Publications by authors named "Graciela Panzetta-Dutari"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dual-responsive nanogels based on oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylates and acidic co-monomers.

Soft Matter 2019 Dec;15(47):9700-9709

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Av. Haya de la Torre y Av. Medina Allende, Córdoba, X5000HUA, Argentina.

Ethylene glycol-based nanogels (NGs) have demonstrated their potential for the development of next-generation formulations for biomedical applications due to their interesting properties. In this work, monodispersed NGs based on oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylates (OEG) were synthesized through free radical precipitation/dispersion polymerization assisted by ultrasonication. Di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA; Mn 475 g mol-1) were used as the main monomers, acrylic acid (AA) or itaconic acid (IA) as co-monomers (OEG-co-AA and OEG-co-IA, respectively) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) as crosslinker. The physicochemical properties of OEG-co-AA and OEG-co-IA NGs were studied including hydrodynamic diameter, poly-dispersity index, zeta potential and pH/temperature responsiveness. Samples with 4 mol% of both AA and IA showed nanometric sizes. Regarding their thermo-responsiveness, unexpected differences between NGs with AA or with IA were observed. Besides, NGs did not impair the cell viability of a breast tumour cell line even when high concentrations were added to the culture medium. The properties of the synthetized NGs showed that either NGs with 4% AA or with 4% IA are outstanding candidates for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm01180cDOI Listing
December 2019

Effect of Chlorpyrifos on human extravillous-like trophoblast cells.

Reprod Toxicol 2019 12 8;90:118-125. Epub 2019 Sep 8.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI), Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

An increased risk of pregnancy disorders has been reported in women and animal models exposed to organophosphate pesticides. However, less information is available on impacts to human placental function. Here, we addressed the impact of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on extravillous cytotrophoblasts (evCTB) employing HTR8/SVneo cells as an in vitro model. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were not affected by CPF under conditions where cell viability was not compromised; however, we observed reduced expression of genes for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. These results are the first effects reported by organophosphate pesticide in evCTB cells and show altered expression of several genes important for placental development that could serve as potential biomarkers for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.09.001DOI Listing
December 2019

Hexosamine pathway regulates StarD7 expression in JEG-3 cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 12;45(6):2593-2600. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina.

StarD7 is a lipid binding protein involved in the delivery of phosphatidylcholine to the mitochondria whose promoter is activated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Although the majority of glucose enters glycolysis, ~ 2-5% of it can be metabolized via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). Considering that HBP has been implicated in the regulation of β-catenin we explored if changes in glucose levels modulate StarD7 expression by the HBP in trophoblast cells. We found an increase in StarD7 as well as in β-catenin expression following high-glucose (25 mM) treatment in JEG-3 cells; these effects were abolished in the presence of HBP inhibitors. Moreover, since HBP is able to promote unfolded protein response (UPR) the protein levels of GRP78, Ire1α, calnexin, p-eIF2α and total eIF2α as well as XBP1 mRNA was measured. Our results indicate that a diminution in glucose concentration leads to a decrease in StarD7 expression and an increase in the UPR markers: GRP78 and Ire1α. Conversely, an increase in glucose is associated to high StarD7 levels and low GRP78 expression, phospho-eIF2α and XBP1 splicing, although Ire1α remains high when cells are restored to high glucose. Taken together these findings indicate that glucose modulates StarD7 and β-catenin expression through the HBP associated to UPR, suggesting the existence of a link between UPR and HBP in trophoblast cells. This is the first study reporting the effects of glucose on StarD7 in trophoblast cells. These data highlight the importance to explore the role of StarD7 in placenta disorders related to nutrient availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4428-9DOI Listing
December 2018

Chlorpyrifos induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in JEG-3 cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2017 Apr 16;40:88-93. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, X5000HUA Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorous pesticide widely used in agricultural, industrial, and household applications. We have previously shown that JEG-3 cells are able to attenuate the oxidative stress induced by CPF through the adaptive activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Considering that there is a relationship between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER), herein we investigated whether CPF also induces ER stress in JEG-3 cells. Cells were exposed to 50μM or 100μM CPF during 24h in conditions where cell viability was not altered. Western blot and PCR assays were used to explore the protein and mRNA levels of ER stress biomarkers, respectively. CPF induced an increase of the typical ER stress-related proteins, such as GRP78/BiP and IRE1α, a sensor for the unfolded protein response, as well as in phospho-eIF2α and XBP1 mRNA splicing. Additionally, CPF led to a decrease in p53 protein expression. The downregulation of p53 levels induced by CPF was partially blocked when cells were exposed to CPF in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Altogether, these findings point out that CPF induces ER stress in JEG-3 cells; however these cells are able to attenuate it downregulating the levels of the pro-apoptotic protein p53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2016.12.008DOI Listing
April 2017

Suppression of StarD7 promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress and induces ROS production.

Free Radic Biol Med 2016 10 20;99:286-295. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica-Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, X5000HUA Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

StarD7 is an intracellular lipid transport protein identified as up-regulated in the choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell line. StarD7 facilitates the delivery of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to the mitochondria, and StarD7 knockdown causes a reduction in phospholipid synthesis. Since inhibition of PC synthesis may lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress we hypothesized that StarD7 may be involved in maintaining cell homeostasis. Here, we examined the effect of StarD7 silencing on ER stress response and on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. StarD7 knockdown induced alterations in mitochondria and ER morphology. These changes were accompanied with an ER stress response as determined by increased expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), calnexin, glucose regulated protein 78/immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (Grp78/BiP), protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) as well as the phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1α (p-eIF2α). Additionally, a downregulation of the tumor suppressor p53 by a degradation mechanism was observed in StarD7 siRNA cells. Furthermore, StarD7 silencing induced ROS generation and reduced cell viability after HO exposure. Decreased expression of StarD7 was associated to increased levels of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase enzymes as well as in catalase enzymatic activity. Finally, no changes in levels of autophagy and apoptosis markers were observed in StarD7 siRNA treated cells respect to control cells. Taken together, these results indicate that StarD7 contributes to modulate cellular redox homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.08.023DOI Listing
October 2016

A novel regulator of human villous trophoblast fusion: the Krüppel-like factor 6.

Mol Hum Reprod 2015 Apr 23;21(4):347-58. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina

Cell-cell fusion is an essential event during life. Throughout human pregnancy, the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) layer of the placenta is formed by continuous fusion of the underlying villous cytotrophoblasts, thus maintaining placental functionality. Defects in this process are associated with pathologies like pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a transcription factor highly expressed in human and murine placenta. However, KLF6 functions in trophoblast cells remain largely unexplored. The aim of this work was to address the role of KLF6 during STB formation. KLF6 knockdown through small interfering RNA experiments hindered cell-cell fusion revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy in human primary villous cytotrophoblast as well as in the human placental-derived BeWo cell line. Furthermore, KLF6 silencing led to a decrease in the expression of the fusogenic protein Syncytin-1 and the cell cycle regulator p21 CIP1/WAF1: measured by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. On the contrary, transcript levels of genes that encode for proteins involved in STB formation such as Syncytin-1, Syncytin-2, Connexin-43 and Zonula Occludens-1 increased when KLF6 was overexpressed in differentiating villous cytotrophoblasts and in non-fusing placental-derived JEG-3 cells. Interestingly, the expression of two trophoblast biochemical differentiation markers, βhCG and PSG3, were not reduced after KLF6 silencing in differentiating trophoblast cells. Present results support the notion that KLF6 is a relevant participant in cytotrophoblast fusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gau113DOI Listing
April 2015

The Lipid Transfer Protein StarD7: Structure, Function, and Regulation.

Int J Mol Sci 2013 Mar 18;14(3):6170-86. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica-Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, X5000HUA Córdoba, Argentina.

The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved and widely expressed proteins that have been implicated in lipid transport, metabolism, and signaling. The 15 well-characterized mammalian START domain-containing proteins are grouped into six subfamilies. The START domain containing 7 mRNA encodes StarD7, a member of the StarD2/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) subfamily, which was first identified as a gene overexpressed in a choriocarcinoma cell line. Recent studies show that the StarD7 protein facilitates the delivery of phosphatidylcholine to the mitochondria. This review summarizes the latest advances in StarD7 research, focusing on the structural and biochemical features, protein-lipid interactions, and mechanisms that regulate StarD7 expression. The implications of the role of StarD7 in cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms14036170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634439PMC
March 2013

The role of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a) in regulating the innate and adaptive immune response.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2013 Apr 23;69(4):383-94. Epub 2013 Feb 23.

Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina.

Among several explanations for the acceptance of the fetus, the one that suggests that the maternal immune system is suppressed or modified has been the subject of many studies. Thus, it has been proposed that the cells of innate immune system might be able to distinguish the pregnant from the non-pregnant state producing a signal, the so-called signal P. We have previously proposed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a), a representative member of the main glycoprotein family secreted by placental trophoblast, may modulate the activation of antigen-presenting cells promoting the T-cell shift of the maternal cell immunity toward a less harmful phenotype. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the contribution of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a) to modulate the maternal innate and adaptive immune response in order to assure a successful pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aji.12089DOI Listing
April 2013

PSG gene expression is up-regulated by lysine acetylation involving histone and nonhistone proteins.

PLoS One 2013 13;8(2):e55992. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología CIBICI-CONICET, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Background: Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification that plays a central role in eukaryotic transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin and transcription-related factors. Human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG) are the major secreted placental proteins expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast at the end of pregnancy and represent early markers of cytotrophoblast differentiation. Low PSG levels are associated with complicated pregnancies, thus highlighting the importance of studying the mechanisms that control their expression. Despite several transcription factors having been implicated as key regulators of PSG gene family expression; the role of protein acetylation has not been explored.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here, we explored the role of acetylation on PSG gene expression in the human placental-derived JEG-3 cell line. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) up-regulated PSG protein and mRNA expression levels, and augmented the amount of acetylated histone H3 associated with PSG 5'regulatory regions. Moreover, PSG5 promoter activation mediated by Sp1 and KLF6, via the core promoter element motif (CPE, -147/-140), was markedly enhanced in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). This effect correlated with an increase in Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization as revealed by immunoprecipitation and subcellular fractionation assays. The co-activators PCAF, p300, and CBP enhanced Sp1-dependent PSG5 promoter activation through their histone acetylase (HAT) function. Instead, p300 and CBP acetyltransferase domain was dispensable for sustaining co-activation of PSG5 promoter by KLF6.

Conclusions/significance: Results are consistent with a regulatory role of lysine acetylation on PSG expression through a relaxed chromatin state and an increase in the transcriptional activity of Sp1 and KLF6 following an augmented Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055992PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3572148PMC
August 2013

StarD7 knockdown modulates ABCG2 expression, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation of human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells.

PLoS One 2012 29;7(8):e44152. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Background: StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 7 (StarD7) is a member of the START-domain protein family whose function still remains unclear. Our data from an explorative microarray assay performed with mRNAs from StarD7 siRNA-transfected JEG-3 cells indicated that ABCG2 (ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2) was one of the most abundantly downregulated mRNAs.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here, we have confirmed that knocking down StarD7 mRNA lead to a decrease in the xenobiotic/lipid transporter ABCG2 at both the mRNA and protein levels (-26.4% and -41%, p<0.05, at 48 h of culture, respectively). Also a concomitant reduction in phospholipid synthesis, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and (3)H-thymidine incorporation was detected. Wound healing and transwell assays revealed that JEG-3 cell migration was significantly diminished (p<0.05). Conversely, biochemical differentiation markers such as human chorionic gonadotrophin β-subunit (βhCG) protein synthesis and secretion as well as βhCG and syncytin-1 mRNAs were increased approximately 2-fold. In addition, desmoplakin immunostaining suggested that there was a reduction of intercellular desmosomes between adjacent JEG-3 cells after knocking down StarD7.

Conclusions/significance: Altogether these findings provide evidence for a role of StarD7 in cell physiology indicating that StarD7 modulates ABCG2 multidrug transporter level, cell migration, proliferation, and biochemical and morphological differentiation marker expression in a human trophoblast cell model.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0044152PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430668PMC
February 2013

Chlorpyrifos modifies the expression of genes involved in human placental function.

Reprod Toxicol 2012 Jun 21;33(3):331-8. Epub 2012 Jan 21.

Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

The effects of organophosphate pesticides on human placenta remain poorly investigated although an increased risk of pregnancy alterations has been reported in women chronically exposed to these pesticides. Here, we have addressed whether chlorpyrifos (CPF) modifies the expression of genes relevant for placental function. Human placental JEG-3 cells were exposed to increasing CPF concentrations up to 100 μM for 24 and 48 h and cell viability, mRNA, protein and hormone levels were analyzed. Quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that CPF increased the expression of ABCG2, GCM1 and, even more significantly, βhCG mRNAs in conditions where cell viability and morphology were not compromised. In addition, βhCG protein synthesis and secretion were time-dependently augmented. Present results may reflect a CPF nocive effect on placenta cells or a placental-defense mechanism to preserve its function. These novel CPF trophoblast target genes should be considered in future studies of pregnancy outcomes associated with in vivo exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.01.003DOI Listing
June 2012

Krüppel-like factor 6 expression changes during trophoblast syncytialization and transactivates ßhCG and PSG placental genes.

PLoS One 2011 22;6(7):e22438. Epub 2011 Jul 22.

Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Background: Krüppel-like factor-6 (KLF6) is a widely expressed member of the Sp1/KLF family of transcriptional regulators involved in differentiation, cell cycle control and proliferation in several cell systems. Even though the highest expression level of KLF6 has been detected in human and mice placenta, its function in trophoblast physiology is still unknown.

Methodology/principal Findings: Herein, we explored KLF6 expression and sub-cellular distribution in human trophoblast cells differentiating into the syncytial pathway, and its role in the regulation of genes associated with placental development and pregnancy maintenance. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that KLF6 is expressed throughout human cytotrophoblast differentiation showing no evident modifications in its nuclear and cytoplasmic localization pattern. KLF6 transcript and protein peaked early during the syncytialization process as determined by qRT-PCR and western blot assays. Overexpression of KLF6 in trophoblast-derived JEG-3 cells showed a preferential nuclear signal correlating with enhanced expression of human β-chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) and pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) genes. Moreover, KLF6 transactivated βhCG5, PSG5 and PSG3 gene promoters. Deletion of KLF6 Zn-finger DNA binding domain or mutation of the consensus KLF6 binding site abolished transactivation of the PSG5 promoter.

Conclusions/significance: Results are consistent with KLF6 playing a role as transcriptional regulator of relevant genes for placental differentiation and physiology such as βhCG and PSG, in agreement with an early and transient increase of KLF6 expression during trophoblast syncytialization.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022438PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142166PMC
December 2011

StarD7 gene expression in trophoblast cells: contribution of SF-1 and Wnt-beta-catenin signaling.

Mol Endocrinol 2011 Aug 26;25(8):1364-75. Epub 2011 May 26.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica-Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, X5000HUA Córdoba, Argentina.

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain containing 7 (StarD7) is a poorly characterized member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer proteins, up-regulated in JEG-3 cells, involved in intracellular transport and metabolism of lipids. Previous studies dealing with the mechanisms underlying the human StarD7 gene expression led us to define the cis-acting regulatory sequences in the StarD7 promoter using as a model JEG-3 cells. These include a functional T cell-specific transcription factor 4 (TCF4) site involved in Wnt-β-catenin signaling. To understand these mechanisms in more depth, we examined the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) contribution to StarD7 expression. Cotransfection experiments in JEG-3 cells point out that the StarD7 promoter is activated by SF-1, and this effect is increased by forskolin. EMSA using JEG-3 nuclear proteins demonstrated that SF-1 binds to the StarD7 promoter. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that SF-1 and β-catenin are bound in vivo to the StarD7 promoter. Reporter gene assays in combination with mutations in the SF-1 and TCF4 binding sites revealed that the StarD7 promoter is synergistically activated by SF-1 and β-catenin and that the TCF4 binding site (-614/-608) plays an important role in this activation. SF-1 amino acid mutations involved in the physical interaction with β-catenin abolished this activation; thus demonstrating that the contact between the two proteins is necessary for an efficient StarD7 transcriptional induction. Finally, these data suggest that β-catenin could function as a bridge between SF-1 and TCF4 forming a ternary complex, which would stimulate StarD7 expression. The SF-1 and β-catenin pathway convergence on StarD7 expression may have important implications in the phospholipid uptake and transport, contributing to the normal trophoblast development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2010-0503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417238PMC
August 2011

Structural organization of the mitochondrial DNA control region in Aedes aegypti.

Genome 2006 Aug;49(8):931-7

Cátedra de Genética de Poblaciones y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

The complete A+T - rich region of Aedes aegypti mitochondrial DNA has been cloned and sequenced. In Argentinean populations of the species, a polymorphism in the length of the amplified fragment was observed. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the shortest and longest A+T - rich amplified fragments detected revealed the presence of 2 types of tandemly repeated blocks. The size variation observed in natural populations is mainly due to the presence of a variable number of a 181 bp tandem repeat unit, located toward the 12S rRNA gene end. The size of the longest A+T - rich region was of 2070 bp, representing the largest control sequence reported for any mosquito species. Few relevant short blocks of primary-sequence similarity conserved in the control region of mosquitoes and other insects were detected scattered throughout the whole region. Five putative stem-loop secondary structures were found, one of them flanked by conserved sequences described in other insects. Our results suggest that there are no universal models of structure-function relations in the control region of insect mtDNA. In addition, we identified a short A+T - rich variable segment in the Ae. aegyti control region that would be suitable for population genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/g06-053DOI Listing
August 2006

Activation of the human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein PSG-5 promoter by KLF4 and Sp1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 May 20;343(3):745-53. Epub 2006 Mar 20.

INSERM U.384, Laboratoire de Biochimie, Faculté de Médecine, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are major placental proteins thought to be essential for the maintenance of gestation. Little is known about the regulation of expression of the 11 genes encoding these proteins. It was previously demonstrated that Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) and specific-protein 1 (Sp1) bind to conserved sequence within the PSG-5 gene promoter. Informatics analysis revealed the presence of one potential binding site for Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), in the PSG-5 promoter, suggesting a potential transcriptional regulator role for KLF4. Using gene promoter-reporter transfections and X-ChIP assays, we demonstrated that KLF4 is an activator of the PSG-5 promoter by binding to a KLF consensus like binding which includes the Core Promoter Element region (-147/-140). Furthermore, we used previous data showing the binding of Sp1 transcription factor to a GT-box (-443/-437) and co-transfection assays with KLF4 and Sp1 to demonstrate the strong synergic activity of these two factors on the PSG-5 promoter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.032DOI Listing
May 2006