Publications by authors named "Goran Marsh"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Human hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 are glucuronidated and sulfated in vitro.

Toxicol Lett 2015 Jul 5;236(2):98-109. Epub 2015 May 5.

Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk, Belgium.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were used worldwide as additive flame retardants and are classified as persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic environmental pollutants. In humans, the hydroxylated metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) formed in vitro have also been detected in vivo. To further characterize the metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 and to identify candidate markers for monitoring the human exposure to PBDEs using non-invasive approaches, glucuronidation and sulfation of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were investigated using human liver microsomes and cytoplasm, respectively. The formed Phase II metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a novel approach to develop analytical methods in absence of authentic standards. All available standards for hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were glucuronidated and sulfated, showing that glucuronidation and sulfation are part of the metabolism pathway of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 were (a) 2,4-DBP-Gluc and 5-Gluc-BDE-47, and (b) 2'-Sulf-BDE-28, 4-Sulf-BDE-42 and 3-Sulf-BDE-47, respectively. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-99 were (a) 2,4,5-TBP-Gluc and 6'-Gluc-BDE-99, and (b) 3'-Sulf-BDE-99 and 5'-Sulf-BDE-99, respectively. Apparent Km values associated with the formation of sulfated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were ten times lower than those of the corresponding glucuronidated metabolites, suggesting that sulfated rather than glucuronidated metabolites of OH-PBDEs might be used as markers of human exposure to PBDEs using a non-invasive approach based on urine sample collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.05.003DOI Listing
July 2015

Disruption of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) present in the marine environment.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Dec 25;48(24):14703-11. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam , De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are of growing concern, as they have been detected in both humans and wildlife and have been shown to be toxic. Recent studies have indicated that OH-PBDEs can be more toxic than PBDEs, partly due to their ability to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), an essential process in energy metabolism. In this study, we determined the OXPHOS disruption potential of 18 OH-PBDE congeners reported in marine wildlife using two in vitro bioassays, namely the classic rat mitochondrial respiration assay, and a mitochondrial membrane potential assay using zebrafish PAC2 cells. Single OH-PBDE congeners as well as mixtures were tested to study potential additive or synergistic effects. An environmental mixture composed of seven OH-PBDE congeners mimicking the concentrations reported in Baltic blue mussels were also studied. We report that all OH-PBDEs tested were able to disrupt OXPHOS via either protonophoric uncoupling and/or inhibition of the electron transport chain. Additionally we show that OH-PBDEs tested in combinations as found in the environment have the potential to disrupt OXPHOS. Importantly, mixtures of OH-PBDEs may show very strong synergistic effects, stressing the importance of further research on the in vivo impacts of these compounds in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es5039744DOI Listing
December 2014

Novel octabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether identified in blue mussels from the Swedish West Coast.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Mar 6;48(6):3319-26. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University , SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden .

Hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are compounds present in the marine environment and OH-PBDEs are of toxicological concern and are therefore of interest to monitor in the environment. A phenolic octaBDE was tentatively identified in the phenolic fraction of previously analyzed mussel samples after methylation of the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of this compound in blue mussels and investigate whether the analyte is diOH- and/or OH-MeO-octaBDE. Two reference standards, 6,6'-dimethoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6,6'-diMeO-BDE194) and 6-ethoxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194) were prepared via O-arylation of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxyphenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-ethoxyphenol, respectively, with a novel unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salt, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxydiphenyliodonium triflate. The GC retention time and GC/MS spectrum of the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 correspond well with the analyte in the methylated phenolic fraction of a mussel extract from a previous study. Structural analysis performed in this study indicate that the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 and 6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194 correspond well with 6-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194) after methylation and ethylation, respectively, of the HPCs in the mussel extracts. The compound 6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194 was identified and quantified in new mussels, sampled in 2012 from two locations on the Swedish west coast, with geometric mean concentrations of 3700 and 410 ng/g fat, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es404969eDOI Listing
March 2014

New approaches to assess the transthyretin binding capacity of bioactivated thyroid hormone disruptors.

Toxicol Sci 2012 Nov 1;130(1):94-105. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department Environment and Agro-biotechnologies, L-4422 Belvaux, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) are metabolized into hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs/PBDEs), which can disrupt the thyroid hormone homeostasis. Binding of these metabolites to transport proteins such as transthyretin (TTR) is an important mechanism of their toxicity. Several methods to quantify the competitive thyroxine (T(4)) displacement potency of pure metabolites exist. However, quantification of the potency of in vitro metabolized PCBs and PBDEs has drawbacks related to the coextraction of compounds disturbing the T(4)-TTR competitive binding assay. This study identifies and quantifies the major coextractants namely cholesterol, saturated and nonsaturated fatty acids (SFA and NSFA) at levels above 20 nmol per mg equivalent protein following various extraction methods. Their TTR binding potency was analyzed in a downscaled, nonradioactive fluorescence displacement assay. At concentration factors needed for TTR competitive binding, at least 10μM of these coextracts is present, whereas individual SFA and NSFA disturb the assay from 0.3μM. The effectiveness of the in vitro metabolism and extraction of the model compounds CB 77 and BDE 47 was chemically quantified with a newly developed chromatographic method analyzing silylated derivatives of the OH-metabolites and coextractants. A new method to selectively extract metabolites and limit coextraction of disturbing compounds to less than 5 nmol per mg equivalent protein is presented. It is now possible to make a dose-response curve up to 50% inhibition with bioactivated CB 77 and BDE 47. The toxic potencies of bioactivated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) should be taken into account to prevent serious underestimation of their hazard and risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs228DOI Listing
November 2012

Synthesis and tentative identification of novel polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolites in human blood.

Chemosphere 2012 Aug 8;88(10):1227-34. Epub 2012 May 8.

Department of Material and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 106 90 Stockholm, Sweden.

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PDBEs) are exogenous, bioactive compounds that originate, to a large extent, from anthropogenic activities, although they are also naturally produced in the environment. In the present study nine new authentic OH-PBDE reference standards and their corresponding methyl ether derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) were synthesised and characterised by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Seven of the authentic reference standards prepared were thereafter tentatively identified in a pooled human blood sample. The tentatively identified OH-PBDEs were 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether, 3'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether, 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether, 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether, 3'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether, 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether. An additional seven OH-PBDEs were tentatively identified in the pooled human blood sample, of which one OH-PBDE, 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5,5'-pentabromodiphenyl ether, has not been identified in human blood before. The identification was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) recording the bromine ions m/z 79, 81. The tentative identification was supported by the peaks relative retention times (RRTs) compared to authentic references on two GC columns of different polarities for the hexa-, and heptabrominated OH-PBDEs, and three different GC columns for the pentabrominated OH-PBDEs. The OH-PBDE congeners most likely originate from human metabolism of a flame retardant, i.e. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), due to the relatively high concentrations of PBDEs in the same human blood sample and the fact that these PBDEs could form the tentatively identified OH-PBDEs via metabolic direct hydroxylation or via 1,2-shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.076DOI Listing
August 2012

Characterization of an abundant and novel methyl- and methoxy-substituted brominated diphenyl ether isolated from whale blubber.

Chemosphere 2010 Apr 3;79(4):408-13. Epub 2010 Mar 3.

Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Sweden.

A previously unidentified yet abundant substituted polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was isolated from a northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) found dead in the Skagerrak, North Sea. A combination of gas chromatography, high and low resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) ((1)H, (1)H-(1)H and (1)H-(13)C) after isolation with preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) lead to the identification of the unknown substance as 6-MeO-5-Me-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (6-MeO-5-Me-BDE42). To our knowledge this is only the second time PCGC has been used to isolate individual organohalogen compounds present in trace amounts for identification with NMR. The concentration of this novel bioaccumulated compound was estimated to be about 100 ng g(-1) lipid, which was 2.5 times higher compared with the most abundant MeO-PBDE congeners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.01.067DOI Listing
April 2010

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated analogs in plasma of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the United States east coast.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2009 Oct;28(10):2061-8

Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6, Canada.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) were determined in plasma of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, U.S.A. Significantly lower sums (sigma) of PBDE concentrations (sum of 12 congeners) were found in animals from the IRL (arithmetic mean, 5.45 +/- 4.63 ng/g wet wt) compared with those from CHS (30 +/- 40 ng/g wet wt). Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 was the predominant PBDE in dolphins from the IRL (50% of the sigma PBDEs) and CHS (58%). The sigma PBDE concentrations in plasma of dolphins were negatively correlated with age at both locations. Fifteen and sixteen individual OH-PBDE congeners could be quantified in plasma of dolphins from IRL and CHS, respectively. Similar to sigma PBDE, mean sigma OH-PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in plasma of dolphins at CHS (1150 +/- 708 pg/g wet wt) compared with those at IRL (624 +/- 393 pg/g wet wt). The predominant congener at both locations was 6-OH-PBDE-47 (IRL, 384 +/- 319 pg/g wet wt; CHS, 541 +/- 344 pg/g wet wt), representing 61.5% of total sigma OH-PBDE at IRL and 47.0% at CHS. Concentrations of sigma OH-PBDEs were weakly negatively correlated with age in dolphins from both locations (p < 0.05; IRL, r2 = 0.048; CHS, r2 = 0.021). In addition to the OH-PBDE congeners identified with technical standards, eight and four unidentified OH-PBDEs were detected and quantified, respectively, in animals from CHS (sum of unidentified OH-PBDEs = 1.35 +/- 0.90 pg/g wet wt) and IRL (0.73 +/- 0.40 pg/g wet wt). Results of the present study suggest that, unlike OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs in bottlenose dolphins are minor products in plasma relative to sigma PBDEs and a significant proportion may be a consequence of the dietary uptake of naturally produced methoxylated- and OH-PBDEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/09-031.1DOI Listing
October 2009

Synthesis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via symmetrical tetra- and hexabrominated diphenyliodonium salts.

Chemosphere 2009 Jan 8;74(3):421-7. Epub 2008 Nov 8.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which have become widespread environmental pollutants due to their persistence and bioaccumulativeness. Pure authentic PBDE congeners are required for chemical analysis, assessments of their chemical/physical properties and toxicological studies. We here report an improved method for synthesis of authentic PBDE congeners applying bromophenols and symmetrical brominated diphenyliodonium salts as building blocks. Altogether, 13 PBDEs were synthesized of which seven are new. The improved coupling reaction between the bromophenol and the brominated diphenyliodonium salts resulted in enhanced yields for PBDEs substituted with more than six bromine atoms. Also, improvements in iodonium salt synthesis made it possible to synthesize symmetrical hexabromodiphenyliodonium salts for the first time, i.e. 2,2',3,3',4,4'-, 2,2',4,4',5,5'- and 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexabromodiphenyliodonium salts and they made it possible to prepare octabrominated PBDEs via the actual coupling method. All synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectra and by their melting points. Also, all products except for the diphenyliodonium salts were characterized by mass spectra in electron ionization mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.09.046DOI Listing
January 2009

Identification and quantification of new polybrominated dimethoxybiphenyls (PBDMBs) in marine mammals from Australia.

Chemosphere 2008 Sep 17;73(4):580-6. Epub 2008 Jul 17.

Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 28, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

Marine mammals from Queensland, Australia, are bioaccumulating elevated concentrations of a range of polybrominated natural products. In this study, we detected three new polybrominated dimethoxybiphenyls (PBDMBs) in the blubber of selected marine mammal samples which were identified as 2,6'-dimethoxy-3,3',5-tribromobiphenyl (2,6'-diMeO-BB 36), 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3'-dibromobiphenyl (2,2'-diMeO-BB 36), and 6,6'-dimethoxy-3,3'-dibromobiphenyl (6,6'-diMeO-BB 11). These three PBDMBs are structurally related to the known natural product 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diMeO-BB 80). In the first part of this study, 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80 was photochemically debrominated under UV irradiation. This resulted in seven of eight possible mono- to triBDMBs as debromination products. In the second part of this study, the structure of all PBDMBs debromination products was investigated. This was supported by synthesis of two diBDMB and one triBDMB via bromination and subsequent methylation of 2,2'-biphenyldiol. Structures of the remaining PBDMBs were tentatively assigned by considering the retention times, mass spectra and amounts formed during UV irradiation of 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80 . In the third part of this study, blubber of marine mammals from Australia was analysed for PBDMBs using gas chromatography in combination with electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode. In these samples, 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80 was found at concentrations of 200-1800ngg(-1) lipid weight (lw). The latter represents the highest concentration reported for this compound in environmental samples. 6,6'-diMeO BB 11, 2,2'-diMeO BB 36, and 2,6'-diMeO BB 36 were present at approximately 7ngg(-1) lipids, or 0.43-1.5% of diMeO-BB 80. No further PBDMBs were detected in the samples. The di- and triBDMBs identified in marine mammal blubber have not been reported as natural products. They may represent either new natural products or transformation products of 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.05.065DOI Listing
September 2008

Microarray analysis reveals a mechanism of phenolic polybrominated diphenylether toxicity in zebrafish.

Environ Sci Technol 2008 Mar;42(5):1773-9

Institute for Environmental Studies and Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the environment, with the lower brominated congener 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE47) among the most prevalent. The phenolic PBDE, 6-hydroxy-BDE47 (6-OH-BDE47) is both an important metabolite formed by in vivo metabolism of BDE47 and a natural product produced by marine organisms such as algae. Although this compound has been detected in humans and wildlife, including fish, virtually nothing is known of its in vivo toxicity. Here we report that 6-OH-BDE47 is acutely toxic in developing and adult zebrafish at concentrations in the nanomolar (nM) range. To identify possible mechanisms of toxicity, we used microarray analysis as a diagnostic tool. Zebrafish embryonic fibroblast (PAC2) cells were exposed to 6-OH-BDE47, BDE47, and the methoxylated metabolite 6-MeO-BDE47. These experiments revealed that 6-OH-BDE47 alters the expression of genes involved in proton transport and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings, combined with the acute toxicity, suggested that 6-OH-BDE47 causes disruption of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Therefore, we further investigated the effect of 6-OH-BDE47 on OXPHOS in zebrafish mitochondria. Results show unequivocally that this compound is a potent uncoupler of OXPHOS and is an inhibitor of complex II of the electron transport chain. This study provides the first evidence of the in vivo toxicity and an important potential mechanism of toxicity of an environmentally relevant phenolic PBDE of both anthropogenic and natural origin. The results of this study emphasize the need for further investigation on the presence and toxicity of this class of polybrominated compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0720863DOI Listing
March 2008

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in the abiotic environment: surface water and precipitation from Ontario, Canada.

Environ Sci Technol 2008 Mar;42(5):1657-64

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502, Japan.

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of PBDEs, and also as compounds of natural origin in the marine environment; however, there has only been very limited study of their presence in the abiotic environment. In the present study, OH-PBDEs were determined in samples of surface water and precipitation (rain and snow) collected from sites in Ontario, Canada. OH-PBDEs were detected in all the samples analyzed, although half of the observed peaks did not correspond to any of the 18 authentic standards available. Fluxes of sigmaOH-PBDEs ranged from 3.5 to 190 pg/m2 in snow and from 15 to 170 pg/m2/day in rain, and those were higher at three of the southern Ontario locations relative to a single northern remote site. Concentrations of sigmaOH-PBDEs ranged from 2.2 to 70 pg/L in water and from < 1 to 420 pg/g in particulate organic carbon (POC), and higher values were found near sewage treatment plant (STP) outfalls in Lake Ontario. Partition coefficients (log K(oc)) for OH-PBDEs ranged from 4.0 to 5.1. The results in this study suggest that OH-PBDEs are ubiquitous in the abiotic environment and most likely are produced through reaction of PBDEs with atmospheric OH radicals. As well, they may be present in surface waters near STPs due to oxidation of PBDEs and inflows from metabolism by humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es7021279DOI Listing
March 2008

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and bioaccumulative hydroxylated PBDE metabolites in young humans from Managua, Nicaragua.

Environ Health Perspect 2008 Mar;116(3):400-8

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Our aim was to investigate exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a young urban population in a developing country, with focus on potentially highly exposed children working informally as scrap scavengers at a large municipal waste disposal site. We also set out to investigate whether hydroxylated metabolites, which not hitherto have been found retained in humans, could be detected.

Methods: We assessed PBDEs in pooled serum samples obtained in 2002 from children 11-15 years of age, working and sometimes also living at the municipal waste disposal site in Managua, and in nonworking urban children. The influence of fish consumption was evaluated in the children and in groups of women 15-44 years of age who differed markedly in their fish consumption. Hydroxylated PBDEs were assessed as their methoxylated derivates. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, using authentic reference substances.

Results: The children living and working at the waste disposal site showed very high levels of medium brominated diphenyl ethers. The levels observed in the referent children were comparable to contemporary observations in the United States. The exposure pattern was consistent with dust being the dominating source. The children with the highest PBDE levels also had the highest levels of hydroxylated metabolites.

Conclusions: Unexpectedly, very high levels of PBDEs were found in children from an urban area in a developing country. Also, for the first time, hydroxylated PBDE metabolites were found to bioaccumulate in human serum.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2265063PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10713DOI Listing
March 2008

Effect of sewage sludges contaminated with polybrominated diphenylethers on agricultural soils.

Chemosphere 2008 Apr 18;71(6):1079-86. Epub 2007 Dec 18.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.

The fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sewage sludge after agricultural application was analysed. This study was based on the analysis of sewage sludge and sludge amended soil samples collected during 2005. PBDE concentrations in sewage sludge ranged from 197 to 1185ng/g dry weight (dw), being deca-BDE-209 the predominant congener. PBDE levels in soils ranged between 21 and 690ng/g dw, being BDE-209 also the predominant congener in all soil samples. Sewage-sludge amendment at the research stations increased concentrations of all BDE congeners 1.2- to 45-fold, with the highest increases for BDE-209. Results obtained evidenced the cumulative effect of the sludge application rates. Moreover, high levels found at soils four years after the last sludge application indicate persistence of PBDEs in soils, including deca-BDE-209.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.10.047DOI Listing
April 2008

Synthesis of octabrominated diphenyl ethers from aminodiphenyl ethers.

Environ Sci Technol 2007 Nov;41(21):7459-63

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm, Sweden.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which have become widespread pollutants in abiotic and biotic environments including man. Tetra- to hexaBDEs and decaBDE are the most common environmental PBDE contaminants. Congeners of octabromodiphenyl ethers (octaBDEs) originate from used industrial OctaBDE mixtures and from transformation products of the high-volume industrial BFR mixture "DecaBDE", which most exclusively consists of perbrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209). The objective of the present work was to develop methods for the synthesis of authentic octaBDE congeners in order to make them available as standards for analytical, toxicological, and stability studies, as well as studies concerning physical-chemical properties. The syntheses of six octaBDEs, 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-194), 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-196), 2,2',3,3',4,5,5',6-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-198), 2,2',3,3',4,5',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-201), 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-202), and 2,2',3,4,4',5,6,6'-octabromdipheny ether (BDE-204), are described, of which BDE-204 was prepared via two different pathways. Syntheses of BDE-198, BDE-201, BDE-202, and BDE-204 are based on octabromination of mono- or diaminodiphenyl ethers followed by diazotization and reduction of the amino group(s). BDE-194 and BDE-196 were prepared by bromination of 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-169) and 2,3,3',4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-191), respectively, and BDE-169 and BDE-191 were prepared from 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether and 3,4'-diamiodiphenyl ether, respectively. The synthesized PBDE congeners are described by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, electron ionization mass spectra, and their melting points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es071496oDOI Listing
November 2007

Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs).

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008 Feb 5;227(1):68-75. Epub 2007 Oct 5.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80176 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in many different polymers, resins and substrates. Due to their widespread production and use, their high binding affinity to particles, and their lipophilic properties, several PBDE congeners can bioaccumulate in the environment. As a result, PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and various wildlife samples, such as birds, seals, and whales. Furthermore, certain OH-PBDEs and their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products in the marine environment. Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17. In the present study, human placental microsomes have been used to study the possible interaction of twenty two OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs with aromatase, the enzyme that mediates the conversion of androgens into estrogens. All OH-PBDE derivates showed significant inhibition of placental aromatase activity with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range, while the MeO-PBDEs did not have any effect on this enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics studies indicated that two OH-PBDEs, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE47) and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), had a mixed-type inhibition of aromatase activity with apparent K(i)/K(i)' of 7.68/0,02 microM and 5.01/0.04 microM respectively. For comparison, some structurally related compounds, a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which is a natural product (2,2'-dihyroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diOH-BB80)) and its non-bromo derivative were also included in the study. Again inhibition of aromatase activity could be measured, but their potency was significantly less than those observed for the OH-PBDEs. These results show that a wide range of OH-PBDEs have the potential to disturb steroidogenesis and indicate a potential mechanism of action of these brominated flame retardant derivatives as endocrine disruptors in humans and wildlife.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.09.025DOI Listing
February 2008

Decabrominated diphenyl ether in river fish and sediment samples collected downstream an industrial park.

Chemosphere 2007 Oct 3;69(8):1278-86. Epub 2007 Jul 3.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, I.I.Q.A.B., C.S.I.C., Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.

Fish, sediment and water samples from different places along the Spanish River Vero, a tributary of the Cinca River in the Ebro River basin, were collected in two different sampling campaigns, the first one during November 2004 and the second one in November 2005. The samples were collected up- and downstream from an industrial park. A total of 29 fishes, 6 sediments and 3 water samples were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Analytical work included 23 congeners, from tri- to deca-BDEs. The highest values for both sediment and fish samples were found downstream of the industrial park. High BDE-209 contamination was found in these sediment samples, with values up to 12 microg g(-1) dry weight. Moreover, BDE-209 was detected in 14 out of 15 biota samples collected downstream the industrial park, at concentration levels ranging from 20 to 707 ng g(-1) lipid weight, whereas it was not detected in samples collected upstream. These fish concentrations proved the bioavailability of BDE-209 and represented the highest deca-BDE values found in aquatic biota. The analysis of industrial effluents revealed that some industries contribute in some way to the BDE-209 contamination found in this area, but the industry focused on the polyamide polymerization is the main responsible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.05.052DOI Listing
October 2007

Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs).

J Mass Spectrom 2006 Jun;41(6):790-801

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Twenty-six methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were characterized by gas chromatography (GC) on four different GC columns with different lengths and polarities, as well as by mass spectrometry using three ionization techniques, electron ionization (EI), electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) and positive ion chemical ionization (PICI). MeO-PBDE congeners with similar retention times on a nonpolar GC column were separated when analyzed on a polar GC column. EI can be used to determine the position of the methoxy substituent (ortho, meta or para) relative to the diphenyl ether oxygen in the MeO-PBDEs. The PICI ionization technique is shown to be valuable to generate structural information of the MeO-PBDEs, i.e. the degree of bromination on both the methoxy-substituted ring and the entirely brominated phenyl ring can be obtained. This structure information can also be achieved for certain MeO-PBDEs with the methoxy group in ortho position to the diphenyl ether bond in ECNI mode. Like other brominated compounds ECNI is preferable when analyzing environmental samples for quantification of MeO-PBDEs because of the formation of bromide ions, which enables low detection limits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.1035DOI Listing
June 2006

Neonatal exposure to higher brominated diphenyl ethers, hepta-, octa-, or nonabromodiphenyl ether, impairs spontaneous behavior and learning and memory functions of adult mice.

Toxicol Sci 2006 Jul 12;92(1):211-8. Epub 2006 Apr 12.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18A, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants, have been shown to be increasing in the environment and in human mother's milk. We have earlier reported that lower brominated PBDEs, such as tetra-, penta-, and hexa-brominated diphenyl ethers, can cause developmental neurotoxic effects in mice. Recently, this was also observed with the full-brominated PBDE, deca-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209), although it was suggested that the effects were caused by a (possibly debrominated) metabolite thereof. The present study revealed that 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 206), 2,2',3,4,4',5,5',6-octabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 203), and to a minor extent also 2,2',3,4,4',5',6'-heptabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 183) can induce developmental neurotoxic effects. Neonatal Naval Medical Research Institute male mice were exposed on postnatal day 3 or 10 to PBDE 206, PBDE 203, or PBDE 183, given as a single oral dose of 21 mumol/kg body weight. At the adult age of 2-3 months, the mice were observed for performance in a spontaneous behavior test and the Morris water maze test. PBDE 203 and PBDE 206, when administered on neonatal day 10, caused disturbances in spontaneous behavior, leading to disrupted habituation and a hyperactive condition in adults at the age of 2 months. These behavioral changes were also seen in 2-month-old mice exposed to PBDE 203 on neonatal day 3. Furthermore, exposure to PBDE 203 on neonatal day 10 affected learning and memory functions in adult mice. The developmental neurotoxic effects were most pronounced in mice exposed to PBDE 203. These developmental neurobehavioral defects were in agreement with those we observed previously with lower brominated PBDEs and with PBDE 209. It is important to consider the fact that different PBDE congeners can have differing degrees of potency, when comparing levels of PBDEs in the environment and in mother's milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfj196DOI Listing
July 2006

Identification, quantification, and synthesis of a novel dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl in marine mammals caught off the coast of Japan.

Environ Sci Technol 2005 Nov;39(22):8684-90

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Bioaccumulation of persistent organic compounds can eventually lead to concentrations in wildlife and humans that are deleterious to health. The present paper documents the identification, quantification, and synthesis of a novel compound, 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diMeO-BB80), present in the marine mammals Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) caught in the Pacific Ocean. Identification was based on comparison of the relative retention times of the compound on two gas chromatographic columns of different polarities to those of an authentic standard. Furthermore, this identification was also supported by comparison of the full scan mass spectrometric data collected employing electron ionization (El), positive ion chemical ionization (PICI), and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI). The concentrations of 2,2'-diMeO-BB80 in the samples ranged from 12 to 800 ng/g lipid, making this consistently one of the most abundant compounds among those analyzed, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and methoxylated PBDEs. The known occurrence of 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromo-2,2'-biphenyldiol (2,2'-diOH-BB80) in the marine environment as a natural product suggests that its methylated derivative, 2,2'-diMeO-BB80, is also of natural origin. To obtain the necessary authentic standards, synthesis was performed of 2,2'-diMeO-BB80 and the known natural product 2',6-dimethoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2',6-diMeO-BDE68).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es051153vDOI Listing
November 2005

Methods for synthesis of nonabromodiphenyl ethers and a chloro-nonabromodiphenyl ether.

Chemosphere 2006 Apr 17;63(4):562-9. Epub 2005 Nov 17.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in textiles, upholstery and electronics. They are ubiquitous contaminants in wildlife and humans. A low concentration of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers (nonaBDEs) is present in commercial DecaBDE and they are also abiotic and biotic debromination products of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). The objective of the present work was to develop methods for synthesis of the three nonaBDEs, 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-206), 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6,6'-nonabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-207) and 2,2',3,3',4,5,5',6,6'-nonabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-208), with the intention of making them available as authentic standards for analytical, toxicological and stability studies, as well as studies regarding physical-chemical properties. Two methods were developed, one based on perbromination of phenoxyanilines and the other via reductive debromination of BDE-209 by sodium borohydride followed by chromatographic separation of the three nonaBDE isomers formed. An additional nonabrominated compound, 4'-chloro-2,2',3,3',4,5,5',6,6'-nonabromodiphenyl ether (Cl-BDE-208), was also synthesized in the present work. Cl-BDE-208, prepared by the perbromination of 4-chlorodiphenyl ether, may be used as an internal standard in analysis of highly brominated diphenyl ethers. BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208 and Cl-BDE-208 were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, electron ionization mass spectra and by their melting points. The structures of all three nonaBDEs have been characterized previously by X-ray crystallography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.08.060DOI Listing
April 2006

Tetra- and tribromophenoxyanisoles in marine samples from Oceania.

Environ Sci Technol 2005 Oct;39(20):7784-9

Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

Some methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs) are known halogenated natural products (HNPs) and are frequently detected in higher organisms of the marine environment. In this study we demonstrate that a prominent MeO-BDE, previously detected in marine mammals from Australia, is identical to 3,5-dibromo-2-(2',4'dibromo)phenoxyanisole (BC-3, 6-MeO-BDE 47). Up to 1.9 mg/ kg of 6-MeO-BDE 47 was present in cetaceans from Australia, 0.2-0.3 mg/kg in two crocodile eggs from Australia, but concentrations of 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower were found in shark liver oil from NewZealand and in marine mammals from Africa and the Antarctic. Concentrations of 6-MeO-BDE 47 in samples from Australia were in the same range as anthropogenic pollutants such as PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE. Along with 6-MeO-BDE 47 and the known HNP 4,6-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromo)phenoxyanisole (BC-2, 2'-MeO-BDE 68), several tribromophenoxyanisoles (MeO-triBDE) were present in tissue of Australian cetaceans. To determine their structure, abiotic debromination experiments were performed using 6-MeO-BDE 47 and 2'-MeO-BDE 68 and superreduced dicyanocobalamine. These experiments resulted in formation of eight MeO-triBDEs, all of which were detected in the cetacean samples. Five of these eight MeO-triBDEs could be identified based on two standard compounds as well as gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric features. It was also shown that the first eluting isomer (compound 1), 6-MeO-BDE 17 (compound 2), and 2-MeO-BDE 39 (compound 5) were the most prominent MeO-triBDEs in the Australian cetacean samples. The concentrations of the MeO-triBDEs in two cetacean samples were 0.20 and 0.36 mg/kg, respectively. Although the reductive debromination with dicyanocobalamine resulted in a different congener pattern than was found in the marine mammals, it could not be excluded that the tribromo
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es051090gDOI Listing
October 2005

Identification of hydroxylated metabolites in 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether exposed rats.

Chemosphere 2006 Apr 5;63(4):690-7. Epub 2005 Oct 5.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Faeces from day 1-5 of orally administered 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in rat have been analysed for hydroxylated metabolites. Six hydroxylated tetrabrominated diphenyl ethers, as well as three hydroxylated tribrominated diphenyl ethers found, were structurally identified. They were 2'-hydroxy-2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether, 3'-hydroxy-2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether, 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. The analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of the hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether (OH-PBDE) metabolites in the rat faeces was supported by similar relative retention times (RRTs) versus 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-138) on two columns of different polarities compared to the authentic references. The identification of the OH-PBDE metabolites was also supported by full scan electron ionisation mass spectra. Two of the identified OH-PBDE metabolites have identical structures as natural products, which previously have been isolated from marine sponges and an ascidian.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.07.072DOI Listing
April 2006

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated and chlorinated analogues in the plasma of fish from the Detroit River.

Environ Sci Technol 2005 Aug;39(15):5612-9

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 Canada.

Novel classes and congeners of contaminant residues that are structurally analogous to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants were assessed in the plasma of seven benthic- and six pelagic-feeding fish species from the highly contaminated Detroit River corridor, namely, hydroxylated-PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and the antimicrobial OH-trichlorodiphenyl ether, triclosan, and its methylated (MeO) triclosan analogue. In all samples sigmaPBDE concentrations were comprised mainly of BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100 (>85%) and ranged from 155 pg/g wet weight (ww) to 21 069 pg/g ww. Of the 14 OH-PBDE congeners assessed, as many as 10 congeners were identified, although profiles were generally dominated by 6-OH-BDE47 with lesser amounts of 2'-OH-BDE68, 4'-OH-BDE49, and 4-OH-BDE42. sigmaOH-PBDE concentrations ranged from 2.7 to 198 pg/g ww, with sigmaPBDE to sigmaOH-PBDE concentration ratios ranging from 0.0005 to 0.02. OH-PBDEs are likely derived in these freshwater species as metabolites of precursor PBDEs and are subsequently retained in the blood, for example, 6-OH-BDE47, 4'-OH-BDE49, and 4-OH-BDE42 could be derived from BDE47. Portions of concentrations of the OH-PBDEs may also be of alternate origins and are accumulated and retained in these fish. In all samples, the 14 MeO-PBDEs monitored were below detection (<0.01 pg/g ww). Anthropogenic triclosan concentrations ranged from 750 to >10 000 pg/g ww and is clearly a bioaccumulative halogenated phenolic compound in these fish. MeO-triclosan concentrations were considerably lower. In addition to emerging classes of brominated contaminant such as PBDEs, whether of metabolic or anthropogenic origin, fish collected from the Detroit River are exposed to a complex profile of PBDE-like organohalogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0506410DOI Listing
August 2005

Identification of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolites in blood plasma from polybrominated diphenyl ether exposed rats.

Environ Sci Technol 2005 Jul;39(14):5342-8

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their use as flame retardants. Similarly to PCBs, the PBDEs are metabolized to hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) in mammals. In the present study equimolar doses of seven environmentally relevant PBDE congeners were given intraperitoneally as a mixture to rats, and their blood plasma was analyzed for parent compounds and hydroxylated metabolites 1 and 5 days after dosing. Sixteen OH-PBDEs and two diOH-PBDEs were detected as PBDE metabolites in the rat plasma, a novel finding. Four OH-tetraBDEs were structurally identified by comparison (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) with authentic reference standards. The position of the hydroxyl groups was suggested according to the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of the corresponding PBDE methyl ether derivatives. The OH-PBDE metabolites were dominated by hydroxyl groups in the meta- and parapositions. The results show that OH-PBDE congeners have an ability to be retained in rat blood, most likely by a mechanism similar to that of OH-PCBs. The results will be useful for determination of the origin of OH-PBDEs present in wildlife and in humans, since OH-PBDEs are also common natural products in marine environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es050574+DOI Listing
July 2005

Spectral characterization of two bioaccumulated methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

Chemosphere 2006 Jan 6;62(2):197-203. Epub 2005 Jul 6.

Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

Two methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were isolated from a True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus) and identified by NMR (1H, 1H-1H and 1H-13C) and high resolution mass spectrometry as 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole (6-MeO-BDE47) and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromoanisole (2'-MeO-BDE68). Previously the structures of these bioaccumulated compounds have been determined by comparison of their mass spectra and gas chromatographic (GC) retention times with those of authentic standards. While this method is accepted and generally successful, NMR of the isolated compounds allows us to definitively identify the congeners. Our characterizations are consistent with those made for MeO-PBDEs in other organisms, identified by chromatographic methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.05.023DOI Listing
January 2006

Hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers in the red algae Ceramium tenuicorne and blue mussels from the Baltic Sea.

Environ Sci Technol 2005 May;39(9):2990-7

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) have recently been identified in fish and wildlife from the Baltic Sea. Both OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs are known natural products, while OH-PBDEs also may be metabolites of PBDEs. The aim of the present study was to determine if the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne could be a source for MeO- and OH-PBDEs in the Baltic environment. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the same area were also investigated for their content of MeO- and OH-PBDEs. Seven OH-PBDEs and four MeO-PBDEs were present both in the red macroalga and the blue mussels. The mussels also contained a monochlorinated OH-tetraBDE. One of the compounds, 6-methoxy-2,2',3,4,4',5-hexabromodiphenyl ether, has never been reported to occur in the environment. The identification was based on comparison of relative retention times with reference standards, on two gas chromatographic columns of different polarities, together with comparisons of full-scan electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) and electron ionization (EI) mass spectra. It is shown that MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs are present in algae, but at this stage it could not be confirmed if the compounds are produced by the alga itself or by its associated microflora and/or microfauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0482886DOI Listing
May 2005

Photochemical decomposition of 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in methanol/water.

Environ Sci Technol 2004 Jun;38(11):3119-25

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Among all brominated flame retardants in use, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been identified as being of particular environmental concern due to their global distribution and bioaccumulating properties, as observed in humans and wildlife worldwide. Still there is a need for more data on the basic characteristics of PBDEs to better understand and describe their environmental fate. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the photochemical degradation of PBDEs with different degrees of bromination. The photochemical degradation of 15 individual PBDEs substituted with 4-10 bromine atoms was studied in methanol/water (8:2) by UV light in the sunlight region. Nine of these were also studied in pure methanol, and four of the nine PBDEs were studied in tetrahydrofuran. The photochemical reaction rate decreased with decreasing number of bromine substituents in the molecule but also in some cases influenced by the PBDE substitution pattern. The reaction rate was dependent on the solvent in such a way that the reaction rate in a methanol/water solution was consistently around 1.7 times lower than in pure methanol and 2-3 times lower than in THF. The UV degradation half-life of decaBDE (T1/2 = 0.5 h) was more than 500 times shorter than the environmentally abundant congener 2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (T1/2 = 12 d) in methanol/water. The quantum yields in the methanol/water solution ranged from 0.1 to 0.3. The photochemical reaction of decaBDE is a consecutive debromination from ten- down to six-bromine-substituted PBDEs. Products with less than six bromines were tentatively identified as brominated dibenzofurans and traces of what was indicated as methoxylated brominated dibenzofurans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es049830tDOI Listing
June 2004

Identification of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Baltic Sea salmon (Salmo salar) blood.

Environ Sci Technol 2004 Jan;38(1):10-8

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs) have recently been reported to be present in wildlife from Northern Europe. The structures of a majority of these compounds have however been unknown. In the present study, nine OH-PBDEs and six MeO-PBDEs were identified in Baltic Sea salmon (Salmo salar) blood. All OH- and MeO-PBDEs identified were substituted with four or five bromines, and five of these had one chlorine substituent. Fourteen of the OH- and MeO-PBDEs have the methoxy or hydroxy group substituted in the ortho position to the diphenyl ether bond. Identification was done by comparison of relative retention times of authentic reference standards with compounds present in salmon plasma on two gas chromatographic columns of different polarities. The identification was supported by comparisons of full-scan mass spectrometric data: electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI). Nine of the 15 OH- and MeO-PBDEs identified have not previously been reported to occur in the environment. The structures of several identified OH- and MeO-PBDEs support natural origin. However, at least one of the OH-PBDEs may be a hydroxylated metabolite of anthropogenic polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es034671jDOI Listing
January 2004
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