins for the first stress level, in 83 proteins at the higher salinity level, and in 88 proteins when comparing salt-stress levels with each other. The major changes concerned the proteins involved in primary metabolism and production of energy, followed by those involved in protein metabolism and cellular defense mechanisms. Some indications of different specific physiological and defense mechanisms implicated in increasing tolerance were obtained. The enhanced salinity tolerance in Duilio appeared to be governed by a higher capacity for osmotic homeostasis, a more efficient defense, and an improvement of protection from mechanical stress by increased cell wall lignifications, allowing a better potential for growth recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-7549-yDOI Listing
February 2014

Stay-green trait-antioxidant status interrelationship in durum wheat (Triticum durum) flag leaf during post-flowering.

J Plant Res 2014 25;127(1):159-71. Epub 2013 Aug 25.

Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per la Cerealicoltura, S.S. 16, Km 675, 71122, Foggia, Italy,

Three independent durum wheat mutant lines that show delayed leaf senescence or stay-green (SG) phenotype, SG196, SG310 and SG504, were compared to the parental genotype, cv. Trinakria, with respect to the photosynthetic parameters and the cellular redox state of the flag leaf in the period from flowering to senescence. The SG mutants maintained their chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate for longer than Trinakria, thus revealing a functional SG phenotype. They also showed a better redox state as demonstrated by: (1) a lower rate of superoxide anion production due to generally higher activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in all of the SG mutants and also of the total peroxidase in SG196; (2) a higher thiol content that can be ascribed to a higher activity of the NADPH-providing enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in all of the SG mutants and also of the NADP(+)-dependent malic enzyme in SG196; (3) a lower pro-oxidant activity of lipoxygenase that characterises SG196 and SG504 mutants close to leaf senescence. Overall, these results show a general relationship in durum wheat between the SG phenotype and a better redox state. This relationship differs across the different SG mutants, probably as a consequence of the different set of altered genes underlying the SG trait in these independent mutant lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-013-0584-0DOI Listing
September 2014

Novel durum wheat genes up-regulated in response to a combination of heat and drought stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2012 Jul 21;56:72-8. Epub 2012 Apr 21.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Via Prov. le Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

We report the effect of heat, drought and combined stress on the expression of a group of genes that are up-regulated under these conditions in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) plants. Modulation of gene expression was studied by cDNA-AFLP performed on RNAs extracted from flag leaves. By this approach, we identified several novel durum wheat genes whose expression is modulated under different stress conditions. We focused on a group of hitherto undescribed up-regulated genes in durum wheat, among these, 7 are up-regulated by heat, 8 by drought stress, 15 by combined heat and drought stress, 4 are up-regulated by both heat and combined stress, and 3 by both drought and combined stress. The functional characterization of these genes will provide new data that could help the developing of strategies aimed at improving durum wheat tolerance to field stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.04.006DOI Listing
July 2012