Publications by authors named "Grant Kelly"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

"Lest we forget": An overview of Australia's response to the recovery and identification of unrecovered historic military remains.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Oct 4;328:111042. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is responsible for the recovery and identification of its historic casualties. With over 30,000 still unrecovered from past conflicts including World War One (WW1) and World War Two (WWII), the Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force have teams that research, recover, identify and oversee the burial (or reburial) of the remains of soldiers and airmen who continue to be found each year. The Royal Australian Navy is also responsible for its unrecovered casualties. Collectively the priorities of the various services within the ADF are the respectful recovery and treatment of the dead, thorough forensic identification efforts, resolution for families and honouring the ADF's proud history of service and sacrifice. What is unique about the approach of the ADF is that the respective services retain responsibility for their historic losses, while a joint approach is taken on policies and in the utilisation of the pool of forensic specialists. Section One describes the process undertaken by the Australian Army in the recovery, identification and burial or repatriation of soldiers through its specialised unit Unrecovered War Casualties - Army (UWC-A). Section Two describes the role of the Royal Australian Air Force in the recovery of aircraft and service personnel through their specialised unit Historic Unrecovered War Casualties - Air Force (HUWC-AF). An overview of the operations of each service and case studies is presented for each section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2021.111042DOI Listing
October 2021

Informed substitution of hazardous chemicals through the lens of California's Safer Consumer Products Alternatives Analysis: Best practices, challenges, and opportunities.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Safer Consumer Products program, Department of Toxic Substances Control, Sacramento, California, USA.

California adopted the Safer Consumer Products (SCP) regulations in 2013, which mandate that companies that manufacture specific products containing designated chemicals of concern complete an Alternatives Analysis. Alternatives Analysis is a process to avoid regrettable substitution by identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives based on technical functions, hazards, exposure pathways, life-cycle multimedia impacts, and economic impacts. The SCP Alternatives Analysis builds upon and expands existing frameworks for alternatives assessments (AAs). The aim of this study was to identify practices from AA that facilitate the robust assessment of alternatives and that align with SCP requirements and identify gaps in the practice. We evaluated completed AAs for methods regarding transparency and careful documentation of information sources, data gaps, uncertainty, criteria, and justification for decision-making. The AAs in this review demonstrate some of the challenges in the field. Most AAs have a constrained scope and only consider chemical substitutes rather than a broad array of functional alternatives. Their scopes were also limited in the hazard endpoints that were evaluated. This was most noted with ecotoxicity endpoints, which were generally confined to aquatic toxicity. The majority of AAs do not explicitly explain their decision-making methods or adequately discuss tradeoffs across the adverse impacts. The AAs also lack the analysis in the exposure, life-cycle impacts, and economic impacts that are required in the SCP Alternatives Analysis process. Further, we recommend strategies and research opportunities to address these challenges and strengthen the practice of AAs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021;00:1-13. © 2021 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4527DOI Listing
September 2021

Agonist-independent Gα activity negatively regulates beta-cell compensation in a diet-induced obesity model of type 2 diabetes.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100056. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Research Service, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin- Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Electronic address:

The inhibitory G protein alpha-subunit (Gα) is an important modulator of beta-cell function. Full-body Gα-null mice are protected from hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance after long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. In this study, at a time point in the feeding regimen where WT mice are only mildly glucose intolerant, transcriptomics analyses reveal islets from HFD-fed Gα KO mice have a dramatically altered gene expression pattern as compared with WT HFD-fed mice, with entire gene pathways not only being more strongly upregulated or downregulated versus control-diet fed groups but actually reversed in direction. Genes involved in the "pancreatic secretion" pathway are the most strongly differentially regulated: a finding that correlates with enhanced islet insulin secretion and decreased glucagon secretion at the study end. The protection of Gα-null mice from HFD-induced diabetes is beta-cell autonomous, as beta cell-specific Gα-null mice phenocopy the full-body KOs. The glucose-stimulated and incretin-potentiated insulin secretion response of islets from HFD-fed beta cell-specific Gα-null mice is significantly improved as compared with islets from HFD-fed WT controls, which, along with no impact of Gα loss or HFD feeding on beta-cell proliferation or surrogates of beta-cell mass, supports a secretion-specific mechanism. Gα is coupled to the prostaglandin EP3 receptor in pancreatic beta cells. We confirm the EP3γ splice variant has both constitutive and agonist-sensitive activity to inhibit cAMP production and downstream beta-cell function, with both activities being dependent on the presence of beta-cell Gα.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.015585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948463PMC
September 2021

NHS IT is at the mercy of the civil service and "gifted amateurism".

Authors:
Grant S-B Kelly

BMJ 2011 Nov 15;343:d7037. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d7037DOI Listing
November 2011

prdm1a and olig4 act downstream of Notch signaling to regulate cell fate at the neural plate border.

Dev Biol 2011 Aug 13;356(2):496-505. Epub 2011 Jun 13.

Department of Craniofacial Biology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Dental Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

The zinc finger domain transcription factor prdm1a plays an integral role in the development of the neural plate border cell fates, including neural crest cells and Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying prdm1a function in cell fate specification is unknown. Here, we test more directly how prdm1a functions in this cell fate decision. Rather than affecting cell death or proliferation at the neural plate border, prdm1a acts explicitly on cell fate specification by counteracting olig4 expression in the neighboring interneuron domain. olig4 expression is expanded in prdm1a mutants and olig4 knockdown can rescue the reduced or abrogated neural crest and RB neuron phenotype in prdm1a mutants, suggesting a permissive role for prdm1a in neural plate border-derived cell fates. In addition, prdm1a expression is upregulated in the absence of Notch function, and inhibiting Notch signaling fails to rescue prdm1a mutants. This suggests that prdm1a functions downstream of Notch in the regulation of cell fate at the neural plate border and that Notch regulates the total number of progenitor cells at the neural plate border.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144709PMC
August 2011

A collaborative protocol on oxytocin administration: bringing nurses, midwives and physicians together.

Nurs Womens Health 2009 Dec;13(6):480-485

Women and Babies Hospital in Lancaster, PA.

Oxytocin is a high-alert drug for which safety precautions are crucial. Clear communication between nurses, physicians and midwives is vital when oxytocin is used. A collaborative process to updating an oxytocin administration protocol results in trust and respect among health care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-486X.2009.01482.xDOI Listing
December 2009

Resident experience of abuse and harassment in emergency medicine: ten years later.

J Emerg Med 2010 Feb 20;38(2):248-52. Epub 2008 Nov 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

Background: In 1995, a Society for Academic Emergency Medicine in-service survey reported high rates of verbal and physical abuse experienced by Emergency Medicine (EM) residents. We sought to determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment 10 years later to bring attention to these issues and determine if there has been a change in the prevalence of abuse over this time period.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment in a sample of EM residencies.

Methods: We conducted a cross-section survey of EM residents from 10 residencies. EM residents were asked about their experience with verbal abuse, verbal threats, physical threats, physical attacks, sexual harassment, and racial harassment; and by whom. The primary outcome of the study was the prevalence of abuse and harassment as reported by EM residents.

Results: There were 196 of 380 residents (52%) who completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 91%; 86% of residents experienced verbal abuse, 65% verbal threats, 50% physical threats, 26% physical attacks, 23% sexual harassment, and 26% racial harassment. Women were more likely than men to encounter sexual harassment (37% [38/102] vs. 8% [7/92]; p < 0.001). Racial harassment was not limited to minorities (23% [16/60] for Caucasians vs. 26% [29/126] for non-Caucasians; p = 0.59). Senior residents were more likely to have encountered verbal and physical abuse. Only 12% of residents formally reported the abuse they experienced.

Conclusion: Abuse and harassment during EM residency continues to be commonplace and is underreported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.05.005DOI Listing
February 2010

Zebrafish Foxd3 is required for development of a subset of neural crest derivatives.

Dev Biol 2006 Feb 20;290(1):92-104. Epub 2005 Dec 20.

Department of Biological Structure and Center for Developmental Biology, University of Washington, HSB G514, Box 357420, Seattle, 98195-7420, USA.

foxd3 encodes a winged helix/forkhead class transcription factor expressed in the premigratory neural crest cells of many vertebrates. We have investigated the function of this gene in zebrafish neural crest by a loss of function approach using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides and immunostaining for Foxd3 protein. Knockdown of Foxd3 expression produces deficits in several differentiated neural crest derivatives, including jaw cartilage, peripheral neurons, and glia, and iridophore pigment cells. Other derivatives, such as melanophore and xanthophore pigment cells are not affected. Reduction in the expression of several lineage-specific markers becomes evident soon after the onset of neural crest migration, suggesting that Foxd3 knockdown affects these lineages at early stages in their development. In contrast, analysis of the expression of early neural crest markers indicates little effect on neural crest induction or initial emigration. Finally, cell transplantation suggests that with respect to dorsal root ganglia neurons the Foxd3 requirement is cell autonomous, although Foxd3 itself is not detectable in differentiated DRG neurons. These results suggest that in zebrafish Foxd3 may not be required for induction of neural crest identity but is necessary for the differentiation of a subset of neural crest cell fates, perhaps in precursors of particular neural crest lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.11.014DOI Listing
February 2006

Regulation of latent sensory hair cell precursors by glia in the zebrafish lateral line.

Neuron 2005 Jan;45(1):69-80

Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

The lateral line is a placodally derived mechanosensory organ in anamniotes that detects the movement of water. In zebrafish embryos, a migrating primordium deposits seven to nine clusters of sensory hair cells, or neuromasts, at intervals along the trunk. Postembryonically, neuromasts continue to be added. We show that some secondary neuromasts arise from a pool of latent precursors that are deposited by the primordium between primary neuromasts. Interneuromast cells lie adjacent to the lateral line nerve and associated glia. These cells remain quiescent while they are juxtaposed with the glia; however, when they move away from the nerve they increase proliferation and form neuromasts. If glia are manually removed or genetically ablated by mutations in cls/sox10, hypersensitive (hps), or rowgain (rog), neuromasts precociously differentiate. Transplantation of wt glia into mutants rescues the appropriate temporal differentiation of interneuromast cells. Our studies reveal a role for glia in regulating sensory hair cell precursors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.12.020DOI Listing
January 2005

The retention of 14C-labelled poly(acrylic acids) on gastric and oesophageal mucosa: an in vitro study.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2003 Sep;20(1):83-90

Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Research Unit, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael's Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT, UK.

Polymers that bind from solution onto gastric mucosa can be used either as a means of facilitating localised drug delivery, or can act as therapeutic agents in their own right (e.g. by forming a protective layer or by inhibiting enzymes). In our previous study [Int. J. Pharm. 236 (2002) 87], the binding and retention of labelled poly(acrylic acid)s on sections of gastric mucosa from pigs was evaluated using 'dynamic flow' conditions and a high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) was found to bind most avidly. In the current study, 3% solutions of 'low', 'high' and 'ultra high' molecular weight polymers were evaluated in the 'dynamic flow' model for their ability to bind to tissues from the fundic and pyloric regions of the stomach and the oesophagus of pigs. All the polymers tested were retained on each mucosa for extended periods; the high and ultra high molecular weight polymers showed the greatest retention. Examination of the kinetics of polymer elution suggested that two fractions exist, 'bound' and 'unbound' polymer, showing differing retention profiles. The high molecular weight polymer showed the greatest retention on pyloric tissue, particularly on the upper sections. The retention of the ultra high and high molecular weight polymer was similar on the fundic and oesophageal mucosa, and the distribution was even across the tissue. It was concluded that poly(acrylic acid) binding from solution presents a therapeutic opportunity, and the differences in binding and retention of the polymers on the different mucosae could present an opportunity for targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0928-0987(03)00175-1DOI Listing
September 2003

Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet.

J Med Internet Res 2002 Apr-Nov;4(2):E12

We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to 'sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to 'hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a 'digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4.2.e12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1761937PMC
March 2003

An in vitro model for investigating the gastric mucosal retention of 14C-labelled poly(acrylic acid) dispersions.

Int J Pharm 2002 Apr;236(1-2):87-96

Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Group, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St. Michael's Building, White Swan Road, PO1 2DT, Portsmouth, UK.

Polymers that bind from solution onto gastric mucosae can be used as a means of facilitating localised drug delivery, or act as therapeutic agents in their own right (e.g. by forming a protective layer or by inhibiting enzymes). Previous workers have used semi-quantitative methods to identify the ability of commercially available poly(acrylic acid)s to bind to gastric mucosa. In this study, the binding and retention of labelled poly(acrylic acid)s to sections of gastric mucosa from the pyloric region of pigs stomach were evaluated using 'static' and 'dynamic flow' test systems. Dispersions (3%) of 'low', 'high' and 'ultra high' (cross-linked) polymers were seen to adhere to porcine pyloric mucosa after exposure and rinsing in the 'static' system. The high molecular weight polymer showed the greatest retention in the 'dynamic' test system when washing continuously with simulated gastric acid. Changing the pH of the dispersions from 4.3 to 6.2 had little effect on polymer retention. It was concluded that polymers that were sufficiently mobile in solution to spread on, and interact with, the mucosal surface, but had a sufficiently high molecular weight to form viscous solutions and/or bioadhere to the mucosa, may be retained on the mucosal surface for the longest periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00014-5DOI Listing
April 2002
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