Publications by authors named "Grace Mwimaniwa"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Presentation of life-threatening invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Malawian children: A prospective observational study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 12 7;11(12):e0006027. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Malawi.

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006. Data on clinical presentation, co-morbidities and outcome were used to identify children at risk of inpatient mortality through logistic-regression modeling. Over one calendar year, 263 consecutive children presented with invasive Salmonella disease. Median age was 16 months (range 0-15 years) and 52/256 children (20%; 95%CI 15-25%) died. Nontyphoidal serovars caused 248/263 (94%) of cases. 211/259 (81%) of isolates were multi-drug resistant. 251/263 children presented with bacteremia, 6 with meningitis and 6 with both. Respiratory symptoms were present in 184/240 (77%; 95%CI 71-82%), 123/240 (51%; 95%CI 45-58%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 101/240 (42%; 95%CI 36-49%) had an overlapping clinical syndrome. Presentation at <7 months (OR 10.0; 95%CI 2.8-35.1), dyspnea (OR 4.2; 95%CI 1.5-12.0) and HIV infection (OR 3.3; 95%CI 1.1-10.2) were independent risk factors for inpatient mortality. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is characterized by high mortality and prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates, along with non-specific presentation. Young infants, children with dyspnea and HIV-infected children bear a disproportionate burden of the Salmonella-associated mortality in Malawi. Strategies to improve prevention, diagnosis and management of invasive Salmonella disease should be targeted at these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5745124PMC
December 2017

Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2015 Nov 18;23(2):95-103. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi School of Immunity and Infection, College of Medicine and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom Jenner Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69(+) NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4(+) lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00564-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744922PMC
November 2015