Publications by authors named "Grégoire Boulouis"

140 Publications

Mortality and functional outcome after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage: cohort study and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Apr 9:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

1Service d'imagerie Morphologique et Fonctionnelle, GHU Paris Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Hospitalier Sainte Anne, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris, UMR_S1266, INSERM, Université de Paris.

Objective: The clinical outcome of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH) is rarely reported in a comprehensive way. In this cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis of patients with pICH, the authors aimed to describe the basic clinical outcomes of pICH.

Methods: Children who received treatment for pICH at the authors' institution were prospectively enrolled in the cohort in 2008; data since 2000 were retrospectively included, and data through October 2019 were analyzed. The authors then searched PubMed and conducted a systematic review of relevant articles published since 1990. Data from the identified populations and patients from the cohort study were pooled into a multicategory meta-analysis and analyzed with regard to clinical outcomes.

Results: Among 243 children screened for inclusion, 231 patients were included. The median (IQR) age at ictus was 9.6 (4.6-12.5) years, and 128 patients (53%) were male. After a median (IQR) follow-up of 33 (13-63) months, 132 patients (57.4%) had a favorable clinical outcome, of whom 58 (44%) had no residual symptoms. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the proportion of children with complete recovery was 27% (95% CI 19%-36%; Q = 49.6; I2 = 76%); of those with residual deficits, the complete recovery rate was 48.1% (95% CI 40%-57%; Q = 75.3; I2 = 81%). When pooled with the cohort study, the aggregate case-fatality rate at the last follow-up was 17.3% (95% CI 12%-24%; Q = 101.6; I2 = 81%).

Conclusions: Here, the authors showed that 1 in 6 children died after pICH, and the majority of children had residual neurological deficits at the latest follow-up. Results from the cohort study also indicate that children with vascular lesions as the etiology of pICH had significantly better clinical functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.PEDS20608DOI Listing
April 2021

Neuroimaging of Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 5;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

ASST Valcamonica, UOSD Neurology, Esine (BS), 25040 Brescia, Italy.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% to 20% of all strokes worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Neuroimaging is clinically important for the rapid diagnosis of ICH and underlying etiologies, but also for identification of ICH expansion, often as-sociated with an increased risk for poor outcome. In this context, rapid assessment of early hema-toma expansion risk is both an opportunity for therapeutic intervention and a potential hazard for hematoma evacuation surgery. In this review, we provide an overview of the current literature surrounding the use of multimodal neuroimaging of ICH for etiological diagnosis, prediction of early hematoma expansion, and prognostication of neurological outcome. Specifically, we discuss standard imaging using computed tomography, the value of different vascular imaging modalities to identify underlying causes and present recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography perfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962049PMC
March 2021

Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage With Unclear Onset.

Neurology 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

J.P Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital Stroke Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To investigatethe prevalence, predictors and prognostic impact of hematoma expansion (HE) inintracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients with unclear symptom onset (USO).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with primary spontaneous ICH admitted at 5 academic medical centers in USA and Italy.HE (volume increase >6 mL and/or >33% from baseline to follow-up non-contrast CT [NCCT]) and mortality at 30 days were the outcomes of interest. Baseline NCCT was also analyzed for presence of hypodensities (any hypodense region within the hematoma margins). Predictors of HE and mortality were explored with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: We enrolled 2,165 subjects, 1,022 in the development cohort and 1,143 in the replication cohort, of whom 352 (34.4%) and 407 (35.6%) had ICH with USO respectively. When compared with subjects having a clear symptom onset, USO patients had a similar frequency of HE (25.0% vs 21.9%, = 0.269 and 29.9% vs 31.5%, = 0.423). Among USO patients, HE was independently associated with mortality after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR] 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-4.89, = 0.002). This finding wassimilar in the replication cohort (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.86-6.44, < 0.001). The presence of NCCT hypodensities in USO subjects was an independent predictor of HE in the development (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27-5.28, = 0.009) and replication (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.42-4.17, = 0.001) population.

Conclusion: HE is common in USO patients and independently associated with worse outcome. These findings suggest that USO patients may be enrolled in clinical trials on medical treatments targeting HE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011895DOI Listing
April 2021

Interventional Neuroradiology Trainee-led Research Collaborative JENI, moving forward.

J Neuroradiol 2021 Mar 27;48(2):137-138. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Neuroradiology Department, Regional University Hospital of Tours, Tours France, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2021.01.007DOI Listing
March 2021

Acute surgical management of children with ruptured brain arteriovenous malformation.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jan 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

1APHP, Necker Hospital.

Objective: Rupture of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is the main etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in children. Ensuing intracranial hypertension is among the modifiable prognosis factors and sometimes requires emergency hemorrhage evacuation (HE). The authors aimed to analyze variables associated with HE in children with ruptured AVM.

Methods: This study was a single-center retrospective analysis of children treated for ruptured AVM. The authors evaluated the occurrence of HE, its association with other acute surgical procedures (e.g., nidal excision, decompressive hemicraniectomy), and clinical outcome. Variables associated with each intervention were analyzed using univariable and multivariable models. Clinical outcome was assessed at 18 months using the ordinal King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury.

Results: A total of 104 patients were treated for 112 episodes of ruptured AVM between 2002 and 2018. In the 51 children (45.5% of cases) who underwent HE, 37 procedures were performed early (i.e., within 24 hours after initial cerebral imaging) and 14 late. Determinants of HE were a lower initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.97 per point increase); higher ICH/brain volume ratio (aOR 18.6, 95% CI 13-26.5 per percent increase); superficial AVM location; and the presence of a brain herniation (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.4). Concurrent nidal surgery was acutely performed in 69% of Spetzler-Martin grade I-II ruptured AVMs and in 25% of Spetzler-Martin grade III lesions. Factors associated with nidal surgery were superficial AVMs, late HE, and absent alteration of consciousness at presentation. Only 8 cases required additional surgery due to intracranial hypertension. At 18 months, overall mortality was less than 4%, 58% of patients had a favorable outcome regardless of surgical intervention, and 87% were functioning independently.

Conclusions: HE is a lifesaving procedure performed in approximately half of the children who suffer AVM rupture. The good overall outcome justifies intensive initial management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.PEDS20479DOI Listing
January 2021

Hemorrhage Expansion After Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2021 Jan 11;52(2):588-594. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

GHU Paris Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Hospitalier Sainte Anne, Service d'imagerie Morphologique et Fonctionnelle, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris, Unité mixte de recherche S1266, Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale, Université de Paris, Paris, France (G.B., J.-F.H., B.K., F.G., L.G., O.N.).

Background And Purpose: Significant hemorrhage expansion (sHE) is a known predictor of poor outcome after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in adults but remains poorly reported in children. In a large inception cohort, we aimed to explore the prevalence of sHE, its associations with clinical outcomes, and its clinical-imaging predictors in children.

Methods: Children admitted between January 2000 and March 2020 at a quaternary care pediatric hospital were screened for inclusion. Sample was restricted to children with 2 computed tomography scans within 72 hours of ICH onset, and a minimal clinical follow-up of months. sHE was defined as an increase from baseline ICH volume by 6 cc or 33% on follow-up computed tomography. Clinical outcome was assessed at 12 months with the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury score and defined as favorable for scores ≥5.

Results: Fifty-two children met inclusion criteria, among which 8 (15%) demonstrated sHE, and 18 (34.6%) any degree of expansion. Children with sHE had more frequent coagulation disorders (25.0% versus 2.3%; =0.022). After multivariable adjustment, only the presence of coagulation disorders at baseline remained independently associated with sHE (adjusted odds ratio, 14.4 [95% CI, 1.04-217]; =0.048). sHE was independently associated with poor outcome (King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury <5A, odds ratio, 5.77 [95% CI, 1.01-38.95]; =0.043).

Conclusions: sHE is a frequent phenomenon after admission for a pediatric ICH and more so in children with coagulation defects. As sHE was strongly associated with poorer clinical outcomes, these data mandate a baseline coagulation work up and questions the need for protocolized repeat head computed tomography in children admitted for pediatric ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030592DOI Listing
January 2021

Tenecteplase vs Alteplase Before Endovascular Therapy in Basilar Artery Occlusion.

Neurology 2021 03 6;96(9):e1272-e1277. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

From the Department of Medicine and Neurology (F. Alemseged, G.S., L.C., B.Y., M.W.P., S.M.D., P.J.M., N.Y. B.C.V.C.), University of Melbourne, and Department of Radiology (C.W., S.B., R.D.), Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia; Stroke Unit (F. Alemseged, A.R., F.S., M.D.) and Department of Biomedicine and Prevention (F.D.), University Hospital of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Department of Neurology (F.C.N.), Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology (V.P.), Institute of Neuroradiology (D.K.), and Dresden Neurovascular Center (V.P., D.K.), University of Technology Dresden, Germany; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), Sainte-Anne-Hospital, Paris, France; Department of Neurology (T.J.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia; Department of Neurology (T.Y.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Division of Medicine (D.S.), Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; NEUROFARBA Department (F. Arba), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; ASST Valcamonica (A.M.), Department of Neurology, Esine, Italy; Department of Neurosciences (H.M.D.), Eastern Health, Melbourne; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Gold Coast University Hospital, Queensland; Department of Neurology (B.O.), Gosford Hospital, New South Wales; and Population Health and Immunity Division (N.Y.), The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of tenecteplase (TNK), a genetically modified variant of alteplase with greater fibrin specificity and longer half-life than alteplase, prior to endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in patients with basilar artery occlusion (BAO).

Methods: To determine whether TNK is associated with better reperfusion rates than alteplase prior to EVT in BAO, clinical and procedural data of consecutive patients with BAO from the Basilar Artery Treatment and Management (BATMAN) registry and the Tenecteplase vs Alteplase before Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke (EXTEND-IA TNK) trial were retrospectively analyzed. Reperfusion >50% or absence of retrievable thrombus at the time of the initial angiogram was evaluated.

Results: We included 110 patients with BAO treated with IV thrombolysis prior to EVT (mean age 69 [SD 14] years; median NIH Stroke Scale score 16 [interquartile range (IQR) 7-32]). Nineteen patients were thrombolysed with TNK (0.25 mg/kg or 0.40 mg/kg) and 91 with alteplase (0.9 mg/kg). Reperfusion >50% occurred in 26% (n = 5/19) of patients thrombolysed with TNK vs 7% (n = 6/91) thrombolysed with alteplase (risk ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-12; = 0.02), despite shorter thrombolysis to arterial puncture time in the TNK-treated patients (48 [IQR 40-71] minutes) vs alteplase-treated patients (110 [IQR 51-185] minutes; = 0.004). No difference in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was observed (0/19 [0%] TNK, 1/91 [1%] alteplase; = 0.9).

Conclusions: TNK may be associated with an increased rate of reperfusion in comparison with alteplase before EVT in BAO. Randomized controlled trials to compare TNK with alteplase in patients with BAO are warranted.

Clinicaltrialsgov Identifiers: NCT02388061 and NCT03340493.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that TNK leads to higher reperfusion rates in comparison with alteplase prior to EVT in patients with BAO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011520DOI Listing
March 2021

Etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage in children: cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jan 1:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

1Service d'imagerie Morphologique et Fonctionnelle, GHU Paris Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Hospitalier Sainte Anne, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris (IPNP), UMR_S1266, INSERM, Université de Paris.

Objective: Understanding the etiological spectrum of nontraumatic pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH) is key to the diagnostic workup and care pathway. The authors aimed to evaluate the etiological spectrum of diseases underlying pICH.

Methods: Children treated at the authors' institution for a pICH were included in an inception cohort initiated in 2008 and retrospectively inclusive to 2000, which was analyzed in October 2019. They then conducted a systematic review of relevant articles in PubMed published between 1990 and 2019, identifying cohorts with pICH. Identified populations and patients from the authors' cohort were pooled in a multicategory meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 243 children with pICH were analyzed in the cohort study. The final primary diagnosis was an intracranial vascular lesion in 190 patients (78.2%), a complication of a cardiac disease in 17 (7.0%), and a coagulation disorder in 14 (5.8%). Hematological and cardiological etiologies were disproportionately more frequent in children younger than 2 years (p < 0.001). The systematic review identified 1309 children in 23 relevant records pooled in the meta-analysis. Overall, there was significant heterogeneity. The dominant etiology was vascular lesion, with an aggregate prevalence of 0.59 (95% CI 0.45-0.64; p < 0.001, Q = 302.8, I2 = 92%). In 18 studies reporting a detailed etiological spectrum, arteriovenous malformation was the dominant etiology (68.3% [95% CI 64.2%-70.9%] of all vascular causes), followed by cavernoma (15.7% [95% CI 13.0%-18.2%]).

Conclusions: The most frequent etiology of pICH is brain arteriovenous malformation. The probability of an underlying vascular etiology increases with age, and, conversely, hematological and cardiac causes are dominant causes in children younger than 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.PEDS20447DOI Listing
January 2021

Hyperacute Recanalization Strategies and Childhood Stroke in the Evidence Age.

Stroke 2021 01 22;52(1):381-384. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, CHU Saint-Étienne, CH Sainte-Anne, French Center for Pediatric Stroke, France (S.C., A.O., O.N., G.B., B.H., M.K.).

No controlled pharmacological studies are available in the field of pediatric stroke, except for sickle cell disease. Therefore, while pharmacological and mechanical recanalization treatments have repeatedly shown clinical benefit in adults with arterial ischemic stroke, pediatric strokologists still cannot base their therapeutic management (including hyperacute strategies) on high-level evidence. Once again, pediatricians face the same dichotomic choice: adapting adult procedures now versus waiting-for a long time-for the corresponding pediatric trials. One way out is building a compromise based on observational studies with large, longitudinal, comprehensive, real-life, and multisource dataset. Two recent high-quality observational studies have delivered promising conclusions on recanalization treatments in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. TIPSTER (Thrombolysis in Pediatric Stroke Extended Results) showed that the risk of severe intracranial hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis is low; the Save Childs Study reported encouraging data about pediatric thrombectomy. Beyond the conclusion of a satisfactory global safety profile, a thorough analysis of the methods, populations, results, and therapeutic complications of these studies helps us to refine indications/contraindications and highlights the safeguards we need to rely on when discussing thrombolysis and thrombectomy in children. In conclusion, pediatric strokologists should not refrain from using clot lysis/retrieval tools in selected children with arterial ischemic stroke. But the implementation of hyperacute care is only feasible if the right candidate is identified through the sharing of common adult/pediatric protocols and ward collaboration, formalized well before the child's arrival. These anticipated protocols should never undervalue contraindications from adult guidelines and must involve the necessary pediatric expertise when facing specific causes of stroke, such as focal cerebral arteriopathy of childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031133DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-term functional decline of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage survivors.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Mar 25;92(3):249-254. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Neurology, University of Lille, Lille, Hauts-de-France, France.

Objective: To identify in patients who survived 6 months after a spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) baseline characteristics and new clinical events associated with functional decline.

Methods: In a single-centre study, we prospectively included 6-month survivors with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-3. We defined functional decline by a transition to mRS 4-5. We evaluated associations of baseline characteristics and new clinical events with functional decline, using univariate and multivariable models.

Results: Of 560 patients, 174 (31%) had an mRS score 0-3 at 6 months. During a median follow-up of 9 years (IQR 8.1-9.5), 40 (23%) converted to mRS 4-5. Age, diabetes mellitus, ICH volume and higher mRS scores at 6 months were independently associated with functional decline. Among baseline MRI markers, presence of strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and mixed lobar and deep CMBs were independently associated with functional decline. When new clinical events occurring during follow-up were added in multivariable models, age (cause-specific HR (CSHR): 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.11), ICH volume (CSHR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06), mRS score at 6 months (CSHR per 1 point increase 1.61, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.43), occurrence of dementia (CSHR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.78 to 8.16) and occurrence of any stroke (CSHR: 4.29, 95% CI: 1.80 to 10.22) remained independently associated with transition to mRS 4-5.

Interpretation: Almost one-fourth of patients with spontaneous ICH developed a functional decline over time. Age, ICH volume, higher mRS score at 6 months and new clinical events after ICH are the major determinants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-324741DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Cognitive Decline After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Neurology 2021 01 16;96(2):e182-e192. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

From U 1172-LilNCog-Lille Neuroscience and Cognition (M.P.), Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, France; Department of Neurology (M.P., L.S., L.X., A.C., T.P., S.S., C.K., K.S., S.M.G., C.D.A., M.E.G., J.R., A.V., A.B.), Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program (L.S., A.C., S.M.G., C.D.A., M.E.G., J.R., A.V., A.B.), and Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health (C.K., C.D.A., J.R., A.B.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neuroradiology (G.B.), Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Université Paris-Descartes, INSERM UMR 894, Paris, France; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine (T.P.), Chulalongkorn University; and Chulalongkorn Stroke Center (T.P.), King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: To determine whether MRI-based cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) burden assessment, in addition to clinical and CT data, improved prediction of cognitive impairment after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods: We analyzed data from ICH survivors enrolled in a single-center prospective study. We employed 3 validated CSVD burden scores: global, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-specific, and hypertensive arteriopathy (HTNA)-specific. We quantified cognitive performance by administering the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test. We utilized linear mixed models to model cognitive decline rates, and survival models for new-onset dementia. We calculated CSVD scores' cutoffs to maximize predictive performance for dementia diagnosis.

Results: We enrolled 612 ICH survivors, and followed them for a median of 46.3 months (interquartile range 35.5-58.7). A total of 214/612 (35%) participants developed dementia. Higher global CSVD scores at baseline were associated with faster cognitive decline (coefficient -0.25, standard error [SE] 0.02) and dementia risk (sub-hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.65). The global score outperformed the CAA and HTNA scores in predicting post-ICH dementia (all < 0.05). Compared to a model including readily available clinical and CT data, inclusion of the global CSVD score resulted in improved prediction of post-ICH dementia (area under the curve [AUC] 0.89, SE 0.02 vs AUC 0.81, SE 0.03, = 0.008 for comparison). Global CSVD scores ≥2 had highest sensitivity (83%) and specificity (91%) for dementia diagnosis.

Conclusions: A validated MRI-based CSVD score is associated with cognitive performance after ICH and improved diagnostic accuracy for predicting new onset of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905779PMC
January 2021

Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b Reperfusions: To Treat or to Stop?

Stroke 2020 11 30;51(11):3461-3471. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Neurology (T.R.M., U.F.), University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, University of Bern, Switzerland.

In patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy, achieving complete (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 3) rather than incomplete successful reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b) is associated with better functional outcome. Despite technical improvements, incomplete reperfusion remains the final angiographic result in 40% of patients according to recent trials. As most incomplete reperfusions are caused by distal vessel occlusions, they are potentially amenable to rescue strategies. While observational data suggest a net benefit of up to 20% in functional independence of incomplete versus complete reperfusions, the net benefit of secondary improvement from Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 reperfusion might differ due to lengthier procedures and delayed reperfusion. Current strategies to tackle distal vessel occlusions consist of distal (microcatheter) aspiration, small adjustable stent retrievers, and administration of intra-arterial thrombolytics. While there are promising reports evaluating those techniques, all available studies show relevant limitations in terms of selection bias, single-center design, or nonconsecutive patient inclusion. Besides an assessment of risks associated with rescue maneuvers, we advocate that the decision-making process should also include a consideration of potential outcomes if complete reperfusion would successfully be achieved. These include (1) a futile angiographic improvement (hypoperfused territory is already infarcted), (2) an unnecessary angiographic improvement (the patient would not have developed infarction if no rescue maneuver was performed), and (3) a successful rescue maneuver with clinical benefit. Currently there is paucity of data on how these scenarios can be predicted and the decision whether to treat or to stop in a patient with incomplete reperfusion involves many unknowns. To advance the status quo, we outline current knowledge gaps and avenues of potential research regarding this clinically important question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030157DOI Listing
November 2020

Vessel wall MR imaging for the detection of intracranial inflammatory vasculopathies.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2020 Aug;10(4):1108-1119

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Intracranial vasculopathies are routinely investigated by lumen-based modalities such as magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). These techniques are useful to analyze the vessel lumen, allowing to detect vessel stenosis or occlusion. However, the primum movins of the disease, i.e., an abnormal thickening of the vessel wall, remains within the arterial wall. The vasculopathy can moreover be present without always narrowing the lumen or modifying its regularity. Hence, there is a need to detect directly and analyze vessel wall abnormalities. Development of 3D high-resolution black blood sequences for intracranial vessel wall MR imaging (VW-MRI) enabled routine clinical applications not only vasculitis, but also of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD), intracranial dissections, reversible intracranial dissections, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), Moyamoya disease, and intracranial aneurysms. This high-resolution intracranial VW- MRI approach is increasingly used on a clinical basis at many centers to solve diagnostic problems, especially in patients with ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage. An expert consensus Guideline from the American Society of Neuroradiology provides recommendations for clinical implementation of intracranial vessel wall MRI. There are several technical aspects needed to be considered when implementing VW-MRI in intracranial vessels, including flow suppression, both in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this article, we review the technical aspects of VW-MRI, and recommend applications for vascular diseases including non-occlusive intracranial vasculopathies, Moyamoya disease, and identifying culprit plaques. We also give a focus on the utility of VW-MRI for determining stroke etiology in adults and in children and young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt-20-324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487407PMC
August 2020

Effect of Pre- and In-Hospital Delay on Reperfusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke Mechanical Thrombectomy.

Stroke 2020 10 16;51(10):2934-2942. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Neurology (B.M., T.R.M., M.G., M.A., U.F.), University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Background And Purpose: Post hoc analyses of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating mechanical thrombectomy have suggested that admission-to-groin-puncture (ATG) delays are associated with reduced reperfusion rates. Purpose of this analysis was to validate this association in a real-world cohort and to find associated factors and confounders for prolonged ATG intervals.

Methods: Patients included into the BEYOND-SWIFT cohort (Bernese-European Registry for Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated Outside Current Guidelines With Neurothrombectomy Devices Using the Solitaire FR With the Intention for Thrombectomy; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03496064) were analyzed (n=2386). Association between baseline characteristics and ATG was evaluated using mixed linear regression analysis. The effect of increasing symptom-onset-to-admission and ATG intervals on successful reperfusion (defined as Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction [TICI] 2b-3) was evaluated using logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Median ATG was 73 minutes. Prolonged ATG intervals were associated with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (+19.1 [95% CI, +9.1 to +29.1] minutes), general anesthesia (+12.1 [95% CI, +3.7 to +20.4] minutes), and borderline indication criteria, such as lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, late presentations, or not meeting top-tier early time window eligibility criteria (+13.8 [95% CI, +6.1 to +21.6] minutes). There was a 13% relative odds reduction for TICI 2b-3 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.96]) and TICI 2c/3 (aOR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]) per hour ATG delay, while the reduction of TICI 2b-3 per hour increase symptom-onset-to-admission was minor (aOR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.94-0.99]) and inconsistent regarding TICI 2c/3 (aOR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.97-1.02]). After adjusting for identified factors associated with prolonged ATG intervals, the association of ATG delay and lower rates of TICI 2b-3 remained tangible (aOR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.76-0.99]).

Conclusions: There is a great potential to reduce ATG, and potential targets for improvement can be deduced from observational data. The association between in-hospital delay and reduced reperfusion rates is evident in real-world clinical data, underscoring the need to optimize in-hospital workflows. Given the only minor association between symptom-onset-to-admission intervals and reperfusion rates, the causal relationship of this association warrants further research. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03496064.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523579PMC
October 2020

Outcome and recanalization rate of tandem basilar artery occlusion treated by mechanical thrombectomy.

J Neuroradiol 2020 Nov 8;47(6):404-409. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Sorbonne University, Paris VI University, Paris, France; GRC-14 Biosfast, Paris VI University, Paris, France; Department of Neuroradiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Tandem basilar artery occlusions (tBAO) are defined as concomitant basilar artery and extracranial dominant vertebral artery occlusions. The prognosis of such tBAO treated by mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has been scantly reported. The purpose of our study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of MT for patients with tBAO compared to those with non-tandem basilar artery occlusions (ntBAO).

Patients And Methods: Retrospective analysis of a database of patients who underwent MT at two academic centres. All patients treated for BAO were retrieved. Patients with tBAO, defined as a concomitant BAO and extracranial vertebral artery (VA) occlusion or severe stenosis ≥70% (V1 or proximal V2 segment) were compared with patients with ntBAO.

Results: A total of 15 patients with tBAO and 74 patients with ntBAO were enrolled. Successful reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score ≥2b) was obtained in 73.3% versus 90.5% (OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.07-1.15), good clinical outcome (3-months modified Rankin scale ≤2) was reached by 26.7% versus 32.4% (OR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.24-2.63) and mortality at 3-months was 46.7% versus 31% (OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 0.63-6) of patients with tBAO versus ntBAO, respectively. Two patients (13.3%) with tBAO and three (4%) with ntBAO had symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (OR = 3.64; 95% CI: 0.55-24).

Conclusion: Mechanical thrombectomy for patients with tandem basilar artery occlusion tends to be associated with lower rates of successful reperfusion and good clinical outcome, and higher rate of mortality. Larger multicentre studies are warranted to better precise the proper selection and management of such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2020.08.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Long-term mortality in survivors of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

Int J Stroke 2020 Sep 3:1747493020954946. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

U1172 - LilNCog - Lille Neuroscience & Cognition, 27023University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille, France.

Background: Factors associated with long-term mortality after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been poorly investigated.

Aim: Our objective was to identify variables associated with long-term mortality in a prospective cohort of 30-day ICH survivors.

Methods: We prospectively included consecutive 30-day spontaneous ICH survivors. We evaluated baseline and follow-up clinical characteristics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of chronic brain injury as variables associated with long-term mortality using univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models.

Results: Of 560 patients with spontaneous ICH, 304 (54.2%) survived more than 30 days and consented for follow-up. During a median follow-up of 10 years (interquartile range: 8.0-10.5), 176 patients died. The cumulative survival rate at 10 years was 38%. In multivariable analysis, variables independently associated with long-term mortality were age (hazard ratio (HR) per 10-year increase: 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-1.95), male gender (HR: 1.41, CI: 1.02-1.95), prestroke dependency (HR: 1.66, CI: 1.15-2.39), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (HR per 1-point increase: 1.03, CI: 1.01-1.04), occurrence of any stroke (HR: 2.24, CI: 1.39-3.60), and dementia (HR: 1.51, CI: 1.06-2.16) during follow-up. Among MRI markers, only cerebral atrophy (HR per 1-point increase: 1.50, CI: 1.13-2.00) was independently associated with long-term mortality.

Conclusions: Preexisting comorbidities, clinical severity at presentation, and significant clinical event during follow-up are associated with long-term mortality. Among MRI markers of chronic brain injury, only cerebral atrophy is associated with long-term mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493020954946DOI Listing
September 2020

Noncontrast CT markers of intracerebral hemorrhage expansion and poor outcome: A meta-analysis.

Neurology 2020 10 26;95(14):632-643. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Neurology Unit (A.M.), ASST Valcamonica, Esine, Brescia; Stroke Unit (F.A.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy; Neuroradiology Department (G.B.), Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris, France; and Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program (A.C.), Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital Stroke Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Objective: To provide precise estimates of the association between noncontrast CT (NCCT) markers, hematoma expansion (HE), and functional outcome in patients presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched PubMed for English-written observational studies or randomized controlled trials reporting data on NCCT markers of HE and outcome in spontaneous ICH including at least 50 subjects. The outcomes of interest were HE (hematoma growth >33%, >33% and/or >6 mL, >33% and/or >12.5 mL), poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 3-6 or 4-6) at discharge or at 90 days, and mortality. We pooled data in random-effects models and extracted cumulative odds ratio (OR) for each NCCT marker.

Results: We included 25 eligible studies (n = 10,650). The following markers were associated with increased risk of HE and poor outcome, respectively: black hole sign (OR = 3.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42-9.64 and OR = 5.26, 95% CI = 1.75-15.76), swirl sign (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.42-4.60 and OR = 3.70; 95% CI = 2.47-5.55), heterogeneous density (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.71-4.39 and OR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.78-4.39), blend sign (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 2.20-5.55 and OR = 2.21; 95% CI 1.16-4.18), hypodensities (OR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.18-5.50 and OR = 2.94; 95% CI = 2.28-3.78), irregular shape (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.27-3.19 and OR = 3.43; 95% CI = 2.33-5.03), and island sign (OR = 7.87, 95% CI = 2.17-28.47 and OR = 6.05, 95% CI = 4.44-8.24).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that multiple NCCT ICH shape and density features, with different effect size, are important markers for HE and clinical outcome and may provide useful information for future randomized controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010660DOI Listing
October 2020

Cytotoxic lesion of the corpus callosum as presenting neuroradiological manifestation of COVID-2019 infection.

J Neurol 2020 Aug 18. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Neuroradiology Department, INSERM U1266, Université de Paris, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10166-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433278PMC
August 2020

Accelerated MR Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Large Arterial Vessel Occlusion: Diagnostic Performances of the FLAIR Vessel Hyperintensities.

Eur Neurol 2020 12;83(4):389-394. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Neuroradiology, Université Paris-Descartes, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) document slowed vascular flow at the level and after the occlusion site patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We aimed to assess the accuracy of FVH for the confirmation and location of a large vessel occlusion (LVO).

Methods: Three radiologists reviewed the FLAIR sequence of the admission MRI exam of patients with suspected AIS at a single academic center. Readers were provided with the main clinical deficit with National Institute of Health Stroke Severity score and were asked to identify and locate an LVO when appropriate. Kappa coefficients were calculated for agreement along with diagnosis performances of FVH to recognize and locate an LVO with digital subtracted angiography (DSA) as gold standard.

Results: Among 125 patients screened with MRI for a suspected AIS, 96 (81%) were diagnosed with AIS and 47 (38%) patients had an anterior LVO of whom 25 (20%) had a DSA for mechanical thrombectomy. Kappa coefficients for intra- and inter-readers were good to excellent. Overall, the sensitivity and the specificity of the FVH to predict an anterior LVO was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.96), respectively, while PPV and NPV were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.85-0.95) and 0.98 (0.97-1), respectively. FVH also showed good to excellent accuracy for identifying M1 and M2 versus internal carotid artery occlusion site.

Conclusion: We found that FVH demonstrated excellent diagnostic performances for the identification of LVO and its level with good to excellent reproducibility. This MRI radio marker of occlusion provides additional arguments and may speed-up the detection of potential candidates for MT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509077DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical and Imaging Characteristics in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 6;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Intracranial hemorrhage has been observed in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19), but the clinical, imaging, and pathophysiological features of intracranial bleeding during COVID-19 infection remain poorly characterized. This study describes clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with COVID-19 infection who presented with intracranial bleeding in a European multicenter cohort.

Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective, observational case series including 18 consecutive patients with COVID-19 infection and intracranial hemorrhage. Data were collected from February to May 2020 at five designated European special care centers for COVID-19. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Intracranial bleeding was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) of the brain within one month of the date of COVID-19 diagnosis. The clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings, therapy and outcomes in COVID-19 patients presenting with intracranial bleeding were analyzed.

Results: Eighteen patients had evidence of acute intracranial bleeding within 11 days (IQR 9-29) of admission. Six patients had parenchymal hemorrhage (33.3%), 11 had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (61.1%), and one patient had subdural hemorrhage (5.6%). Three patients presented with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (16.7%).

Conclusion: This study represents the largest case series of patients with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed with COVID-19 based on key European countries with geospatial hotspots of SARS-CoV-2. Isolated SAH along the convexity may be a predominant bleeding manifestation and may occur in a late temporal course of severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464657PMC
August 2020

Interventional neuroradiology in France, quo vadis?

J Neuroradiol 2021 Feb 10;48(1):2-4. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Radiology department, centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, hospices civils de Lyon, 69310 Pierre-Bénite, France; Inserm U1044, CNRS UMR 5220, CREATIS, université Lyon-1, 69100 Villeurbanne, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2020.07.001DOI Listing
February 2021

Neurologic and neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective multicenter study.

Neurology 2020 09 17;95(13):e1868-e1882. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

From the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg (S.K., F.L., S.B., F.-D.A., T.W.), Service d'imagerie 2, Hôpital de Hautepierre; Engineering Science, Computer Science and Imaging Laboratory (S.K., N.M.), UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg-CNRS; Service de Neurologie (M. Anheim), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg; Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (M. Anheim), INSERM-U964/CNRS-UMR7104/Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch; Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (M. Anheim), Université de Strasbourg; Hôpitaux universitaires de Strasbourg (H.M., F.M., J.H.), Service de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Nouvel Hôpital Civil; INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research) (H.M., F.M.), UMR 1260, Regenerative Nanomedicine, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg; Médecine Intensive-Réanimation (M.S., F.S.), Hôpital de Hautepierre, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg; Service de Neuroradiologie (H.O., F.B., J.M.), Hôpitaux Civils de Colmar; Service d'Imagerie (A. Khalil, A.G.), Unité de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard; Université Paris Diderot (A. Khalil), Paris; Service de Neurologie (S. Carré, C.L.), Centre Hospitalier de Haguenau; Service de Radiologie (M. Alleg), Centre Hospitalier de Haguenau; Service de Neuroradiologie, (E.S., R.A., F.Z.) Hôpital Central, CHU de Nancy; CHIC Unisanté (L.J., P.N., Y.T.M.), Hôpital Marie Madeleine, Forbach; Neuroimaging Department (G.H., J. Benzakoun, C.O., G. Boulouis, M.E.-G., B.K.), GHU Paris Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Hôpital Sainte-Anne, Université de Paris, INSERM U1266, F-75014; CHU Rennes (J.-C.F., B.C.-N.), Department of Neuroradiology; CHU Rennes (A.M.), Medical Intensive Care Unit; Department of Neuroradiology (P.-O.C., F.R., P.T.), University Hospital of Dijon, Hôpital François Mitterrand; Service de Radiologie (C.B.), CHU de Saint-Etienne; Service de Réanimation (X.F.), CH de Roanne; Service de Neuroradiologie (G.F., S.S.), CHU de Limoges; Radiology Department (I.d.B., G. Bornet), Hôpital Privé d'Antony; Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (H.D.), University Hospital, Nantes; Neuroradiology Department (J. Berge), CHU de Bordeaux; Service de Neuroradiologie (A. Kazémi), CHU de Lille; Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (N.P.), Service de Neuroradiologie, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière; Sorbonne Université (N.P.), Univ Paris 06, UMR S 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, ICM, F-75013; Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique (A.L.), Foundation A. Rothschild Hospital, Paris; EA CHIMERE 7516 (J.-M.C.), Université de Picardie Jules Verne; Service de NeuroRadiologie, pôle Imagerie Médicale, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire d'Amiens; Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg (P.-E.Z., M.M.), UCIEC, Pôle d'Imagerie, Strasbourg; Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques (J.-C.B.), Lyon; Nephrology and Transplantation Department (S. Caillard), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg; Inserm UMR S1109 (S. Caillard), LabEx Transplantex, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg; Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg (O.C., P.M.M.), Service d'Anesthésie-Réanimation, Nouvel Hôpital Civil; Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg (S.F.-K.), Laboratoire de Virologie Médicale; Radiology Department (M.O.), Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg University Hospital; CHU de Strasbourg (N.M.), Service de Santé Publique, GMRC, F-67091 Strasbourg; Immuno-Rhumatologie Moléculaire (S.F.-K., J.H.), INSERM UMR_S1109, LabEx TRANSPLANTEX, Centre de Recherche d'Immunologie et d'Hématologie, Faculté de Médecine, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire OMICARE, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg; MRI Center (F.C.), Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon; and Université Lyon 1 (F.C.), CREATIS-LRMN, CNRS/UMR/5220-INSERM U630, Villeurbanne, France.

Objective: To describe neuroimaging findings and to report the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with neurologic manifestations.

Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study (11 hospitals), we included 64 patients with confirmed COVID-19 with neurologic manifestations who underwent a brain MRI.

Results: The cohort included 43 men (67%) and 21 women (33%); their median age was 66 (range 20-92) years. Thirty-six (56%) brain MRIs were considered abnormal, possibly related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Ischemic strokes (27%), leptomeningeal enhancement (17%), and encephalitis (13%) were the most frequent neuroimaging findings. Confusion (53%) was the most common neurologic manifestation, followed by impaired consciousness (39%), presence of clinical signs of corticospinal tract involvement (31%), agitation (31%), and headache (16%). The profile of patients experiencing ischemic stroke was different from that of other patients with abnormal brain imaging: the former less frequently had acute respiratory distress syndrome ( = 0.006) and more frequently had corticospinal tract signs ( = 0.02). Patients with encephalitis were younger ( = 0.007), whereas agitation was more frequent for patients with leptomeningeal enhancement ( = 0.009).

Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 may develop a wide range of neurologic symptoms, which can be associated with severe and fatal complications such as ischemic stroke or encephalitis. In terms of meningoencephalitis involvement, even if a direct effect of the virus cannot be excluded, the pathophysiology seems to involve an immune or inflammatory process given the presence of signs of inflammation in both CSF and neuroimaging but the lack of virus in CSF.

Clinicaltrialsgov Identifier: NCT04368390.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010112DOI Listing
September 2020

Perfusion Imaging to Select Patients with Large Ischemic Core for Mechanical Thrombectomy.

J Stroke 2020 May 31;22(2):225-233. Epub 2020 May 31.

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, CHRU de Tours, Tours, France.

Background And Purpose: Patients with acute ischemic stroke, proximal vessel occlusion and a large ischemic core at presentation are commonly not considered for mechanical thrombectomy (MT). We tested the hypothesis that in patients with baseline large infarct cores, identification of remaining penumbral tissue using perfusion imaging would translate to better outcomes after MT.

Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, core lab adjudicated, cohort study of adult patients with proximal vessel occlusion, a large ischemic core volume (diffusion weighted imaging volume ≥70 mL), with pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging perfusion, treated with MT (2015 to 2018) or medical care alone (controls; before 2015). Primary outcome measure was 3-month favorable outcome (defined as a modified Rankin Scale of 0-3). Core perfusion mismatch ratio (CPMR) was defined as the volume of critically hypo-perfused tissue (Tmax >6 seconds) divided by the core volume. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors that were independently associated with clinical outcomes. Outputs are displayed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: A total of 172 patients were included (MT n=130; Control n=42; mean age 69.0±15.4 years; 36% females). Mean core-volume and CPMR were 102.3±36.7 and 1.8±0.7 mL, respectively. As hypothesized, receiving MT was associated with increased probability of favorable outcome and functional independence, as CPMR increased, a difference becoming statistically significant above a mismatch-ratio of 1.72. Similarly, receiving MT was also associated with favorable outcome in the subgroup of 74 patients with CPMR >1.7 (aOR, 8.12; 95% CI, 1.24 to 53.11; P=0.028). Overall (prior to stratification by CPMR) 73 (42.4%) patients had a favorable outcome at 3 months, with no difference amongst groups.

Conclusion: s In patients currently deemed ineligible for MT due to large infarct ischemic cores at baseline, CPMR identifies a subgroup strongly benefiting from MT. Prospective studies are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2019.02908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341008PMC
May 2020

Consensus Guidelines of the French Society of Neuroradiology (SFNR) on the use of Gadolinium-Based Contrast agents (GBCAs) and related MRI protocols in Neuroradiology.

J Neuroradiol 2020 Nov 18;47(6):441-449. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

MRI center, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; Université Lyon 1, CREATIS-LRMN, CNRS/UMR/5220-INSERM U630, Villeurbanne, France.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in up to 35% of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and are associated with an excellent safety profile. Nevertheless, two main issues have arisen in the last two decades: the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the risk of gadolinium deposition and retention. As a first step, this article reviews the different categories of GBCAs available in neuroradiology, their issues, and provides updates regarding the use of these agents in routine daily practice. Recent advances in MRI technology, as well as the development of new MRI sequences, have made GBCA injection avoidable in many indications, especially in patients with chronic diseases when iterative MRIs are required and when essential diagnostic information can be obtained without contrast enhancement. These recent advances also lead to changes in recommended MRI protocols. Thus, in a second step, this review focuses on consensus concerning brain MRI protocols in 10 common situations (acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral venous thrombosis, multiple sclerosis, chronic headache, intracranial infection, intra- and extra-axial brain tumors, vestibular schwannoma and pituitary adenoma). The latter allowing the standardization of practices in neuroradiology. Recommendations were also made concerning the use of GBCAs in neuroradiology, based on evidence in the literature and/or by consensus between the different coauthors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2020.05.008DOI Listing
November 2020

Brain MRI Findings in Severe COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Radiology 2020 11 16;297(2):E242-E251. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

From the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service d'Imagerie 2, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France (S.K.).

Background Brain MRI parenchymal signal abnormalities have been associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Purpose To describe the neuroimaging findings (excluding ischemic infarcts) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of patients evaluated from March 23, 2020, to April 27, 2020, at 16 hospitals. Inclusion criteria were () positive nasopharyngeal or lower respiratory tract reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays, () severe COVID-19 infection defined as a requirement for hospitalization and oxygen therapy, () neurologic manifestations, and () abnormal brain MRI findings. Exclusion criteria were patients with missing or noncontributory data regarding brain MRI or brain MRI showing ischemic infarcts, cerebral venous thrombosis, or chronic lesions unrelated to the current event. Categorical data were compared using the Fisher exact test. Quantitative data were compared using the Student test or Wilcoxon test. < .05 represented a significant difference. Results Thirty men (81%) and seven women (19%) met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 61 years ± 12 (standard deviation) (age range, 8-78 years). The most common neurologic manifestations were alteration of consciousness (27 of 37, 73%), abnormal wakefulness when sedation was stopped (15 of 37, 41%), confusion (12 of 37, 32%), and agitation (seven of 37, 19%). The most frequent MRI findings were signal abnormalities located in the medial temporal lobe in 16 of 37 patients (43%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27%, 59%), nonconfluent multifocal white matter hyperintense lesions seen with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted sequences with variable enhancement, with associated hemorrhagic lesions in 11 of 37 patients (30%; 95% CI: 15%, 45%), and extensive and isolated white matter microhemorrhages in nine of 37 patients (24%; 95% CI: 10%, 38%). A majority of patients (20 of 37, 54%) had intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions with a more severe clinical presentation and a higher admission rate in intensive care units (20 of 20 patients [100%] vs 12 of 17 patients without hemorrhage [71%], = .01) and development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (20 of 20 patients [100%] vs 11 of 17 patients [65%], = .005). Only one patient had SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and without ischemic infarcts had a wide range of neurologic manifestations that were associated with abnormal brain MRI scans. Eight distinctive neuroradiologic patterns were described. © RSNA, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020202222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301613PMC
November 2020

Teaching NeuroImages: High-resolution MRI before and during a sentinel headache demonstrates aneurysm wall hemorrhage.

Neurology 2020 07 12;95(2):e224-e225. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

From the Departments of Neuroradiology (R.A.C., M.E., W.B.H., G.B., C.R.R., D.T., J.-F.M., C.O., O.N.) and Neurology (C.L.), Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, GHU Paris Psychiatrie & Neurosciences, Paris University, INSERM UMR 1266, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009774DOI Listing
July 2020

Comprehensive Aneurysm Management (CAM): An All-Inclusive Care Trial for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

World Neurosurg 2020 09 9;141:e770-e777. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Radiology, Service of Interventional Neuroradiology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; CHUM Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: In the absence of randomized evidence, the optimal management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) remains uncertain.

Methods: Comprehensive Aneurysm Management (CAM) is an all-inclusive care trial combined with a registry. Any patient with a UIA (no history of intracranial hemorrhage within the previous 30 days) can be recruited, and treatment allocation will follow an algorithm combining clinical judgment and randomization. Patients eligible for at least 2 management options will be randomly allocated 1:1 to conservative or curative treatment. Minimization will be used to balance risk factors, using aneurysm size (≥7 mm), location (anterior or posterior circulation), and age <60 years.

Results: The CAM primary outcome is survival without neurologic dependency (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score <3) at 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage during follow-up and related morbidity and mortality; morbidity and mortality related to endovascular treatment or surgical treatment of the UIA at 1 year; overall morbidity and mortality at 1, 5, and 10 years; when relevant, duration of hospitalization; and, when relevant, discharge to a location other than home. The primary hypothesis for patients randomly allocated to at least 2 options, 1 of which is conservative management, is that active UIA treatment will reduce the 10-year combined neurologic morbidity and mortality (mRS score >2) from 24% to 16%. At least 961 patients recruited from at least 20 centers over 4 years will be needed for the randomized portion of the study.

Conclusions: Patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms can be comprehensively managed within the context of an all-inclusive care trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.018DOI Listing
September 2020

Neuroimaging of Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Clin Med 2020 May 18;9(5). Epub 2020 May 18.

Pediatric Radiology Department, Necker Enfants Malades & GHU Paris, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris (IPNP), UMR S1266, INSERM, Université de Paris, 75015 Paris, France.

Hemorrhagic strokes account for half of all strokes seen in children, and the etiologies of these hemorrhagic strokes differ greatly from those seen in adult patients. This review gives an overview about incidence and etiologies as well as presentation of children with intracerebral hemorrhage and with differential diagnoses in the emergency department. Most importantly it describes how neuroimaging of children with intracerebral hemorrhage should be tailored to specific situations and clinical contexts and recommends specific imaging protocols for acute and repeat imaging. In this context it is important to keep in mind the high prevalence of underlying vascular lesions and adapt the imaging protocol accordingly, meaning that vascular imaging plays a key role regardless of modality. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including advanced sequences, should be favored whenever possible at the acute phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290500PMC
May 2020

Hydrocephalus in children with ruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 May 22:1-5. Epub 2020 May 22.

1APHP, Necker Hospital, Université de Paris.

Objective: Hydrocephalus is a strong determinant of poor neurological outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In children, ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are the dominant cause of ICH. In a large prospective cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVMs, the authors analyzed the rates and predictive factors of hydrocephalus requiring acute external ventricular drainage (EVD) or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS).

Methods: The authors performed a single-center retrospective analysis of the data from a prospectively maintained database of children admitted for a ruptured bAVM since 2002. Admission clinical and imaging predictors of EVD and VPS placement were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical models.

Results: Among 114 patients (mean age 9.8 years) with 125 distinct ICHs due to ruptured bAVM, EVD and VPS were placed for 55/125 (44%) hemorrhagic events and 5/114 patients (4.4%), respectively. A multivariate nominal logistic regression model identified low initial Glasgow Coma Scale (iGCS) score, hydrocephalus on initial CT scan, the presence of intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH), and higher modified Graeb Scale (mGS) score as strongly associated with subsequent need for EVD (all p < 0.001). All children who needed a VPS had initial hydrocephalus requiring EVD and tended to have higher mGS scores.

Conclusions: In a large cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVM, almost half of the patients required EVD and 4.4% required permanent VPS. Use of a low iGCS score and a semiquantitative mGS score as indicators of the IVH burden may be helpful for decision making in the emergency setting and thus improve treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.PEDS19680DOI Listing
May 2020

Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke Amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: Decreased Activity, and Increased Care Delays.

Stroke 2020 07 20;51(7):2012-2017. Epub 2020 May 20.

Neuroradiology Department, CH Sainte-Anne, Paris, France (B.K., W.B.H., G.B.).

Background And Purpose: The efficiency of prehospital care chain response and the adequacy of hospital resources are challenged amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, with suspected consequences for patients with ischemic stroke eligible for mechanical thrombectomy (MT).

Methods: We conducted a prospective national-level data collection of patients treated with MT, ranging 45 days across epidemic containment measures instatement, and of patients treated during the same calendar period in 2019. The primary end point was the variation of patients receiving MT during the epidemic period. Secondary end points included care delays between onset, imaging, and groin puncture. To analyze the primary end point, we used a Poisson regression model. We then analyzed the correlation between the number of MTs and the number of COVID-19 cases hospitalizations, using the Pearson correlation coefficient (compared with the null value).

Results: A total of 1513 patients were included at 32 centers, in all French administrative regions. There was a 21% significant decrease (0.79; [95%CI, 0.76-0.82]; <0.001) in MT case volumes during the epidemic period, and a significant increase in delays between imaging and groin puncture, overall (mean 144.9±SD 86.8 minutes versus 126.2±70.9; <0.001 in 2019) and in transferred patients (mean 182.6±SD 82.0 minutes versus 153.25±67; <0.001). After the instatement of strict epidemic mitigation measures, there was a significant negative correlation between the number of hospitalizations for COVID and the number of MT cases ( -0.51; =0.04). Patients treated during the COVID outbreak were less likely to receive intravenous thrombolysis and to have unwitnessed strokes (both <0.05).

Conclusions: Our study showed a significant decrease in patients treated with MTs during the first stages of the COVID epidemic in France and alarming indicators of lengthened care delays. These findings prompt immediate consideration of local and regional stroke networks preparedness in the varying contexts of COVID-19 pandemic evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030373DOI Listing
July 2020