Publications by authors named "Grace E Vincent"

54 Publications

Managing Travel Fatigue and Jet Lag in Athletes: A Review and Consensus Statement.

Sports Med 2021 Oct 14;51(10):2029-2050. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Athletes are increasingly required to travel domestically and internationally, often resulting in travel fatigue and jet lag. Despite considerable agreement that travel fatigue and jet lag can be a real and impactful issue for athletes regarding performance and risk of illness and injury, evidence on optimal assessment and management is lacking. Therefore 26 researchers and/or clinicians with knowledge in travel fatigue, jet lag and sleep in the sports setting, formed an expert panel to formalise a review and consensus document. This manuscript includes definitions of terminology commonly used in the field of circadian physiology, outlines basic information on the human circadian system and how it is affected by time-givers, discusses the causes and consequences of travel fatigue and jet lag, and provides consensus on recommendations for managing travel fatigue and jet lag in athletes. The lack of evidence restricts the strength of recommendations that are possible but the consensus group identified the fundamental principles and interventions to consider for both the assessment and management of travel fatigue and jet lag. These are summarised in travel toolboxes including strategies for pre-flight, during flight and post-flight. The consensus group also outlined specific steps to advance theory and practice in these areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01502-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279034PMC
October 2021

To Nap or Not to Nap? A Systematic Review Evaluating Napping Behavior in Athletes and the Impact on Various Measures of Athletic Performance.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 24;13:841-862. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

Purpose: The objective of this systematic review was to 1) determine how studies evaluated napping behavior in athletes (frequency, duration, timing and measurement); 2) explore how napping impacted physical performance, cognitive performance, perceptual measures (eg, fatigue, muscle soreness, sleepiness and alertness), psychological state and night-time sleep in athletes.

Methods: Five bibliographic databases were searched from database inception to 11 August 2020. Observational and experimental studies comprising able-bodied athletes (mean age ≥12 years), published in English, in peer-reviewed journal papers were included. The Downs and Black Quality Assessment Checklist was used for quality appraisal.

Results: Thirty-seven studies were identified of moderate quality. Most studies did not include consistent information regarding nap frequency, duration, and timing. Napping may be beneficial for a range of outcomes that benefit athletes (eg, physical and cognitive performance, perceptual measures, psychological state and night-time sleep). In addition, napping presents athletes with the opportunity to supplement their night-time sleep without compromising sleep quality.

Conclusion: Athletes may consider napping between 20 to 90 min in duration and between 13:00 and 16:00 hours. Finally, athletes should allow 30 min to reduce sleep inertia prior to training or competition to obtain better performance outcomes. Future studies should include comprehensive recordings of nap duration and quality, and consider using sleep over a 24 hour period (daytime naps and night-time sleep period), specifically using objective methods of sleep assessment (eg, polysomnography/actigraphy).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S315556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238550PMC
June 2021

The Relationship Between Diet and Sleep in Older Adults: a Narrative Review.

Curr Nutr Rep 2021 Sep 14;10(3):166-178. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Physical Activity Research Group, Central Queensland University, 160 Ann St, Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Older adults more frequently experience reduced sleep quality and quantity compared to younger adults. Diet is one modifiable lifestyle factor that may influence sleep outcomes in older adults. The purpose of this review is to synthesise the current literature investigating the impact of diet, including foods and nutrients, on the sleep quality and quantity of older adults.

Recent Findings: Overall, the observational and intervention studies suggest that following a Mediterranean diet, and the consumption of certain food items (e.g. milk), and nutrients (e.g. vitamin D and vitamin E) may influence (improve or reduce) sleep quality and quantity. This review describes the potential efficacy for dietary factors to improve sleep outcomes in older adults. However, given the heterogeneity of included studies in this review (i.e. aims, methodologies, and outcomes assessed), it is difficult to consolidate the available evidence to make specific recommendations. More targeted research exploring the relationship between diet and sleep in older adults is needed to strengthen the current evidence base.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13668-021-00362-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Reply to Patterson et al. Commentary: Fatigue risk management in emergency services personnel.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Jun 24;57:101485. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Central Queensland University, Appleton Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101485DOI Listing
June 2021

Sleep and physical activity in university students: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Aug 20;58:101482. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

University students have low levels of physical activity and report disturbances to sleep, which are independently associated with poor health outcomes. Some research suggests that there is a bi-directional relationship between sleep and physical activity in adults. However, the relationship between sleep and physical activity in university students has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to qualitatively synthesise and quantitatively evaluate the evidence for the association between sleep and physical activity in university students. Twenty-nine eligible studies were included, with a total of 141,035 participants (43% men and 57% women). Only four studies used device-based measures of sleep and/or physical activity, with the remainder including self-report measures. Qualitative synthesis found that the majority of studies did not find any association between sleep and physical activity in university students. However, random-effects meta-analysis showed that moderate-to-high intensity physical activity was associated with lower PSQI scores (e.g., better sleep quality) [r = -0.18, 95% CI (-0.37, 0.03), p = 0.100]. Further, a weak negative association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level and sleep duration was also found [r = -0.02, 95% CI (-0.16, 0.12), p = 0.760]. As the findings of this review are predominantly derived from cross-sectional investigations, with limited use of device-based measurement tools, further research is needed to investigate the relationship between sleep and physical activity in university students. Future studies should employ longitudinal designs, with self-report and device-based measures, and consider the intensity and time of physical activity as well as records of napping behaviour.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101482DOI Listing
August 2021

Sleep disturbances in caregivers of children with medical needs: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Health Psychol 2021 Apr;40(4):263-273

Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science.

Objective: The sleep of individuals who provide unpaid care for children with medical needs is likely to be significantly impacted by this role. Sleep may be affected by the practical tasks undertaken during the night (e.g., administering medication), in addition to the emotional impact (e.g., worry, rumination). The aim of this systematic review was to examine the available literature on the impact of caregiving for children with medical needs on caregivers' sleep.

Method: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science, were searched using predetermined criteria. Studies were included if they used validated subjective or objective measures of caregiver sleep, in contexts where caregivers were providing care for one or more children with medical needs. Data on study population, research design, and outcome measures were extracted, and study quality was reviewed by two authors.

Results: Search criteria produced 2,172 studies for screening. Based on inclusion criteria, 40 studies were included in the final review. Sleep of caregivers of children with medical needs was poorer than that for noncaregivers. Poor sleep included reduced sleep duration, impaired sleep efficiency, increased wake after sleep onset, and perceived poorer sleep quality.

Conclusions: Providing unpaid care for children with medical needs is associated with sleep disturbances, including less total sleep, and poorer sleep quality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0001062DOI Listing
April 2021

Non-Pharmacological Interventions to Improve Chronic Disease Risk Factors and Sleep in Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Clocks Sleep 2021 Jan 28;3(1):132-178. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute (Sleep Health)/Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health (AISH): A Flinders Centre of Research Excellence, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

Shift work is associated with adverse chronic health outcomes. Addressing chronic disease risk factors including biomedical risk factors, behavioural risk factors, as well as sleep and perceived health status, affords an opportunity to improve health outcomes in shift workers. The present study aimed to conduct a systematic review, qualitative synthesis, and meta-analysis of non-pharmacological interventions targeting chronic disease risk factors, including sleep, in shift workers. A total of 8465 records were retrieved; 65 publications were eligible for inclusion in qualitative analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis were conducted for eight eligible health outcomes, including a total of thirty-nine studies. Interventions resulted in increased objective sleep duration (Hedges' g = 0.73; CI: 0.36, 1.10, = 16), improved objective sleep efficiency (Hedges' g = 0.48; CI: 0.20, 0.76, = 10) and a small increase in both subjective sleep duration (Hedges' g = 0.11; CI: -0.04, 0.27, = 19) and sleep quality (Hedges' g = 0.11; CI: -0.11, 0.33, = 21). Interventions also improved perceived health status (Hedges' g = 0.20; CI: -0.05, 0.46, = 8), decreased systolic (Hedges' g = 0.26; CI: -0.54, 0.02, = 7) and diastolic (Hedges' g = 0.06; CI: -0.23, 0.36, = 7) blood pressure, and reduced body mass index (Hedges' g = -0.04; CI: -0.37, 0.29, = 9). The current study suggests interventions may improve chronic disease risk factors and sleep in shift workers; however, this could only be objectively assessed for a limited number of risk factor endpoints. Future interventions could explore the impact of non-pharmacological interventions on a broader range of chronic disease risk factors to better characterise targets for improved health outcomes in shift workers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep3010009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930959PMC
January 2021

The Discrepancy between Knowledge of Sleep Recommendations and the Actual Sleep Behaviour of Australian Adults.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Nov-Dec;19(6):828-839. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Appleton Institute, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

: Inadequate sleep is a major public health concern, with large economic, health, and operational costs to Australia. Despite the implementation of public sleep health campaigns, approximately 40% of Australian adults do not obtain the recommended 7-9 hours of sleep. Thus, while people may know how much sleep is required, this knowledge may not be adequately translated to actual sleep behavior. Consequently, this study aims to examine the discrepancy between knowledge of sleep recommendations and self-reported sleep behaviors.: A sample of 1265 Australian adults (54% female, aged 18-65) completed a phone interview as part of the 2017 National Social Survey and were asked questions about their knowledge of sleep guidelines and their actual sleep behavior. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with awareness of sleep recommendations and whether this corresponded with reported sleep duration.: The final sample size was 998. Although 94% of the sample were aware of current sleep recommendations, 23% of participants did not self-report regularly obtaining 7-9 h sleep per night. These participants were less likely to want to obtain more sleep, less likely to view sleep as a priority before stressful events, and less likely to self-report good health.: Although a majority of the sample were aware of sleep recommendations, almost a quarter of the participants' behavior did not align with their knowledge. Future sleep health campaigns should consider options beyond education, including emphasis on practical strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors to assist individuals to obtain the recommended amount of sleep.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2021.1876693DOI Listing
January 2021

Are Individuals with Low Trait Anxiety Better Suited to On-Call Work?

Clocks Sleep 2020 Nov 12;2(4):473-486. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Appleton Institute, School of Health Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Wayville 5034, SA, Australia.

Research has indicated that individuals with certain traits may be better suited to shiftwork and non-standard working arrangements. However, no research has investigated how individual differences impact on-call outcomes. As such, this study investigated the impact of trait anxiety on sleep and performance outcomes on-call. Seventy male participants (20-35 years) completed an adaptation night, a control night, and two on-call nights in a laboratory. Trait anxiety was determined using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) X-2, and participants completed the STAI X-1 prior to bed each night to assess state anxiety. Sleep was measured using polysomnography and quantitative electroencephalographic analysis. Performance was assessed using a 10-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performed each day at 0930, 1200, 1430 and 1700 h. Data pooled from three separate but inter-related studies was used for these analyses. Results indicated that the effects of trait anxiety on state anxiety, sleep and performance outcomes on-call were generally limited. These findings suggest that on-call outcomes are not negatively affected by higher levels of trait anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712885PMC
November 2020

Global Research Output on Sleep Research in Athletes from 1966 to 2019: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Clocks Sleep 2020 06 30;2(2):99-119. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Appleton Institute of Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Adelaide 5034, South Australia, Australia; (M.L.); (G.E.V.).

This study examined sleep research in athletes published between 1966 and 2019, through a bibliometric analysis of research output in the Scopus database. Following a robust assessment of titles, the bibliometric indicators of productivity for studies included in the final analysis were: Distribution of publications and citations (excluding self-citations), top ten active journals, countries, institutions and authors, single- and multi-country collaboration, and 25 top-cited papers. Out of the 1015 papers, 313 were included in the final analysis. The majority of the papers were research articles ( = 259; 82.8%) and published in English ( = 295; 94.3%). From 2011, there was a dramatic increase in papers published ( = 257; 82.1%) and citations ( = 3538; 91.0%). The number of collaborations increased after 2001, with papers published through international ( = 81; 25.9%) and national ( = 192; 61.3%) collaboration. Australia was the most prolific country in terms of number of publications ( = 97; 31.0%), and citations ( = 1529; 15.8%). In conclusion, after the beginning of the twenty-first century, the scientific production on sleep research in athletes has seen significant growth in publication and citation output. Future research should focus on interventions to improve sleep in athletes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2020010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445811PMC
June 2020

Comparing the Effects of FIFO/DIDO Workers Being Home versus Away on Sleep and Loneliness for Partners of Australian Mining Workers.

Clocks Sleep 2020 03 6;2(1):86-98. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Central Queensland University, Appleton Institute of Behavioural Science, Adelaide 5034, South Australia, Australia; (K.-a.I.W.); (S.A.F.); (A.R.); (K.-L.A.).

Fly in Fly out/Drive in Drive out (FIFO/DIDO) is a prevalent work arrangement in the Australian mining industry and has been associated with adverse outcomes such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and work/life interference. FIFO/DIDO work arrangements have the potential to not only impact the FIFO/DIDO worker, but also the partner of the FIFO/DIDO worker. However, there is sparse empirical evidence on the impact of FIFO/DIDO work arrangements on partners' sleep and subsequent performance. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to describe and compare partners' sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, and loneliness when the FIFO/DIDO workers were at home (off-shift) and away (on-shift). A secondary aim of this study was to examine whether differences in partners' sleep quality and sleep duration as a result of FIFO/DIDO worker's absence could be partially explained through the presence of dependents in the home, relationship duration, chronotype, duration in a FIFO/DIDO role, and loneliness. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 195 female and 4 male participants, mostly aged between 18 and 44 years and who had been in a relationship with a FIFO/DIDO mining worker for more than five years. Of note, most participants subjectively reported poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration, excessive sleepiness, and moderate to extreme loneliness compared to the general population regardless of whether the FIFO/DIDO workers were at home or away. Compared to when the FIFO/DIDO workers were at home, partners experienced reduced sleep quality and increased loneliness when the FIFO/DIDO workers were away. Secondary analyses revealed that loneliness may partially underpin the negative effect that FIFO/DIDO workers' absence has on sleep quality. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration, excessive sleepiness, and loneliness of FIFO/DIDO partners to inform appropriate strategies to support FIFO/DIDO partners' health and wellbeing not only in the mining population, but other industries that incorporate similar FIFO/DIDO work arrangements (e.g., emergency services, offshore drilling, and transport).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445831PMC
March 2020

Impacts of Australian Firefighters' On-Call Work Arrangements on the Sleep of Partners.

Clocks Sleep 2020 03 30;2(1):39-51. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Central Queensland University, Appleton Institute of Behavioural Science, Adelaide, SA 5034, Australia; (S.K.); (J.P.); (A.C.R.); (M.D.); (S.A.F.).

On-call work arrangements are commonly utilised in the emergency services sector and are consistency associated with inadequate sleep. Despite sleep being a common shared behaviour, studies are yet to assess the impact of on-call work on the sleep of co-sleeping partners. This study aimed to investigate whether frequent 24/7 on-call work impacted the sleep and relationship happiness of firefighters' partners. Two key research questions were investigated: (1) Does the frequency of calls impact sleep and relationship happiness? and, (2) Does the (a) sleep quantity and (b) sleep quality of partners impact perceived relationship happiness? A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire completed by partners of on-call workers ( = 66; 93% female). The questionnaire included items on (i) sleep quantity and quality, (ii) on-call sleep disturbances and, (iii) relationship happiness. Responses were analysed using logistic regression models. Higher overnight call frequency was associated with greater self-reported levels of inadequate sleep (<7 h per night; = 0.024). Support for continuance of a firefighter's role was less likely if the partner reported they regularly had trouble falling asleep within 30 min ( < 0.001). There were no other significant relationships between the frequency of calls or other sleep quantity or quality variables and relationship happiness. This study provides important first insights into how firefighters' on-call work arrangements impact partners' sleep. Future research is needed across periods of high and low call demand, using objective measures of sleep to further define the impacts of on-call work on partners' sleep.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445837PMC
March 2020

Safety implications of fatigue and sleep inertia for emergency services personnel.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Feb 8;55:101386. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Central Queensland University, Appleton Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Emergency services present a unique operational environment for the management of fatigue and sleep inertia. Communities request and often expect the provision of emergency services on a 24/7/365 basis. This can result in highly variable workloads and/or significant need for on-demand or on-call working time arrangements. In turn, the management of fatigue-related risk requires a different approach than in other more predictable shift working sectors (e.g., mining and manufacturing). The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of fatigue risk management that is accessible to regulators, policy makers and organisations in the emergency services sector. The review outlines the unique fatigue challenges in the emergency services sector, examines the current scientific and policy consensus around managing fatigue and sleep inertia, and finally discusses strategies that emergency services organisations can use to minimise the risks associated with fatigue and sleep inertia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101386DOI Listing
February 2021

Can an increase in noradrenaline induced by brief exercise counteract sleep inertia?

Chronobiol Int 2020 Sep-Oct;37(9-10):1474-1478. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Appleton Institute, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Wayville, Adelaide, Australia.

Emergency responders often credit 'adrenaline' (i.e. sympathetic activity) as the reason they respond quickly upon waking, unimpaired by sleep inertia. Movement upon waking may promote sympathetic activity in this population. This pilot study (n = 4 healthy males) tested the effects of a 30 s exercise bout (maximal sprint) upon waking during the night (02:00 h) on sympathetic activity and sleep inertia. When compared to sedentary conditions, exercise reduced subjective sleepiness levels and elicited a temporary increase in sympathetic activity, measured by plasma noradrenaline levels. These findings provide preliminary support for exercise as a potential sleep inertia countermeasure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2020.1803900DOI Listing
July 2021

Are prolonged sitting and sleep restriction a dual curse for the modern workforce? a randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 07 27;10(7):e040613. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University - Adelaide Campus, Wayville, South Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Prolonged sitting and inadequate sleep are a growing concern in society and are associated with impairments to cardiometabolic health and cognitive performance. However, the combined effect of prolonged sitting and inadequate sleep on measures of health and cognitive performance are unknown. In addition, the circadian disruption caused by shiftwork may further impact workers' cardiometabolic health and cognitive performance. This protocol paper outlines the methodology for exploring the impact of simultaneous exposure to prolonged sitting, sleep restriction and circadian disruption on cardiometabolic and cognitive performance outcomes.

Methods And Analysis: This between-subjects study will recruit 208 males and females to complete a 7-day in-laboratory experimental protocol (1 Adaptation Day, 5 Experimental Days and 1 Recovery Day). Participants will be allocated to one of eight conditions that include all possible combinations of the following: dayshift or nightshift, sitting or breaking up sitting and 5 hour or 9 hour sleep opportunity. On arrival to the laboratory, participants will be provided with a 9 hour baseline sleep opportunity (22:00 to 07:00) and complete five simulated work shifts (09:00 to 17:30 in the dayshift condition and 22:00 to 06:30 in the nightshift condition) followed by a 9 hour recovery sleep opportunity (22:00 to 07:00). During the work shifts participants in the sitting condition will remain seated, while participants in the breaking up sitting condition will complete 3-min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30 mins on a motorised treadmill. Sleep opportunities will be 9 hour or 5 hour. Primary outcome measures include continuously measured interstitial blood glucose, heart rate and blood pressure, and a cognitive performance and self-perceived capacity testing battery completed five times per shift. Analyses will be conducted using linear mixed models.

Ethics And Dissemination: The CQUniversity Human Ethics Committee has approved this study (0000021914). All participants who have already completed the protocol have provided informed consent. Study findings will be disseminated via scientific publications and conference presentations.

Trial Registration Details: This study has been registered on Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (12619001516178) and is currently in the pre-results stage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7389768PMC
July 2020

Sleep hygiene in shift workers: A systematic literature review.

Sleep Med Rev 2020 10 20;53:101336. Epub 2020 May 20.

Appleton Institute, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Wayville, Adelaide, South Australia, 5034, Australia.

In response to demand for the '24/7' service availability, shift work has become increasingly common. Given their non-traditional working hours, shift workers sleep at non-traditional times, with significant research undertaken to understand shift worker sleep. However, sleep hygiene in shift workers has been paid little research attention. To investigate shift worker engagement with sleep hygiene, a systematic review using the databases Sage, ScienceDirect, and Scopus was undertaken. The search terms utilised were: shift work, shiftwork, shift-work, sleep hygiene, sleep routine, and sleep habit. Sixteen studies were included for review. Findings show that shift workers frequently report caffeine consumption and daytime napping, in line with best-practice fatigue-management strategies, but contrary to existing sleep hygiene recommendations. Shift workers also altered their bedroom environment to optimise sleep. Diet, exercise, alcohol and nicotine consumption were investigated minimally from a sleep hygiene perspective. Given that shift workers are engaging in practices in-line with current fatigue-management strategies, but contrary to sleep hygiene recommendations, further research is required. Specifically, assessment of the applicability of current sleep hygiene guidelines to shift workers (particularly caffeine and napping recommendations) is required, in addition to the development of shift work-specific sleep hygiene guidelines and interventions for this sleep-vulnerable population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101336DOI Listing
October 2020

Sleep hygiene in paramedics: What do they know and what do they do?

Sleep Health 2020 06 3;6(3):321-329. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, 44 Greenhill Road, Rockhampton, Wayville, Queensland 5034, Australia.

Objectives: Shift workers routinely obtain inadequate sleep, which has major health and wellbeing consequences. Sleep hygiene describes a range of behaviours, lifestyle and environmental factors that can support optimal sleep. To date, limited research has examined sleep hygiene in shift workers. This study aimed to 1) assess the knowledge and understanding of sleep hygiene amongst shift working paramedics, as well as its perceived impact on sleep, and 2) investigate paramedics' engagement with sleep hygiene practices.

Study Design: Participants completed an online, cross-sectional survey.

Participants: Queensland Ambulance Service paramedics (n = 184) who engage in shift work.

Measures: The online survey included questions from the Standard Shiftwork Index and Sleep Hygiene Index.

Results: Most participants reported little or no understanding or knowledge of 'sleep hygiene' as a concept. Participants reported that sleep scheduling and bedroom environment (temperature, light, and noise) were the most impactful on sleep. Few participants reported nicotine and alcohol consumption, or daytime napping, whereas caffeine consumption and mentally-stimulating bedtime activities were more common. Participants who were young, single, and worked varying shift types (day, afternoon, and night) as part of their regular rosters demonstrated less knowledge regarding sleep hygiene, and were more likely to be exhibiting poor sleep hygiene engagement.

Conclusions: Paramedics demonstrated a limited level of understanding of sleep hygiene as a concept, and varied knowledge about the impacts of individual sleep hygiene factors. Further, paramedics demonstrated varied engagement with individual sleep hygiene practices. Future research should focus on the development of sleep hygiene interventions to optimise sleep in paramedics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2020.04.001DOI Listing
June 2020

The effect of a short burst of exercise during the night on subsequent sleep.

J Sleep Res 2021 04 3;30(2):e13077. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

When on-call workers wake during the night to perform work duties, they may experience reduced alertness and impaired performance as a result of sleep inertia. After performing their duties, on-call workers may have the opportunity to return to sleep. Thus, it is important that sleep inertia countermeasures do not affect subsequent sleep. Exercise may be a suitable countermeasure; however, the impact on subsequent sleep is untested. Healthy participants (n = 15) completed three conditions in a counterbalanced order: sedentary, low-intensity exercise or high-intensity exercise, performed for 2 min upon awakening. Sleep was recorded 2 hr later using polysomnography, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was administered to measure subjective sleepiness, and core body temperature was measured continuously. Results indicate there was no effect of condition on most sleep variables; however, three variables had small differences, with longer total sleep time (p = .006), higher sleep efficiency (p = .006) and shorter N3 latency (p < .001) in the low-intensity exercise condition. There was no difference in subjective sleepiness (p = .124) or core body temperature (p = .216) 90 min after the exercise intervention. These results indicate that using a short burst of exercise to counteract sleep inertia when woken during the night may be a suitable countermeasure for on-call workers who not only need to be alert upon waking but also need quality sleep when returning to bed. Future research could include participants of other ages and health statuses to investigate whether the results are generalizable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13077DOI Listing
April 2021

Hot, Tired and Hungry: The Snacking Behaviour and Food Cravings of Firefighters During Multi-Day Simulated Wildfire Suppression.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 21;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Adelaide 5034, Australia.

Firefighters are exposed to numerous stressors during wildfire suppression, including working in hot temperatures and sleep restricted conditions. Research has shown that when sleep restricted, individuals choose foods higher in carbohydrates, fat, and sugar, and have increased cravings for calorie dense foods. However, there is currently no research on the combined effect of heat and sleep restriction on snacking behaviour. Conducting secondary analyses from a larger study, the current study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and sleep restriction on snacking behaviour and food cravings. Sixty-six firefighters completed three days of simulated physically demanding firefighting work and were randomly allocated to either the control ( = 18, CON; 19 °C, 8h sleep opportunity), sleep restricted ( = 16, SR; 19 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity), hot ( = 18, HOT; 33 °C, 8h sleep opportunity), or hot and sleep restricted ( = 14 HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. During rest periods firefighters were able to self-select sweet, savoury, or healthy snacks from a ration pack and were asked to rate their hunger, fullness, and cravings every two hours (eating block). Mixed model analyses revealed no difference in total energy intake between conditions, however there was a significant interaction between eating block and condition, with those in the CON, HOT, and HOT + SR condition consuming significantly more energy between 1230 and 1430 compared to the SR condition ( = 0.002). Sleep restriction and heat did not impact feelings of hunger and fullness across the day, and did not lead to greater cravings for snacks, with no differences between conditions. These findings suggest that under various simulated firefighting conditions, it is not the amount of food that differs but the timing of food intake, with those that are required to work in hot conditions while sleep restricted more likely to consume food between 1230 and 1430. This has potential implications for the time of day in which a greater amount of food should be available for firefighters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230571PMC
April 2020

Exercising Caution Upon Waking-Can Exercise Reduce Sleep Inertia?

Front Physiol 2020 7;11:254. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Appleton Institute, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Sleep inertia, the transitional state of reduced alertness and impaired cognitive performance upon waking, is a safety risk for on-call personnel who can be required to perform critical tasks soon after waking. Sleep inertia countermeasures have previously been investigated; however, none have successfully dissipated sleep inertia within the first 15 min following waking. During this time, on-call personnel could already be driving, providing advice, or performing other safety-critical tasks. Exercise has not yet been investigated as a sleep inertia countermeasure but has the potential to stimulate the key physiological mechanisms that occur upon waking, including changes in cerebral blood flow, the cortisol awakening response, and increases in core body temperature. Here, we examine these physiological processes and hypothesize how exercise can stimulate them, positioning exercise as an effective sleep inertia countermeasure. We then propose key considerations for research investigating the efficacy of exercise as a sleep inertia countermeasure, including the need to determine the intensity and duration of exercise required to reduce sleep inertia, as well as testing the effectiveness of exercise across a range of conditions in which the severity of sleep inertia may vary. Finally, practical considerations are identified, including the recommendation that qualitative field-based research be conducted with on-call personnel to determine the potential constraints in utilizing exercise as a sleep inertia countermeasure in real-world scenarios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155753PMC
April 2020

Effects of Diet on Sleep: A Narrative Review.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 27;12(4). Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Central Queensland University, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences and Appleton Institute, Brisbane 4000, Queensland, Australia.

Many processes are involved in sleep regulation, including the ingestion of nutrients, suggesting a link between diet and sleep. Aside from studies investigating the effects of tryptophan, previous research on sleep and diet has primarily focused on the effects of sleep deprivation or sleep restriction on diet. Furthermore, previous reviews have included subjects with clinically diagnosed sleep-related disorders. The current narrative review aimed to clarify findings on sleep-promoting foods and outline the effects of diet on sleep in otherwise healthy adults. A search was undertaken in August 2019 from the Cochrane, MEDLINE (PubMed), and CINAHL databases using the population, intervention, control, outcome (PICO) method. Eligible studies were classified based on emerging themes and reviewed using narrative synthesis. Four themes emerged: tryptophan consumption and tryptophan depletion, dietary supplements, food items, and macronutrients. High carbohydrate diets, and foods containing tryptophan, melatonin, and phytonutrients (e.g., cherries), were linked to improved sleep outcomes. The authors posit that these effects may be due in part to dietary influences on serotonin and melatonin activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12040936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230229PMC
March 2020

What Factors Influence the Sleep of On-call Workers?

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Mar-Apr;19(2):255-272. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University , Adelaide, Australia.

: On-call work is becoming increasingly common in response to service demands. This study had two aims; 1) describe the demographic profile of on-call workers in Australia, and 2) establish the impacts of on-call work on workers' sleep. : A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire completed by Australian on-call workers (n = 228) from various professions. The questionnaire included items on i) demographic and work characteristics, ii) rumination about on-call factors, iii) sleep quantity and quality. Analyses were conducted using mixed effects ordinal regression and multivariable logistic regression. : Workers slept <7 hours per night when on-call (80%), and reported sleep was impacted on-call even when no-calls were received (56%). On-call workers rated interruptions to family/leisure time (70%), missing a call (69%), preplanning in case of a call (69%), and not able to make plans (67%) as the main factors they ruminated about. Female on-call workers were more likely to think about the likelihood of being called, report frequent thoughts about what they would need to do if called, and think about interruptions to family/leisure time as a result of a call. Younger workers were more likely to think about the likelihood of being called compared to older adults, however middle-aged workers were less likely to plan for a call compared to younger workers. : This study is the first to describe Australia's on-call population, including factors that specifically impact sleep. Future studies should implement tailored education and support strategies to address the unique challenges facing on-call workers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2020.1733575DOI Listing
June 2021

The Impact of Self-Reported Sleep Quantity on Perceived Decision-Making in Sports Officials During a Competitive Season.

Res Q Exerc Sport 2021 Mar 25;92(1):156-169. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Central Queensland University.

: While sleep research in athletes is extensive, no research has investigated sleep in sports officials during a competitive season. This study explored the (a) self-reported quantity and quality of sleep obtained by sports officials according to the time of competition (day or evening) and (b) impact of reduced sleep on perceived decision-making ability. : Sports officials (n = 371) from various sporting codes completed an online questionnaire that evaluated self-reported sleep quantity and quality on habitual nights, before competition, and after competition, as well as perceived decision-making constructs. : With sleep restriction defined as less than 7 h of sleep, mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that the estimated probability of reporting reduced sleep quantity increased (< .05) on habitual nights (0.58), before competition (0.48), and after competition (0.56). The estimated probability of reporting poor sleep quality was 0.01-0.04 across all nights. When considering time of competition (day or evening), reduced sleep quantity was experienced after evening competition (odds ratio [OR] = 3.33, < .05), while poorer sleep quality (< .05) was experienced following day (OR = 2.1) and evening (OR = 12.46) competition compared to habitual nights. Furthermore, the impact of reduced sleep on perceived decision-making constructs was negative, with the estimated probability of reporting impaired perceived decision-making between 0.13 and 0.21. : Overall, sports officials are vulnerable to reduced quantity and quality of sleep before and after competition, with impaired perceived decision-making ability following nights of less than average sleep.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2020.1722309DOI Listing
March 2021

The Impact of Training Load on Sleep During a 14-Day Training Camp in Elite, Adolescent, Female Basketball Players

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2020 05 1;15(5):724-730. Epub 2020 May 1.

Purpose: To quantify the sleep/wake behaviors of adolescent, female basketball players and to examine the impact of daily training load on sleep/wake behaviors during a 14-day training camp.

Methods: Elite, adolescent, female basketball players (N = 11) had their sleep/wake behaviors monitored using self-report sleep diaries and wrist-worn activity monitors during a 14-day training camp. Each day, players completed 1 to 5 training sessions (session duration: 114 [54] min). Training load was determined using the session rating of perceived exertion model in arbitrary units. Daily training loads were summated across sessions on each day and split into tertiles corresponding to low, moderate, and high training load categories, with rest days included as a separate category. Separate linear mixed models and effect size analyses were conducted to assess differences in sleep/wake behaviors among daily training load categories.

Results: Sleep onset and offset times were delayed (P < .05) on rest days compared with training days. Time in bed and total sleep time were longer (P < .05) on rest days compared with training days. Players did not obtain the recommended 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night on training days. A moderate increase in sleep efficiency was evident during days with high training loads compared with low.

Conclusions: Elite, adolescent, female basketball players did not consistently meet the sleep duration recommendations of 8 to 10 hours per night during a 14-day training camp. Rest days delayed sleep onset and offset times, resulting in longer sleep durations compared with training days. Sleep/wake behaviors were not impacted by variations in the training load administered to players.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0157DOI Listing
May 2020

Controversies in the Science of Sedentary Behaviour and Health: Insights, Perspectives and Future directions from the 2018 Queensland Sedentary Behaviour Think Tank.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 11 27;16(23). Epub 2019 Nov 27.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Wayville, SA 5034, Australia.

The development in research concerning sedentary behaviour has been rapid over the past two decades. This has led to the development of evidence and views that have become more advanced, diverse and, possibly, contentious. These include the effects of standing, the breaking up of prolonged sitting and the role of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the association between sedentary behaviour and health outcomes. The present aim is to report the views of experts (n = 21) brought together (one-day face-to-face meeting in 2018) to consider these issues and provide conclusions and recommendations for future work. Each topic was reviewed and presented by one expert followed by full group discussion, which was recorded, transcribed and analysed. The experts concluded that (a). standing may bring benefits that accrue from postural shifts. Prolonged (mainly static) standing and prolonged sitting are both bad for health; (b). 'the best posture is the next posture'. Regularly breaking up of sitting with postural shifts and movement is vital; (c). health effects of prolonged sitting are evident even after controlling for MVPA, but high levels of MVPA can attenuate the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting depending on the health outcome of interest. Expert discussion addressed measurement, messaging and future directions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926563PMC
November 2019

Research Combining Physical Activity and Sleep: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Percept Mot Skills 2020 02 25;127(1):154-181. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0031512519889780DOI Listing
February 2020

Exercise before bed does not impact sleep inertia in young healthy males.

J Sleep Res 2020 06 17;29(3):e12903. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Sleep inertia is the transitional state marked by impaired cognitive performance and reduced vigilance upon waking. Exercising before bed may increase the amount of slow-wave sleep within the sleep period, which has previously been associated with increased sleep inertia. Healthy males (n = 12) spent 3 nights in a sleep laboratory (1-night washout period between each night) and completed one of the three conditions on each visit - no exercise, aerobic exercise (30 min cycling at 75% heart rate), and resistance exercise (six resistance exercises, three sets of 10 repetitions). The exercise conditions were completed 90 min prior to bed. Sleep was measured using polysomnography. Upon waking, participants completed five test batteries every 15 min, including the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, a Psychomotor Vigilance Task, and the Spatial Configuration Task. Two separate linear mixed-effects models were used to assess: (a) the impact of condition; and (b) the amount of slow-wave sleep, on sleep inertia. There were no significant differences in sleep inertia between conditions, likely as a result of the similar sleep amount, sleep structure and time of awakening between conditions. The amount of slow-wave sleep impacted fastest 10% reciprocal reaction time on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task only, whereby more slow-wave sleep improved performance; however, the magnitude of this relationship was small. Results from this study suggest that exercise performed 90 min before bed does not negatively impact on sleep inertia. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity, duration and timing on sleep and subsequent sleep inertia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12903DOI Listing
June 2020

The impact of anticipating a stressful task on sleep inertia when on-call.

Appl Ergon 2020 Jan 31;82:102942. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Central Queensland University, Appleton Institute, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Wayville, Adelaide, Australia.

Sleep inertia, the state of reduced alertness upon waking, can negatively impact on-call workers. Anticipation of a stressful task on sleep inertia, while on-call was investigated. Young, healthy males (n = 23) spent an adaptation, control and two counterbalanced on-call nights in the laboratory. When on-call, participants were told they would be woken to a high or low stress task. Participants were not woken during the night, instead were given a 2300-0700 sleep opportunity. Participants slept ∼7.5-h in all conditions. Upon waking, sleep inertia was quantified using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Psychomotor Vigilance and Spatial Configuration Tasks, administered at 15-min intervals. Compared to control, participants felt sleepier post waking when on-call and sleepiest in the low stress compared to the high stress condition (p < .001). Spatial performance was faster when on-call compared to control (p < .001). Findings suggest that anticipating a high-stress task when on-call, does not impact sleep inertia severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.102942DOI Listing
January 2020

Overnight heart rate variability and next day cortisol response during simulated on-call conditions.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 11 17;109:104406. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Central Queensland University, Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Objective: This study had two specific objectives, 1) to investigate the impact of being on-call on overnight heart rate variability during sleep and; 2) to examine whether being on-call overnight impacted next-day salivary cortisol concentrations.

Methods: Data are reported from three within-subject laboratory studies (n = 24 in each study) that assessed varying on-call conditions. Healthy male participants (n = 72 total) completed a four-night laboratory protocol, comprising an adaptation night, a control night, and two counterbalanced on-call nights with varying on-call conditions. These on-call conditions were designed to determine the impact of, Study 1: the likelihood of receiving a call (definitely, maybe), Study 2: task stress (high-stress, low-stress), and Study 3: chance of missing the alarm (high-chance, low-chance), on measures of physiological stress. Overnight heart rate variability (HRV) (during sleep) was measured using two-lead electrocardiography, and time- and frequency-domain variables were analysed. Saliva samples were collected at 15-min time intervals from 0700-0800 h to determine cortisol awakening response outcomes and at four daily time points (0930 h, 1230 h, 1430 h, and 1730 h) to assess diurnal cortisol profiles.

Results: There were few differences in HRV measures during sleep across all three studies. The only exception was in Study 1 where the standard deviation of the time interval between consecutive heartbeats and the root mean square of consecutive differences between heartbeats were lower across all sleep stages in the definitely condition, when compared to control. Across all three studies, being on-call overnight also had little impact on next-day cortisol awakening response (CAR), with the exception of Study 2 where the 1) CAR area under the curve with respect to increase was blunted in the high-stress condition, compared to the control and low-stress conditions and, 2) CAR reactivity was higher in low-stress condition, compared with the high-stress condition. In Study 1, diurnal cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground was lower in the on-call conditions (definitely and maybe) when compared to control. There were no differences in diurnal cortisol measures in Study 3.

Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate how different aspects of being on-call affect physiological stress responses. Overall, relatively little differences in measures of overnight heart rate variability and next-day cortisol response were recorded in all three studies. Further research utilising real on-call work tasks, not just on-call expectations (as in the current study) will help determine the impact of on-call work on the physiological stress response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.104406DOI Listing
November 2019

The effects of hydration on cognitive performance during a simulated wildfire suppression shift in temperate and hot conditions.

Appl Ergon 2019 May 10;77:9-15. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

The effects on dehydration and cognitive performance from heat and/or physical activity are well established in the laboratory, although have not yet been studied for personnel working in occupations such as wildland firefighting regularly exposed to these types of conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of temperature and dehydration on seventy-three volunteer firefighters (35.7 ± 13.7 years, mean ± standard deviation) during a simulation of wildfire suppression under either control or hot (18-20; or 33-35 °C) temperature conditions. Results showed cognitive performance on the psychomotor vigilance task declined when participants were dehydrated in the heat and Stroop task performance was impaired when dehydrated late in the afternoon. Firefighters may be at risk of deteriorations in simple cognitive functions in the heat whilst dehydrated, although may also experience impairments in complex cognitive functions if dehydrated late in the day, irrespective of the environmental temperature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.12.018DOI Listing
May 2019
-->