Publications by authors named "Grant E Garrigues"

108 Publications

Establishing Clinically Significant Outcomes of the PROMIS Upper Extremity Questionnaire after Primary Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: and Hypothesis: Since its introduction, the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Upper Extremity (PROMIS UE) assessment has been increasingly used in shoulder arthroplasty outcome measurement. However, determination of clinically significant outcomes using PROMIS UE has yet to be investigated following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). We hypothesized that we could establish clinically significant outcomes of the PROMIS UE outcome assessment in patients undergoing primary RTSA and identify significant baseline patient factors associated with achievement of these measures.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing primary RTSA between 2018-2019 who received preoperative-baseline and follow-up PROMIS UE assessments at 12 months after surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Domain-specific anchor questions pertaining to pain and function assessed at 12 months after surgery were utilized to determine minimal clinically important difference (MCID), substantial clinical benefit (SCB), and patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) values for PROMIS UE using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Univariate logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify significant patient factors associated with achieving MCID, SCB, or PASS.

Results: 95 patients met all inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Using anchor-based methods, the value of PASS was 36.68 (sensitivity 0.795, specificity 0.765, AUC 0.793) and of SCB was 11.62 (sensitivity 0.597, specificity 1.00, AUC 0.806). Using a distribution-based method, the value of MCID was calculated to be 4.27. Higher preoperative PROMIS UE was a positive predictor in achievement of PASS (OR 1.107; p=0.05), whereas lower preoperative PROMIS UE scores were associated with obtaining SCB (OR 0.787; p<0.001). Greater baseline forward flexion was negatively associated with achievement of PASS (OR 0.986; p=0.033) and MCID (OR 0.976, p=0.013). 83.2%, 69.5%, and 47.4% of patients achieved MCID, PASS, and SCB, respectively.

Conclusion: This study defines MCID, SCB, and PASS for the PROMIS UE outcome assessment in patients undergoing primary RTSA, of which the majority achieve meaningful outcome improvement at 12 months after surgery. These values may be utilized in assessing outcome and extent of functional improvement following RTSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.03.147DOI Listing
April 2021

Malnutrition in Elective Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study of Preoperative Albumin and Adverse Outcomes.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Malnutrition is associated with poor postoperative outcomes following knee, hip, and spine surgery. However, whether albumin labs should be part of the routine preoperative workup for shoulder arthroplasty remains understudied. This study investigated the role of preoperative albumin levels in predicting common postoperative adverse outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: All shoulder arthroplasty cases performed at two tertiary referral centers between July 2013 and May 2019 (Institution 1) and between June 2007 and Feb 2020 (Institution 2) were reviewed. 421 primary and 71 revision elective shoulder arthroplasty cases had preoperative albumin levels recorded. Common demographic variables and relevant Elixhauser comorbidities were pulled. Outcomes gathered included extended (>3d) postoperative inpatient length of stay (eLOS), 90-day readmission, and discharge to rehab or skilled nursing facility (SNF).

Results: The prevalence of malnutrition (albumin <3.5 g/dL) was higher in the revision group compared to the primary group (36.6% vs. 19.5%, P = 0.001). Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (P = 0.013) and increasing ASA score (P = 0.016) were identified as independent risk factors for malnutrition in the primary group. In the revision group, liver disease was associated with malnutrition (P = 0.046). Malnourished primary shoulder arthroplasty patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (26.8% vs 13.6%, P = 0.003) and discharge to rehab/SNF (18.3% vs 10.3%, P = 0.045). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an odds ratio of 2.34 for eLOS (P = 0.004), which retained significance in a multivariable model including age, ASA, gender, and BMI (OR 2.11, P = 0.03). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an odds ratio of 1.94 for discharge to SNF/rehab (P = 0.048), but this did not reach significance in the multivariable model. Among revisions, malnourished patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (30.8% vs 6.7%, P = 0.014) and discharge to rehab/SNF (26.9% vs 4.4%, P = 0.010). In both the primary and revision groups, there was no difference in 90-day readmission rate between patients with low or normal albumin.

Conclusion: Malnutrition is more prevalent among revision shoulder arthroplasty patients compared to those undergoing a primary procedure. Primary shoulder arthroplasty patients with low preoperative albumin levels have an increased risk of eLOS and may have an increased need for post-acute care. Low albumin was not associated with risk of 90-day readmissions. Albumin level merits further investigation in large, prospective cohorts to clearly define its role in preoperative risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.03.143DOI Listing
April 2021

Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment due to an Ossified Spinoglenoid Ligament After Scapular Fracture: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):e2000477

1Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Case: A 46-year-old man underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of left scapular, humerus, and clavicle fractures after a snowmobile accident. He subsequently developed severe left infraspinatus weakness with electromyogram evidence of suprascapular entrapment at the spinoglenoid notch. Intraoperatively, suprascapular nerve compression from an ossified spinoglenoid ligament was observed. Scapular hardware was removed, the ossified ligament was resected, and neurolysis was performed. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient demonstrated return of infraspinatus function.

Conclusion: An ossified spinoglenoid ligament can contribute to suprascapular neuropathy after scapular fracture and ORIF. Open resection of the ossified ligament may lead to improved infraspinatus function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00477DOI Listing
March 2021

Patients undergoing anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty achieve clinically significant outcomes faster than those undergoing reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Sports Medicine & Shoulder, Department of Orthopedics, Midwest Orthopedics at Rush, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Clinically significant outcome (CSO) benchmarks have been previously established for outcome assessment after total shoulder arthroplasty. However, the time required to achieve CSO improvement is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the time-dependent achievement of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), substantial clinical benefit (SCB), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) in patients undergoing either anatomic total shoulder (TSA) or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) and compare the results of the 2 populations and (2) identify variables associated with earlier or delayed achievement of each CSO.

Methods: A prospectively maintained institutional registry was retrospectively queried for all patients receiving a primary TSA or RTSA between September 2, 2016-October 31, 2017. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) was administered to all patients preoperatively and at standardized postoperative time periods: 5-7 months (6-month time point), 11-13 months (1-year time point), and 23-25 months (2-year time point). Cumulative percentages of CSO achievement were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis with interval censoring. A Weibull parametric survival regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of demographic and clinical variables on delayed or earlier CSO achievement.

Results: A total of 153 patients (157 shoulders) undergoing TSA (n = 76) and RTSA (n = 81) were included in the study population. The RTSA cohort was older (70.2 ± 7.5 vs. 61.0 ± 8.4, P < .001), had a lower BMI (28.8 ± 5.9 vs. 31.5 ± 6.5, P = .006), and a greater proportion of females (53.1% vs. 32.9%, P = .017) relative to TSA. For SCB, there was a significant difference in the cumulative percentage of TSA and RTSA patients reaching this threshold at both the 6-month (77.3% vs. 59.0%, P = .024) and 2-year (92.0% vs. 79.5%, P = .048) time periods, with similar findings demonstrated for PASS. There was a significant difference in the average time required to achieve the PASS (TSA: 6.1 months vs. rTSA: 11.6 months, P = .009), but not the MCID (P = .407) or SCB (P = .153). Factors significantly associated with earlier achievement of more than 1 of the CSO benchmarks were regular preoperative physical exercise and diagnosis of rotator cuff tear without osteoarthritis.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing RTSA had lower rates of achieving SCB and PASS at both 6 months and 2 years compared to patients undergoing TSA. Patients undergoing RTSA on average required nearly double the time to achieve PASS compared with those undergoing TSA. In both groups, clinically significant improvement continued for the entire 2-year duration of study follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.02.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Predictors of acromial and scapular stress fracture after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a study by the ASES Complications of RSA Multicenter Research Group.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Acromial (ASF) and scapular spine (SSF) stress fractures are well-recognized complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), but much of the current data are derived from single-center or single-implant studies with limited generalizability. This study from the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Complications of Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Multicenter Research Group determined the incidence of ASF/SSF after RSA and identified preoperative patient characteristics associated with their occurrence.

Method: Fifteen institutions including 21 ASES members across the United States participated in this study. Patients undergoing either primary or revision RSA between January 2013 and June 2019 with a minimum 3-month follow-up were included. All definitions and inclusion criteria were determined using the Delphi method, an iterative survey process involving all primary investigators. Consensus was achieved when at least 75% of investigators agreed on each aspect of the study protocol. Only symptomatic ASF/SSF diagnosed by radiograph or computed tomography were considered. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with ASF/SSF development.

Results: We identified 6755 RSAs with an average follow-up of 19.8 months (range, 3-94). The total stress fracture incidence rate was 3.9% (n = 264), of which 3.0% (n = 200) were ASF and 0.9% (n = 64) were SSF. Fractures occurred at an average 8.2 months (0-64) following RSA with 21.2% (n = 56) following a trauma. Patient-related factors independently predictive of ASF were chronic dislocation (odds ratio [OR] 3.67, P = .04), massive rotator cuff tear without arthritis (OR 2.51, P < .01), rotator cuff arthropathy (OR 2.14, P < .01), self-reported osteoporosis (OR 2.21, P < .01), inflammatory arthritis (OR 2.18, P < .01), female sex (OR 1.51, P = .02), and older age (OR 1.02 per 1-year increase, P = .02). Factors independently associated with the development of SSF included osteoporosis (OR 2.63, P < .01), female sex (OR 2.34, P = .01), rotator cuff arthropathy (OR 2.12, P = .03), and inflammatory arthritis (OR 2.05, P = .03).

Conclusion: About 1 in 26 patients undergoing RSA will develop a symptomatic ASF or SSF, more frequently within the first year of surgery. Our results indicate that severe rotator cuff disease may play an important role in the occurrence of stress fractures following RSA. This information can be used to counsel patients about potential setbacks in recovery, especially among older women with suboptimal bone health. Strategies for prevention of ASF and SSF in these at-risk patients warrant further study. A follow-up study evaluating the impact of prosthetic factors on the incidence rates of ASF and SSF may prove highly valuable in the decision-making process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.02.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Allo- and autografts show comparable outcomes in chronic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction: a systematic review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital - NHS foundation trust, Birmingham, UK.

Purpose: The aim of this review was to compare clinical and radiological outcome of acromio-clavicular joint reconstruction with allografts versus autografts.

Methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library and WEB OF SCIENCE databases were searched in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines until February 2020 using the terms: 'coracoclavicular' OR 'coraco-clavicular' OR 'acromioclavicular' OR 'acromio-clavicular joint', AND 'reconstruction'. All studies reporting on clinical and radiological outcome as well as complications after ACJ reconstruction using allo- and/or autografts were included.

Results: A total of 29 articles, including 2 prospective and 27 retrospective studies, involving 622 patients, reconstructed with either allo- (n = 360) or auto-grafts (n = 262), for acromio-clavicular joint instability were identified and included in this review. The majority of studies had low sample sizes (66.7% below n = 20), were retrospective (93.3%), with short-term follow-ups (average 26.2 ± 12.6 months; range 6-186). The study with the largest sample size (n = 128) did not report clinical outcome. A comparison between allo- and auto-graft showed no significant differences regarding age, gender, and follow-up times. Clinical outcome was comparable in both groups, loss of reduction (LOR) and complication rates were higher in the allograft group. Overall a reduction of LOR was shown if additional horizontal stabilization was performed. Also a higher LOR and revision rate was documented in allografts without suture or suture-tape augmentation. The use of more clavicular drill-holes correlated with a higher frequency of fracture.

Conclusions: A systematic review of the available peer-reviewed literature addressing allograft and autograft reconstruction of unstable coracoclavicular ligaments shows that the published studies are generally of low quality with low levels of evidence. The published literature shows no significant difference in clinical outcomes between the use of autografts or allografts in ACJ reconstruction surgery. Surgical techniques utilizing additional horizontal stabilization may contribute to lower rates of LOR. In cases where allograft tissue is used for ACJ reconstruction the use of suture/tape augmentation may reduce LOR rates as well as revision rates.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06445-7DOI Listing
February 2021

The modern reverse shoulder arthroplasty and an updated systematic review for each complication: part II.

JSES Int 2021 Jan 10;5(1):121-137. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

ASES Multicenter Taskforce for RSA Complications, Rosemont, IL, USA.

Background: Globally, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has moved away from the Grammont design to modern prosthesis designs. The purpose of this study was to provide a focused, updated systematic review for each of the most common complications of RSA by limiting each search to publications after 2010. In this part II, the following were examined: (1) instability, (2) humerus/glenoid fracture, (3) acromial/scapular spine fractures (AF/SSF), and (4) problems/miscellaneous.

Methods: Four separate PubMed database searches were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Overall, 137 studies for instability, 94 for humerus/glenoid fracture, 120 for AF/SSF, and 74 for problems/miscellaneous were included in each review, respectively. Univariate analysis was performed with chi-square and Fisher exact tests.

Results: The Grammont design had a higher instability rate vs. all other designs combined (4.0%, 1.3%; < .001), and the onlay humerus design had a lower rate than the lateralized glenoid design (0.9%, 2.0%;  = .02). The rate for intraoperative humerus fracture was 1.8%; intraoperative glenoid fracture, 0.3%; postoperative humerus fracture, 1.2%; and postoperative glenoid fracture, 0.1%. The rate of AF/SSF was 2.6% (371/14235). The rate for complex regional pain syndrome was 0.4%; deltoid injury, 0.1%; hematoma, 0.3%; and heterotopic ossification, 0.8%.

Conclusions: Focused systematic reviews of recent literature with a large volume of shoulders demonstrate that using non-Grammont modern prosthesis designs, complications including instability, intraoperative humerus and glenoid fractures, and hematoma are significantly reduced compared with previous studies. As the indications continue to expand for RSA, it is imperative to accurately track the rate and types of complications in order to justify its cost and increased indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.07.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846704PMC
January 2021

The Use of Elbow Arthroscopy for Management of the Pediatric Elbow: A Systematic Review of Indications and Outcomes.

Arthroscopy 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this review was to systematically examine the literature surrounding elbow arthroscopy for pediatric patients and to assess indications, functional outcomes, and complication rates.

Methods: This systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. EMBASE, PubMed, and MEDLINE were searched for relevant literature from inception until December 2019, and studies were screened by 2 reviewers independently and in duplicate for those investigating elbow arthroscopy in a pediatric population (<18 years). Editorials, review articles, and case reports were excluded. Demographic data and data on surgical indications, treatment outcomes, and complications were recorded. A methodological quality assessment was performed for all included studies using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies.

Results: Overall, 19 studies, all of level IV evidence, were identified with a total of 492 patients (513 elbows). The patient population was 22.3% female with a mean age of 14.0 years (range, 4.0-15.7) and a mean follow-up time of 33.0 months (range, 7.4-96 months). Twelve studies (263 patients) exclusively recruited patients with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), although other indications for elbow arthroscopy included arthrofibrosis (50 patients), elbow fracture (37 patients), medial ulnar collateral ligament injury (31 patients), and posterior impingement (17 patients). All 13 reporting studies showed a significant improvement in the elbow flexion-extension arc, and 4 of 5 that reported a functional outcome score before and after surgery demonstrating a significant improvement. Last, the overall complication rates ranged from 0% to 23.8%, with a total of 8 instances of neurological injury (5 ulnar, 2 radial, 1 unspecified), all being transient and resolving within 3 to 6 months.

Conclusion: Although elbow arthroscopy is primarily being performed for OCD in children and adolescents, there is evidence surrounding several other potential indications. Case series published to date have demonstrated significant improvements in functional outcomes and low rates of major complications.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review of level IV studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.01.047DOI Listing
February 2021

Relationship Between Depression/Anxiety and Cognitive Function Before and 6 Weeks After Major Non-Cardiac Surgery in Older Adults.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2020 Dec 30:891988720978791. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: To determine the relationship between affective measures and cognition before and after non-cardiac surgery in older adults.

Methods: Observational prospective cohort study in 103 surgical patients age ≥ 60 years old All participants underwent cognitive testing, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, and State Anxiety Inventory screening before and 6 weeks after surgery. Cognitive test scores were combined by factor analysis into 4 cognitive domains, whose mean was defined as the continuous cognitive index (CCI). Postoperative global cognitive change was defined by CCI change from before to after surgery, with negative CCI change indicating worsened postoperative global cognition and vice versa.

Results: Lower global cognition before surgery was associated with greater baseline depression severity (Spearman's r = -0.30, p = 0.002) and baseline anxiety severity (Spearman's r = -0.25, p = 0.010), and these associations were similar following surgery (r = -0.36, p < 0.001; r = -0.26, p = 0.008, respectively). Neither baseline depression or anxiety severity, nor postoperative changes in depression or anxiety severity, were associated with pre- to postoperative global cognitive change.

Conclusions: Greater depression and anxiety severity were each associated with poorer cognitive performance both before and after surgery in older adults. Yet, neither baseline depression or anxiety symptoms, nor postoperative change in these symptoms, were associated with postoperative cognitive change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988720978791DOI Listing
December 2020

The modern reverse shoulder arthroplasty and an updated systematic review for each complication: part I.

JSES Int 2020 Dec 7;4(4):929-943. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Multicenter Task Force on Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Complications, Rosemont, IL, USA.

Background: Globally, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has moved away from the Grammont design to modern prosthesis designs. The purpose of this 2-part study was to systematically review each of the most common complications of RSA, limiting each search to publications in 2010 or later. In this part (part I), we examined (1) scapular notching (SN), (2) periprosthetic infection (PJI), (3) mechanical failure (glenoid or humeral component), and (4) neurologic injury (NI).

Methods: Four separate PubMed database searches were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Overall, 113 studies on SN, 62 on PJI, 34 on mechanical failure, and 48 on NI were included in our reviews. Univariate analysis was performed with the χ or Fisher exact test.

Results: The Grammont design had a higher SN rate vs. all other designs combined (42.5% vs. 12.3%, < .001). The onlay humeral design had a lower rate than the lateralized glenoid design (10.5% vs. 14.8%, < .001). The PJI rate was 2.4% for primary RSA and 2.6% for revision RSA. The incidence of glenoid and humeral component loosening was 2.3% and 1.4%, respectively. The Grammont design had an increased NI rate vs. all other designs combined (0.9% vs. 0.1%,  = .04).

Conclusions: Focused systematic reviews of the recent literature with a large volume of RSAs demonstrate that with the use of non-Grammont modern prosthesis designs, complications including SN, PJI, glenoid component loosening, and NI are significantly reduced compared with previous studies. As the indications for RSA continue to expand, it is imperative to accurately track the rates and types of complications to justify its cost and increased indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.07.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738599PMC
December 2020

Development of supervised machine learning algorithms for prediction of satisfaction at 2 years following total shoulder arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Oct 1. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Division of Sports Medicine & Shoulder, Department of Orthopedics, Midwest Orthopedics at Rush, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patient satisfaction after primary anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) represents an important metric for gauging patients' perception of their care and surgical outcomes. Although TSA confers improvement in pain and function for most patients, inevitably some will remain unsatisfied postoperatively. The purpose of this study was to (1) train supervised machine learning (SML) algorithms to predict satisfaction after TSA and (2) develop a clinical tool for individualized assessment of patient-specific risk factors.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of primary anatomic and reverse TSA patients between January 2014 and February 2018. A total of 16 demographic, clinical, and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated for predictive value. Five SML algorithms underwent 3 iterations of 10-fold cross-validation on a training set (80% of cohort). Assessment by discrimination, calibration, Brier score, and decision-curve analysis was performed on an independent testing set (remaining 20% of cohort). Global and local model behaviors were evaluated with global variable importance plots and local interpretable model-agnostic explanations, respectively.

Results: The study cohort consisted of 413 patients, of whom 331 (82.6%) were satisfied at 2 years postoperatively. The support vector machine model demonstrated the best relative performance on the independent testing set not used for model training (concordance statistic, 0.80; calibration intercept, 0.20; calibration slope, 2.32; Brier score, 0.11). The most important factors for predicting satisfaction were baseline Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, exercise and activity, workers' compensation status, diagnosis, symptom duration prior to surgery, body mass index, age, smoking status, anatomic vs. reverse TSA, and diabetes. The support vector machine algorithm was incorporated into an open-access digital application for patient-level explanations of risk and predictions, available at https://orthopedics.shinyapps.io/SatisfactionTSA/.

Conclusion: The best-performing SML model demonstrated excellent discrimination and adequate calibration for predicting satisfaction following TSA and was used to create an open-access, clinical decision-making tool. However, rigorous external validation in different geographic locations and patient populations is essential prior to assessment of clinical utility. Given that this tool is based on partially modifiable risk factors, it may enhance shared decision making and allow for periods of targeted preoperative health-optimization efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.09.007DOI Listing
October 2020

Patient Factors Associated With Clinical Failure Following Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction.

Arthroscopy 2021 02 28;37(2):460-467. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors associated with failure after superior capsular reconstruction (SCR).

Methods: Prospectively collected data were analyzed from patients who underwent SCR using a decellularized dermal allograft for an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Demographic characteristics, radiographic findings, concomitant procedures, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were recorded. Failure was defined by ≥1 of the following criteria: (1) conversion to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), (2) a decrease in 1-year postoperative shoulder-specific PROs compared with preoperative scores, or (3) patient reports at final follow-up that the shoulder was in a worse condition than before surgery. Preoperative variables were compared between patients meeting the criteria for clinical failure and those who did not.

Results: Fifty-four patients (mean age 56.3 ± 5.8 years, range 45 to 70) who underwent SCR, with minimum 1-year follow-up, were included in the analysis. Mean follow-up after surgery was 24 months (range 12 to 53). Eleven patients (20.4%) met criteria for clinical failure. Of the 11, 8 reported decreased American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) or Constant scores or indicated that the operative shoulder was in a worse condition than before surgery. Three patients underwent RTSA in the 6 to 12 months after SCR. Female sex and the presence of a subscapularis tear were associated with failure (P = .023 and P = .029, respectively). A trend toward greater body mass index (BMI), lower preoperative forward flexion, and lower preoperative acromiohumeral distance (AHD) was found in patients with clinical failure (P = .075, P = .088, and P = .081, respectively). No other variable included in the analysis was significantly associated with failure.

Conclusion: The proportions of female patients and those with subscapularis tear were greater among patients with clinical failure after SCR. Greater BMI, lower preoperative forward flexion, and lower preoperative AHD trended toward association with clinical failure of SCR.

Level Of Evidence: 4, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.09.038DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcome measures reported for the management of proximal humeral fractures: a systematic review.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Oct 9;29(10):2175-2184. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons multicenter taskforce studying proximal humerus fractures reached no consensus on which outcome measures to include in future studies, and currently no gold standard exists. Knowledge of commonly used outcome measures will allow standardization, enabling more consistent proximal humerus fracture treatment comparison. This study identifies the most commonly reported outcome measures for proximal humerus fracture management in recent literature.

Methods: A systematic review identified all English-language articles assessing proximal humerus fractures from 2008 to 2018 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Review articles, meta-analyses, revision surgery, chronic injuries, studies with <15 patients, studies with <12 month follow-up, anatomic/biomechanical studies, and technique articles were excluded. Included studies were assessed for patient demographics and outcome scores, patient satisfaction, complications, range of motion, and strength.

Results: Of 655 articles, 74 met inclusion criteria. The number of proximal humerus fractures averaged 74.2 per study (mean patient age, 65.6 years). Mean follow-up was 30.7 months. Neer type 1, 2, 3, and 4 fractures were included in 8%, 51%, 81%, and 88% of studies, respectively. Twenty-two patient-reported outcome instruments were used including the Constant-Murley score (65%), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score (31%), visual analog scale pain (27%), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (18%). An average of 2.2 measures per study were reported.

Conclusion: Considerable variability exists in the use of outcome measures across the proximal humerus fracture literature, making treatment comparison challenging. We recommend that future literature on proximal humerus fractures use at least 3 outcomes measures and 1 general health score until the optimal scores are determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.04.006DOI Listing
October 2020

The Biomaterials of Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: Their Features, Function, and Effect on Outcomes.

JBJS Rev 2020 09;8(9):e1900212

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

The materials that are used in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) implants have been carefully chosen in an attempt to minimize hardware-related complications. The 2 main metal alloys used in TSA implants are Ti-6Al-4V (titanium-aluminum-vanadium) and CoCrMo (cobalt-chromium-molybdenum). Ti alloys are softer than CoCr alloys, making them less wear-resistant and more susceptible to damage, but they have improved osseointegration and osteoconduction properties. Although controversial, metal allergy may be a concern in patients undergoing TSA and may lead to local tissue reaction and aseptic loosening. Numerous modifications to polyethylene, including cross-linking, minimizing oxidation, and vitamin E impregnation, have been developed to minimize wear and reduce complications. Alternative bearing surfaces such as ceramic and pyrolytic carbon, which have strong track records in other fields, represent promising possibilities to enhance the strength and the durability of TSA prostheses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.19.00212DOI Listing
September 2020

Surgical treatment for recurrent shoulder instability: factors influencing surgeon decision making.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Mar 25;30(3):e85-e102. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Duke Sport Science Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: The optimal surgical approach for recurrent anterior shoulder instability remains controversial, particularly in the face of glenoid and/or humeral bone loss. The purpose of this study was to use a contingent-behavior questionnaire (CBQ) to determine which factors drive surgeons to perform bony procedures over soft tissue procedures to address recurrent anterior shoulder instability.

Methods: A CBQ survey presented each respondent with 32 clinical vignettes of recurrent shoulder instability that contained 8 patient factors. The factors included (1) age, (2) sex, (3) hand dominance, (4) number of previous dislocations, (5) activity level, (6) generalized laxity, (7) glenoid bone loss, and (8) glenoid track. The survey was distributed to fellowship-trained surgeons in shoulder/elbow or sports medicine. Respondents were asked to recommend either a soft tissue or bone-based procedure, then specifically recommend a type of procedure. Responses were analyzed using a multinomial-logit regression model that quantified the relative importance of the patient characteristics in choosing bony procedures.

Results: Seventy orthopedic surgeons completed the survey, 33 were shoulder/elbow fellowship trained and 37 were sports medicine fellowship trained; 52% were in clinical practice ≥10 years and 48% <10 years; and 95% reported that the shoulder surgery made up at least 25% of their practice. There were 53% from private practice, 33% from academic medicine, and 14% in government settings. Amount of glenoid bone loss was the single most important factor driving surgeons to perform bony procedures over soft tissue procedures, followed by the patient age (19-25 years) and the patient activity level. The number of prior dislocations and glenoid track status did not have a strong influence on respondents' decision making. Twenty-one percent glenoid bone loss was the threshold of bone loss that influenced decision toward a bony procedure. If surgeons performed 10 or more open procedures per year, they were more likely to perform a bony procedure.

Conclusion: The factors that drove surgeons to choose bony procedures were the amount of glenoid bone loss with the threshold at 21%, patient age, and their activity demands. Surprisingly, glenoid track status and the number of previous dislocations did not strongly influence surgical treatment decisions. Ten open shoulder procedures a year seems to provide a level of comfort to recommend bony treatment for shoulder instability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.07.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Reliability of the modified Walch classification for advanced glenohumeral osteoarthritis using 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis: a study of the ASES B2 Glenoid Multicenter Research Group.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 23;30(4):736-746. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

ASES B2 Glenoid Multicenter Research Group.

Background: Variations in glenoid morphology affect surgical treatment and outcome of advanced glenohumeral osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the modified Walch classification using 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging in a multicenter research group.

Methods: Deidentified preoperative CTs of patients with primary glenohumeral OA undergoing anatomic or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) were reviewed with 3D imaging software by 23 experienced shoulder surgeons across 19 institutions. CTs were separated into 2 groups for review: group 1 (96 cases involving all modified Walch classification categories evaluated by 12 readers) and group 2 (98 cases involving posterior glenoid deformity categories [B2, B3, C1, C2] evaluated by 11 readers other than the first 12). Each case group was reviewed by the same set of readers 4 different times (with and without the glenoid vault model present), blindly and in random order. Inter- and intraobserver reliabilities were calculated to assess agreement (slight, fair, moderate, substantial, almost perfect) within groups and by modified Walch classification categories.

Results: Interobserver reliability showed fair to moderate agreement for both groups. Group 1 had a kappa of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38, 0.48) with the glenoid vault model absent and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.46) with it present. Group 2 had a kappa of 0.38 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.43) with the glenoid vault model absent and 0.37 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.43) with it present. Intraobserver reliability showed substantial agreement for group 1 with (0.63, range 0.47-0.71) and without (0.61, range 0.52-0.69) the glenoid vault model present. For group 2, intraobserver reliability showed moderate agreement with the glenoid vault model absent (0.51, range 0.30-0.72), which improved to substantial agreement with the glenoid vault model present (0.61, range 0.34-0.87).

Discussion: Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the modified Walch classification were fair to moderate and moderate to substantial, respectively, using standardized 3D CT imaging analysis in a large multicenter study. The findings potentially suggest that cases with a spectrum of posterior glenoid bone loss and/or dysplasia can be harder to distinguish by modified Walch type because of a lack of defined thresholds, and the glenoid vault model may be beneficial in determining Walch type in certain scenarios. The ability to reproducibly separate patients into groups based on preoperative pathology, including Walch type, is important for future studies to accurately evaluate postoperative outcomes in TSA patient cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.07.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Establishing clinically significant outcome thresholds for the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation 2 years following total shoulder arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 23;30(4):e137-e146. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Division of Sports Medicine & Shoulder, Department of Orthopedics, Midwest Orthopedics at Rush, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) is a simple, time-efficient patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) used to assess postoperative shoulder function. Clinically significant outcome values and ability to correlate with longer legacy PROM scores at 2 years following shoulder arthroplasty are unknown.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using SANE, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), and Constant scores that were collected at a minimum 2-year follow-up. A total of 153 patients who underwent anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) were included. A distribution-based method was used to determine the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). An anchor-based method was used to determine substantial clinical benefit (SCB). The following anchor question was collected alongside the PROMs and graded on a 15-point Likert-type scale to establish the SCB: "Since your surgery, has there been any change in the pain in your shoulder?" Linear regression was used to assess correlations between PROMs.

Results: SANE showed moderate correlation with ASES (R = 0.493) and Constant (R = 0.586) scores (P < .001). The MCID value was 14.9, and the SCB absolute value was 80.4 (area under the curve = 0.663) for SANE. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that patients undergoing RTSA were less likely to achieve SCB on all 3 outcome measures (P < .02).

Conclusions: This study establishes concurrent construct validity for SANE and suggests that it is a valid metric to assess the MCID and SCB at 2 years following anatomic TSA and RTSA. SANE demonstrated moderate correlations with ASES and Constant scores. Patients undergoing RTSA demonstrated a lower propensity to achieve SCB at 2 years postoperatively compared with anatomic TSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.07.011DOI Listing
April 2021

Salvage reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for failed anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty: a cohort analysis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jul;29(7S):S134-S138

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) as a revision procedure for failed anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is increasing in incidence. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of RTSA as a revision salvage procedure for failed TSA and identify factors that influenced those outcomes.

Methods: All anatomic TSAs that were revised to RTSAs in adult patients, under the care of 2 senior surgeons at a single academic center from 2006 to 2018, were queried and reviewed. Cases in which hemiarthroplasty or RTSA was revised to RTSA were excluded. Electronic medical records and survey databases were reviewed for each subject. Demographic and surgical details were reviewed and analyzed with descriptive statistics. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM) including active forward elevation and active external rotation were evaluated. Patient-reported outcome surveys including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons survey, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and visual analog scale for pain were collected and analyzed. Improvement in ROM and outcome survey measures was assessed with 2-sample t tests. Complication and reoperation rates were analyzed with descriptive statistics.

Results: A total of 75 patients (32 men and 43 women) were available for analysis at a mean of 22.3 months. The subjects were aged 60.3 ± 11.3 years at the time of TSA and 64.6 ± 9.7 years at the time of RTSA. The average period between TSA and RTSA was 4.3 years. The 3 most common indications for revision RTSA were painful arthroplasty (n = 62, 82.7%), rotator cuff failure (n = 56, 74.7%), and unstable arthroplasty (n = 25, 33.3%), but the majority of patients had multiple indications for surgery (n = 69, 92%). Significant improvements were found in all outcome measures from the time of failed TSA diagnosis to most recent follow-up after salvage RTSA with the exception of active external rotation: American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, 39 ± 15 preoperatively vs. 62 ± 25 postoperatively; Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, 27 ± 23 vs. 60 ± 30; visual analog scale pain score, 5 ± 2 vs. 3 ± 3; and active forward elevation, 79° ± 41° vs. 128° ± 33°. Major complications occurred in 21 patients (28.4%) after salvage RTSA, and 9 (12%) underwent reoperation.

Conclusions: RTSA for failed TSA can improve pain, function, and quality-of-life measures in patients with various TSA failure etiologies. However, postoperative ROM and patient-reported outcomes do not reach the values seen in the primary RTSA population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.04.013DOI Listing
July 2020

Single-stage versus two-stage revision for shoulder periprosthetic joint infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Dec 18;29(12):2476-2486. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Shoulder periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a significant complication after arthroplasty with high morbidity. An evidence-based algorithm for the treatment of shoulder PJI is lacking in current practice. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to understand and compare the role of single- and 2-stage shoulder arthroplasty revision for PJI.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify all studies related to shoulder arthroplasty for PJI in PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE. Inclusion criteria for this systematic review were studies that reported on single- or 2-stage revision, with infection eradication and a minimum follow-up of 12 months and a minimum of 5 patients for analysis. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and heterogeneity was assessed with Cochrane Q and I2.

Results: A total of 13 studies reporting on single-stage revision and 30 studies reporting on 2-stage revision were included in final analysis. The majority of positive cultures from single-stage revision for PJI resulted in Cutibacterium acnes with 113 of 232 (48.7%) reported cases compared with 190 of 566 (33.7%) reported cases for 2-stage revision. However, there was a lower percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive cultures, with 2.5% for single-stage compared with 9.7% for 2-stage revision. The overall pooled random-effect reinfection incidence was 0.05 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.08), with moderate heterogeneity (I = 34%, P = .02). The reinfection rate was 6.3% for single-stage and 10.1% for 2-stage revision, but this was not significant (Q = 0.9 and P = .40).

Conclusion: Based on a systematic review with meta-analysis, single-stage revision for shoulder PJI is an effective treatment. Indeed, our analysis showed single-stage to be more effective than 2-stage, but this is likely confounded by a treatment bias given the higher propensity of virulent and drug-resistant bacteria treated with 2-stage in the published literature. This implies that shoulder surgeons treating PJI can be reassured of a low recurrence rate (6.3%) when using single-stage treatment for C acnes or other sensitive, low-virulence organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.05.034DOI Listing
December 2020

The American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists' consensus statement on rehabilitation for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Oct 10;29(10):2149-2162. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Excel Physical Therapy, Blue Bell, PA, USA; Arcadia University, Glenside, PA, USA.

Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty is the gold standard shoulder replacement procedure for patients with an intact rotator cuff and sufficient glenoid bone to accommodate prosthetic glenoid implant and offers reliable patient satisfaction, excellent implant longevity, and a low incidence of complications. Disparity exists in the literature regarding rehabilitation strategies following anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. This article presents a consensus statement from experts in the field on rehabilitation following anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. The goal of this consensus statement is to provide a current evidence-based foundation to inform the rehabilitation process after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. These guidelines apply to anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (replacement of the humeral head and glenoid), hemiarthroplasty (replacing only the humeral head), and hemiarthroplasty with glenoid reaming or resurfacing. The consensus statement integrates an extensive literature review, as well as survey results of the practice patterns of members of the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. Three stages of recovery are proposed, which initially protect and then gradually load soft tissue affected by the surgical procedure, such as the subscapularis, for optimal patient outcomes. The proposed guidelines should be used in collaboration with surgeon preferences and patient-specific factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.05.019DOI Listing
October 2020

Arthroscopic Latarjet: Indications, Techniques, and Results.

Arthroscopy 2020 08 10;36(8):2044-2046. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

The Latarjet procedure to treat instability was first described by the eponymous surgeon in 1954. Long-term results from this procedure have been favorable. In 2007, Lafosse et al. first described an all-arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure. In the United States, the Latarjet procedure is most predictably indicated by surgeons in cases of significant glenoid bone loss, revision instability, and patients engaging in high-risk sport. In some European centers, the Latarjet has broader indications and is often also used as a first-line surgical intervention when conservative treatment has failed, including for those without bone loss or with multidirectional instability. • Achieve exposure of the inferior pole of coracoid and anterior glenoid rim; • coracoid is prepared; axillary nerve and brachial plexus are exposed; • coracoid portal is created; • coracoid is drilled and osteotomy is made; • coracoid transferred to anterior glenoid rim through split in subscapularis; • the bone graft is fixed in place with screws. Arthroscopic Latarjet can have a difficult learning curve compared with the open procedure. Both arthroscopic and open Latarjet have similar complication rates. The most common complications include graft fracture, non-union, and infection and are less than 2%. Arthroscopic Latarjet is reported to be less painful initially, but this equalizes by 1 month. Studies have shown that arthroscopic Latarjet results in excellent graft position. Recurrent instability for arthroscopic Latarjet ranges from 0.3% to 4.8% and is comparable with open Latarjet procedures. In summary, the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure results in less pain early, excellent coracoid graft position, and has a similar complication rate to open Latarjet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.06.002DOI Listing
August 2020

Editorial Commentary: Biologically-Enhanced Patch Augmentation: The Perfect Marriage of Mechanical Stability and Biology for Rotator Cuff Healing? Unfortunately, Not Yet.

Arthroscopy 2020 06;36(6):1552-1554

Rush University Medical Center.

Recurrent rotator cuff tears are a frequent cause of shoulder disability. To repair a rotator cuff, the surgeon faces both mechanical and biological challenges. Patch use as a scaffold for rotator cuff repair is well-described, as is biological augmentation, with clinical indications and efficacy being the subjects of ongoing study. However, a clinical report of dermal allograft patch augmentation combined with attempts at supercharging the biology is novel. This technique would benefit from controlled, prospective studies, with tight inclusion criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.03.004DOI Listing
June 2020

Influence of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty baseplate design on torque and compression relationship.

JSES Int 2020 Jun 28;4(2):388-396. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Florida Orthopaedic Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: A linear relationship between baseplate insertion torque and compression force in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) baseplates with central screw design has been recently established. In this study, we evaluated 3 different baseplate designs and their influence on the torque-compression relationship.

Methods: Three different RSA baseplate designs were evaluated through biomechanical testing using a glenoid vault, bone surrogate model. A digital torque gauge was used to measure insertion torque applied to the baseplate, whereas compression data were collected continuously from a load cell. Additionally, 2 predictive models were developed to predict the compression forces of each baseplate design at varying levels of torque.

Results: A linear relationship was found between baseplate compression and insertion torque for all 3 baseplate designs. Both the monoblock and 2-piece locking designs achieved the goal torque of 6.8 Nm, whereas the 2-piece nonlocking design did not due to material strip-out. No significant difference in maximum compression was found between the monoblock and 2-piece locking designs. However, the 2-piece nonlocking design achieved significantly higher compression. Both predictive models were shown to adequately predict compressive forces at different torque inputs for the monoblock and 2-piece locking designs but not the 2-piece nonlocking design.

Conclusion: The torque-compression relationship of a central screw baseplate is significantly affected by baseplate design. A 2-piece nonlocking baseplate reaches higher compression levels and risks material strip-out at lower insertional torques compared with a monoblock and 2-piece locking design. This has implications both on component design and on surgeon tactile feedback during surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256898PMC
June 2020

Surgical Management of Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis With Glenoid Erosion and Static Posterior Subluxation (Walch B2): Techniques, Outcomes, and Survivorship Rates.

Orthopedics 2020 Jul 23;43(4):e191-e201. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the surgical techniques and outcomes related to the management of Walch B2 glenoids. PubMed, Medline, and Embase were searched from inception to July 2018. Overall, 24 studies (787 B2 glenoids) were identified. Revision-free survivorship was highest for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (98.6%) and anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with asymmetric reaming and a non-augmented glenoid implant (95.6%). Walch B2 glenoids are most commonly managed by asymmetric reaming in the context of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty, and by the ream-and-run technique in hemiarthroplasty. The optimal treatment strategy remains elusive due to a lack of high-quality, comparative studies with long-term surveillance. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(4):e191-e201.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200415-05DOI Listing
July 2020

The clinical impact of arthroscopic vs. open osteocapsular débridement for primary osteoarthritis of the elbow: a systematic review.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Apr;29(4):689-698

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Primary elbow osteoarthritis (PEOA) is a debilitating disease that can be difficult to treat. Osteocapsular débridement (OD) has been described through various approaches, including arthroscopic and open approaches, with successful outcomes in treating PEOA. There is insufficient evidence in the literature to date to demonstrate the superiority of any approach. The purpose of this review was to compare the clinical results of arthroscopic vs. open OD for PEOA.

Methods: The online databases PubMed, Embase (Elsevier), and Scopus (Elsevier) were searched from inception through April 1, 2018, for clinical studies reporting on OD. Studies were stratified based on an arthroscopic vs. open approach. Weighted means were calculated for surgical and patient-reported outcomes.

Results: We included 30 studies, reporting on 871 patients and 887 elbows, with a mean follow-up period of 44.3 ± 25.5 months. Of these studies, 15 (420 elbows) reported on open OD, 14 (456 elbows) reported arthroscopic OD, and 1 reported on a cohort of each approach (open in 5 elbows and arthroscopic in 6). The Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved by 28.6 ± 4.57 in the open group vs. 26.6 ± 7.24 in the arthroscopic group. Flexion improved by 19° ± 6° in the open group and 10° ± 6° in the arthroscopic group. Extension improved by 11° ± 5° in the open group and 11° ± 6° in the arthroscopic group.

Conclusions: Open OD and arthroscopic OD are effective surgical treatment options for patients with symptomatic PEOA, reliably improving flexion, extension, and functional outcome scores with low complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.12.003DOI Listing
April 2020

Obesity is Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis and Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study.

Orthop Clin North Am 2020 Apr 16;51(2):259-264. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/grant_garrigues.

The relationship between obesity and glenohumeral osteoarthritis is relatively understudied. The purpose of this study was to better define this relationship by age- and gender-matching 596,874 patients across six body mass index (BMI) cohorts and determining the prevalence of glenohumeral osteoarthritis and the standardized rate of glenohumeral arthroplasty in each cohort. Individuals with a BMI over 24 were found to be at increased odds for developing glenohumeral osteoarthritis, compared to the normal BMI cohort, and individuals with a BMI over 30 were additionally found to be at increased odds for undergoing glenohumeral arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2019.12.001DOI Listing
April 2020

Global Perspectives on Management of Shoulder Instability: Decision Making and Treatment.

Orthop Clin North Am 2020 Apr 31;51(2):241-258. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/Grant_Garrigues.

The glenohumeral joint is prone to instability. Patients with instability should have a physical examination. Imaging studies can provide additional information. Classification schemes that into account soft tissue pathology, neuromuscular control, bone loss, and activity level. An arthroscopic Bankart repair is the mainstay for unidirectional instability. Bone block procedures are indicated for patients with bone loss or a failed attempt at stabilization surgery. The arthroscopic Latarjet is a promising option for these patients. For patients with multidirectional instability, prolonged rehabilitation is indicated, followed by capsular plication or inferior capsular shift if instability is unresponsive to physical therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2019.11.008DOI Listing
April 2020

Contracture and transient receptor potential channel upregulation in the anterior glenohumeral joint capsule of patients with end-stage osteoarthritis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jul 27;29(7):e253-e268. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Departments of Basic Medical Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: During anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA), the anterior shoulder joint capsule (ASJC) is characterized grossly by contracture, synovitis, and fibrosis. In tissues that develop fibrosis, there is substantial cross-talk between macrophages, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts, modulated by calcium signaling and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel signaling. The purpose of this study was to compare and characterize the degree of synovitis, inflammatory infiltrate, and TRP channel expression in ASJC harvested from shoulders with and without primary GHOA.

Methods: The ASJC was resected from patients undergoing TSA for primary GHOA or other diagnoses and compared with ASJC from cadaveric donors with no history of shoulder pathology. ASJC was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to characterize synovial lining and capsular inflammatory cell infiltrate and fibrosis, and to evaluate for expression of TRPA1, TRPV1, and TRPV4, known to be involved in fibrosis in other tissues. Blinded sections were evaluated by 3 graders using a semiquantitative scale; then results were compared between diagnosis groups using nonparametric methods.

Results: Compared with normal control, the ASJC in primary GHOA had significantly increased synovitis, fibrosis, mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate including multiple macrophages subsets, and upregulation of TRP channel expression.

Conclusion: These data support the clinical findings of ASJC and synovial fibrosis in primary GHOA, identify a mixed inflammatory response, and identify dysregulation of TRP channels in the synovium and joint capsule. Further studies will identify the role of synovial and capsular fibrosis early in the development of GHOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.11.013DOI Listing
July 2020

The Relationship Between Humeral Torsion and Arm Injury in Baseball Players: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Sports Health 2020 Mar/Apr;12(2):132-138. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush University, Chicago, Illinois.

Context: Humeral torsion (HT) has been linked to various injuries and benefits. However, the exact interplay between HT, shoulder range of motion (ROM), competition level differences, and injury risk is unclear.

Objective: To determine the relationship between HT, ROM, and injury risk in baseball players. Secondarily, to determine HT based on competition level.

Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception until November 4, 2018.

Study Selection: Inclusion criteria consisted of (1) HT measurements and (2) arm injury or shoulder ROM.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Level Of Evidence: Level 3.

Data Extraction: Two reviewers recorded patient demographics, competition level, HT, shoulder ROM, and injury data.

Results: A total of 32 studies were included. There was no difference between baseball players with shoulder and elbow injuries and noninjured players (side-to-side HT difference: mean difference [MD], 1.75 [95% CI, -1.83 to 2.18]; dominant arm: MD, 0.17 [95% CI, -1.83 to 2.18]). Meta-regression determined that for every 1° increase in shoulder internal rotation (IR), there was a subsequent increase of 0.65° in HT (95% CI, 0.28 to 1.02). HT did not explain external rotation (ER ROM: 0.19 [95% CI, -0.24 to 0.61]) or horizontal adduction (HA ROM: 0.18 [95% CI, -0.46 to 0.82]). There were no differences between HT at the high school, college, or professional levels.

Conclusion: No relationship was found between HT and injury risk. However, HT explained 65% of IR ROM but did not explain ER ROM or HA ROM. There were no differences in HT pertaining to competition level. The majority of IR may be nonmodifiable. Treatment to restore and maintain clinical IR may be important, especially in players with naturally greater torsion. HT adaptation may occur prior to high school, which can assist in decisions regarding adolescent baseball participation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941738119900799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040950PMC
March 2020

Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A General Instructional Course Lecture.

Instr Course Lect 2020 ;69:525-550

Rotator cuff pathology is one of the most common reasons for patients to seek orthopaedic consultation. Although in many cases these issues can be resolved with proper conservative management, many of these patients benefit from surgical treatment. The goal of this instructional course lecture is to identify factors that can potentially lead to worse outcomes following repair, describe the history and techniques behind transosseous anchorless repairs, discuss subscapularis tears and their management, and to analyze the most current data regarding double-row rotator cuff repairs. Rotator cuff tears managed surgically have been proven to provide significant pain relief and improved function; however, surgical intervention in patients with significant risk factors for failure can lead to substantial disability for the patient.
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February 2020