Publications by authors named "Grace A Ayoo"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Compensatory responses to increased mechanical abnormalities in COPD during sleep.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2022 Jan 16. Epub 2022 Jan 16.

Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Purpose: To assess whether night-time increases in mechanical loading negatively impact respiratory muscle function in COPD and whether compensatory increases in inspiratory neural drive (IND) are adequate to stabilize ventilatory output and arterial oxygen saturation, especially during sleep when wakefulness drive is withdrawn.

Methods: 21 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and 20 age-/sex-matched healthy controls (CTRL) participated in a prospective, cross-sectional, one-night study to assess the impact of COPD on serial awake, supine inspiratory capacity (IC) measurements and continuous dynamic respiratory muscle function (esophageal manometry) and IND (diaphragm electromyography, EMGdi) in supine sleep.

Results: Supine inspiratory effort and EMGdi were consistently twice as high in COPD versus CTRL (p < 0.05). Despite overnight increases in awake total airways resistance and dynamic lung hyperinflation in COPD (p < 0.05; not in CTRL), elevated awake EMGdi and respiratory effort were unaltered in COPD overnight. At sleep onset (non-rapid eye movement sleep, N2), EMGdi was decreased versus wakefulness in COPD (- 43 ± 36%; p < 0.05) while unaffected in CTRL (p = 0.11); however, respiratory effort and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO) were unchanged. Similarly, in rapid eye movement (stage R), sleep EMGdi was decreased (- 38 ± 32%, p < 0.05) versus wakefulness in COPD, with preserved respiratory effort and minor (2%) reduction in SpO.

Conclusions: Despite progressive mechanical loading overnight and marked decreases in wakefulness drive, inspiratory effort and SpO were well maintained during sleep in COPD. Preserved high inspiratory effort during sleep, despite reduced EMGdi, suggests continued (or increased) efferent activation of extra-diaphragmatic muscles, even in stage R sleep.

Clinical Trial Information: The COPD data reported herein were secondary data (Placebo arm only) obtained through the following Clinical Trial: "Effect of Aclidinium/Formoterol on Nighttime Lung Function and Morning Symptoms in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease" ( ; NCT02429765).
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January 2022

Deterioration of Nighttime Respiratory Mechanics in COPD: Impact of Bronchodilator Therapy.

Chest 2021 01 27;159(1):116-127. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada; Division of Respiratory Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: COPD is associated with nighttime respiratory symptoms, poor sleep quality, and increased risk of nocturnal death. Overnight deterioration of inspiratory capacity (IC) and FEV have been documented previously. However, the precise nature of this deterioration and mechanisms by which evening bronchodilation may mitigate this occurrence have not been studied.

Research Question: What is the effect of evening dosing of dual, long-acting bronchodilation on detailed nocturnal respiratory mechanics and inspiratory neural drive (IND)?

Study Design And Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study assessed the effects of evening long-acting bronchodilation (aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate: 400/12 μg) or placebo on morning trough IC (12 h after the dose; primary outcome) and serial overnight measurements of spirometry, dynamic respiratory mechanics, and IND (secondary outcomes). Twenty participants with COPD (moderate/severe airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation) underwent serial measurements of IC, spirometry, breathing pattern, esophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressures, and diaphragm electromyography (diaphragmatic electromyography as a percentage of maximum; IND) at 6 time points from 0 to 12 h after the dose and compared with sleeping IND.

Results: Compared with placebo, evening bronchodilation was not associated with increased morning trough IC 12 h after the dose (P = .48); however, nadir IC (lowest IC, independent of time), peak IC, area under the curve for 12 h after the dose, and IC for 10 h after the dose were improved (P < .05). During placebo, total airways resistance, lung hyperinflation, IND, and tidal esophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings all increased significantly overnight compared with baseline evening values; however, each of these parameters improved with bronchodilator treatment (P < .05) with no change in ventilation or breathing pattern.

Interpretation: Respiratory mechanics significantly deteriorated at night during placebo. Although the morning trough IC was unchanged, evening bronchodilator treatment was associated consistently with sustained overnight improvements in dynamic respiratory mechanics and inspiratory neural drive compared with placebo CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: identifier NCT02429765.
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January 2021