Publications by authors named "Graeme Thomson"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Small-Molecule Inhibition of UBE2T/FANCL-Mediated Ubiquitylation in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway.

ACS Chem Biol 2019 10 23;14(10):2148-2154. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Biochemistry , University of Cambridge , Cambridge CB2 1QN , United Kingdom.

The Fanconi anemia pathway orchestrates the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and stalled replication forks. A key step in this pathway is UBE2T and FANCL-dependent monoubiquitylation of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. The Fanconi anemia pathway represents an attractive therapeutic target, because activation of this pathway has been linked to chemotherapy resistance in several cancers. However, to date, very few selective inhibitors of ubiquitin conjugation pathways are known. By using a high-throughput screen-compatible assay, we have identified a small-molecule inhibitor of UBE2T/FANCL-mediated FANCD2 monoubiquitylation that sensitizes cells to the DNA cross-linking agent, carboplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804243PMC
October 2019

2-Aminomethylene-5-sulfonylthiazole Inhibitors of Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) and LOXL2 Show Significant Efficacy in Delaying Tumor Growth.

J Med Chem 2020 03 4;63(5):2308-2324. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Drug Discovery Unit, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG, United Kingdom.

The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of extracellular proteins plays a vital role in catalyzing the formation of cross-links in fibrillar elastin and collagens leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) stabilization. These enzymes have also been implicated in tumor progression and metastatic disease and have thus become an attractive therapeutic target for many types of invasive cancers. Following our recently published work on the discovery of aminomethylenethiophenes (AMTs) as potent, orally bioavailable LOX/LOXL2 inhibitors, we report herein the discovery of a series of dual LOX/LOXL2 inhibitors, as well as a subseries of LOXL2-selective inhibitors, bearing an aminomethylenethiazole (AMTz) scaffold. Incorporation of a thiazole core leads to improved potency toward LOXL2 inhibition via an irreversible binding mode of inhibition. SAR studies have enabled the discovery of a predictive 3DQSAR model. Lead AMTz inhibitors exhibit improved pharmacokinetic properties and excellent antitumor efficacy, with significantly reduced tumor growth in a spontaneous breast cancer genetically engineered mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073924PMC
March 2020

Discovery and Optimization of Allosteric Inhibitors of Mutant Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (R132H IDH1) Displaying Activity in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

J Med Chem 2016 12 5;59(24):11120-11137. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester , Princess Street, Manchester, M1 7DN, U.K.

A collaborative high throughput screen of 1.35 million compounds against mutant (R132H) isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH1 led to the identification of a novel series of inhibitors. Elucidation of the bound ligand crystal structure showed that the inhibitors exhibited a novel binding mode in a previously identified allosteric site of IDH1 (R132H). This information guided the optimization of the series yielding submicromolar enzyme inhibitors with promising cellular activity. Encouragingly, one compound from this series was found to induce myeloid differentiation in primary human IDH1 R132H AML cells in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01320DOI Listing
December 2016

The discovery of 2-substituted phenol quinazolines as potent RET kinase inhibitors with improved KDR selectivity.

Eur J Med Chem 2016 Apr 29;112:20-32. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, Drug Discovery Unit, University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Withington, Manchester, M20 4BX, England, UK.

Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase RET has been implicated in medullary thyroid cancer, a small percentage of lung adenocarcinomas, endocrine-resistant breast cancer and pancreatic cancer. There are several clinically approved multi-kinase inhibitors that target RET as a secondary pharmacology but additional activities, most notably inhibition of KDR, lead to dose-limiting toxicities. There is, therefore, a clinical need for more specific RET kinase inhibitors. Herein we report our efforts towards identifying a potent and selective RET inhibitor using vandetanib 1 as the starting point for structure-based drug design. Phenolic anilinoquinazolines exemplified by 6 showed improved affinities towards RET but, unsurprisingly, suffered from high metabolic clearance. Efforts to mitigate the metabolic liability of the phenol led to the discovery that a flanking substituent not only improved the hepatocyte stability, but could also impart a significant gain in selectivity. This culminated in the identification of 36; a potent RET inhibitor with much improved selectivity against KDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.01.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4896931PMC
April 2016

Toxoflavins and deazaflavins as the first reported selective small molecule inhibitors of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase II.

J Med Chem 2013 Aug 31;56(16):6352-70. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, U.K.

The recently discovered enzyme tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) has been implicated in the topoisomerase-mediated repair of DNA damage. In the clinical setting, it has been hypothesized that TDP2 may mediate drug resistance to topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibition by etoposide. Therefore, selective pharmacological inhibition of TDP2 is proposed as a novel approach to overcome intrinsic or acquired resistance to topo II-targeted drug therapy. Following a high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign, toxoflavins and deazaflavins were identified as the first reported sub-micromolar and selective inhibitors of this enzyme. Toxoflavin derivatives appeared to exhibit a clear structure-activity relationship (SAR) for TDP2 enzymatic inhibition. However, we observed a key redox liability of this series, and this, alongside early in vitro drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) issues, precluded further exploration. The deazaflavins were developed from a singleton HTS hit. This series showed distinct SAR and did not display redox activity; however low cell permeability proved to be a challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm400568pDOI Listing
August 2013

A fluorescence-based assay for the apurinic/apyrimidinic-site cleavage activity of human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1.

Anal Biochem 2013 Sep 18;440(1):1-5. Epub 2013 May 18.

Cancer Research UK Drug Discovery Unit, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds between the DNA 3'-phosphate and tyrosine residues and plays a major role in the repair of stalled topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes. Given this role, Tdp1 is of interest as a potential target for anticancer therapy. Inhibiting Tdp1 in combination with clinically used Top1 inhibitors may potentiate the effects of the latter and help to overcome some of the chemoresistance issues currently observed. In addition, Tdp1 can function during DNA repair to remove a variety of other 3' adducts from DNA such as phosphoglycolates and abasic or apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. Here we describe a new mix-and-read homogeneous fluorogenic assay for the measurement of the AP-site cleavage activity of Tdp1 that is compatible with high-throughput screening. The application of such an assay will open up further avenues for the discovery of novel Tdp1 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2013.05.003DOI Listing
September 2013

Generation of assays and antibodies to facilitate the study of human 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase.

Anal Biochem 2013 May 12;436(2):145-50. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Cancer Research UK Drug Discovery Unit, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX, UK.

Topoisomerases regulate DNA topology by the transient cleavage and religation of DNA during transcription and replication. Topoisomerase II (Topo II) poisons such as etoposide can induce abortive DNA strand breaks in which Topo II remains covalently bound to a 5' DNA strand terminus via a phosphotyrosyl linker. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) is a recently discovered human 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase that repairs this topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage, thereby playing a central role in maintaining normal DNA topology in cells. Cellular depletion of Tdp2 has been shown to result in increased susceptibility and sensitivity to Topo II-induced DNA double-strand breaks, thereby revealing Tdp2 as a potentially attractive anticancer target. No drug-like inhibitors of Tdp2 have been identified to date, and assays suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) have not been widely reported. Here we have identified a new and effective chromogenic substrate for Tdp2 and developed a homogeneous and robust HTS assay. A second novel Tdp2 assay was also developed to cross-validate hit matter identified from an HTS. In addition, a new and specific Tdp2 antibody is described. Together, these new tools will aid in the identification of novel Tdp2 inhibitors and the investigation of the role of Tdp2 in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2013.02.001DOI Listing
May 2013

Novel steroid inhibitors of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

J Med Chem 2012 May 27;55(9):4431-45. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

Cancer Research UK Drug Discovery Unit, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4 BX, UK.

Novel derivatives of the steroid DHEA 1, a known uncompetitive inhibitor of G6PD, were designed, synthesized, and tested for their ability to inhibit this dehydrogenase enzyme. Several compounds with approximately 10-fold improved potency in an enzyme assay were identified, and this improved activity translated to efficacy in a cellular assay. The SAR for steroid inhibition of G6PD has been substantially developed; the 3β-alcohol can be replaced with 3β-H-bond donors such as sulfamide, sulfonamide, urea, and carbamate. Improved potency was achieved by replacing the androstane nucleus with a pregnane nucleus, provided a ketone at C-20 is present. For pregnan-20-ones incorporation of a 21-hydroxyl group is often beneficial. The novel compounds generally have good physicochemical properties and satisfactory in vitro DMPK parameters. These derivatives may be useful for examining the role of G6PD inhibition in cells and will assist the future design of more potent steroid inhibitors with potential therapeutic utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm300317kDOI Listing
May 2012

High throughput screens yield small molecule inhibitors of Leishmania CRK3:CYC6 cyclin-dependent kinase.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011 Apr 5;5(4):e1033. Epub 2011 Apr 5.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Background: Leishmania species are parasitic protozoa that have a tightly controlled cell cycle, regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cdc2-related kinase 3 (CRK3), an essential CDK in Leishmania and functional orthologue of human CDK1, can form an active protein kinase complex with Leishmania cyclins CYCA and CYC6. Here we describe the identification and synthesis of specific small molecule inhibitors of bacterially expressed Leishmania CRK3:CYC6 using a high throughput screening assay and iterative chemistry. We also describe the biological activity of the molecules against Leishmania parasites.

Methodology/principal Findings: In order to obtain an active Leishmania CRK3:CYC6 protein kinase complex, we developed a co-expression and co-purification system for Leishmania CRK3 and CYC6 proteins. This active enzyme was used in a high throughput screening (HTS) platform, utilising an IMAP fluorescence polarisation assay. We carried out two chemical library screens and identified specific inhibitors of CRK3:CYC6 that were inactive against the human cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2:CycA. Subsequently, the best inhibitors were tested against 11 other mammalian protein kinases. Twelve of the most potent hits had an azapurine core with structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis identifying the functional groups on the 2 and 9 positions as essential for CRK3:CYC6 inhibition and specificity against CDK2:CycA. Iterative chemistry allowed synthesis of a number of azapurine derivatives with one, compound 17, demonstrating anti-parasitic activity against both promastigote and amastigote forms of L. major. Following the second HTS, 11 compounds with a thiazole core (active towards CRK3:CYC6 and inactive against CDK2:CycA) were tested. Ten of these hits demonstrated anti-parasitic activity against promastigote L. major.

Conclusions/significance: The pharmacophores identified from the high throughput screens, and the derivatives synthesised, selectively target the parasite enzyme and represent compounds for future hit-to-lead synthesis programs to develop therapeutics against Leishmania species. Challenges remain in identifying specific CDK inhibitors with both target selectivity and potency against the parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3071374PMC
April 2011

Accuracy of electrocardiogram interpretation improves with emergency medicine training.

Emerg Med Australas 2007 Apr;19(2):143-50

Emergency Department, Casey Hospital, Berwick, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To assess whether electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation accuracy improves with advancing years of emergency medicine training.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional double-blinded study of emergency medicine trainees attending teaching sessions in ACEM accredited Victorian hospitals. Subjects completed a survey about level of training, rotations completed and ECG training. They were then asked for the 'main diagnosis' on 10 clinically significant ECG. Those in their fourth year of advanced training onwards, or in active preparation for fellowship examination (senior trainees) were compared with trainees in earlier years (other trainees).

Results: There were 122 trainees surveyed in total. In the present study, 48/122 were senior trainees and 74/122 were other trainees. The overall accuracy of ECG interpretation was 67.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.2-71.8%) for the senior trainees and 49.6% (95% CI 45.2-53.9%) for the others. Results for some of the individual ECG were: left bundle branch block: 81.3% (95% CI 69.9-92.6%) seniors and 58.1% (95% CI 46.6-69.7%) others; ventricular tachycardia: 43.8% (95% CI 29.3-58.2%) seniors and 37.8% (95% CI 26.5-49.2%) others; and ventricular fibrillation: 70.8% (95% CI 57.6-84.1%) seniors and 63.5% (95% CI 52.2-74.9%) others.

Conclusion: There is an improvement in ECG interpretation accuracy with advancing years of emergency medicine training in Victoria. There exists, however, a low level of accuracy for some critical ECG diagnoses. There is a call by trainees for more formalized and regular ECG education to begin earlier in their training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-6723.2007.00946.xDOI Listing
April 2007