Publications by authors named "Gonzalo Salazar de Pablo"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Probability of Transition to Psychosis in Individuals at Clinical High Risk: An Updated Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Estimating the current likelihood of transitioning from a clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) to psychosis holds paramount importance for preventive care and applied research.

Objective: To quantitatively examine the consistency and magnitude of transition risk to psychosis in individuals at CHR-P.

Data Sources: PubMed and Web of Science databases until November 1, 2020. Manual search of references from previous articles.

Study Selection: Longitudinal studies reporting transition risks in individuals at CHR-P.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Meta-analysis compliant with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) reporting guidelines; independent data extraction, manually and through digitalization of Kaplan-Meier curves.

Main Outcome And Measures: Primary effect size was cumulative risk of transition to psychosis at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, and more than 4 years' follow-up, estimated using the numbers of individuals at CHR-P transitioning to psychosis at each time point. These analyses were complemented by meta-analytical Kaplan-Meier curves and speed of transition to psychosis (hazard rate). Random-effects meta-analysis, between-study heterogeneity analysis, study quality assessment, and meta-regressions were conducted.

Results: A total of 130 studies and 9222 individuals at CHR-P were included. The mean (SD) age was 20.3 (4.4) years, and 5100 individuals (55.3%) were male. The cumulative transition risk was 0.09 (95% CI, 0.07-0.10; k = 37; n = 6485) at 0.5 years, 0.15 (95% CI, 0.13-0.16; k = 53; n = 7907) at 1 year, 0.20 (95% CI, 0.17-0.22; k = 30; n = 5488) at 1.5 years, 0.19 (95% CI, 0.17-0.22; k = 44; n = 7351) at 2 years, 0.25 (95% CI, 0.21-0.29; k = 19; n = 3114) at 2.5 years, 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22-0.29; k = 29; n = 4029) at 3 years, 0.27 (95% CI, 0.23-0.30; k = 16; n = 2926) at 4 years, and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.20-0.37; k = 14; n = 2301) at more than 4 years. The cumulative Kaplan-Meier transition risk was 0.08 (95% CI, 0.08-0.09; n = 4860) at 0.5 years, 0.14 (95% CI, 0.13-0.15; n = 3408) at 1 year, 0.17 (95% CI, 0.16-0.19; n = 2892) at 1.5 years, 0.20 (95% CI, 0.19-0.21; n = 2357) at 2 years, 0.25 (95% CI, 0.23-0.26; n = 1444) at 2.5 years, 0.27 (95% CI, 0.25-0.28; n = 1029) at 3 years, 0.28 (95% CI, 0.26-0.29; n = 808) at 3.5 years, 0.29 (95% CI, 0.27-0.30; n = 737) at 4 years, and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.32-0.38; n = 114) at 10 years. The hazard rate only plateaued at 4 years' follow-up. Meta-regressions showed that a lower proportion of female individuals (β = -0.02; 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.01) and a higher proportion of brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (β = 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.03) were associated with an increase in transition risk. Heterogeneity across the studies was high (I2 range, 77.91% to 95.73%).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this meta-analysis, 25% of individuals at CHR-P developed psychosis within 3 years. Transition risk continued increasing in the long term. Extended clinical monitoring and preventive care may be beneficial in this patient population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281006PMC
July 2021

Antipsychotics and Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome: Transdiagnostic assessment and discontinuation strategies.

Schizophr Res 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.06.030DOI Listing
June 2021

Longitudinal outcome of attenuated positive symptoms, negative symptoms, functioning and remission in people at clinical high risk for psychosis: a meta-analysis.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 16;36:100909. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Background: Little is known about clinical outcomes other than transition to psychosis in people at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR-P). Our aim was to comprehensively meta-analytically evaluate for the first time a wide range of clinical and functional outcomes beyond transition to psychosis in CHR-P individuals.

Methods: PubMed and Web of Science were searched until November 2020 in this PRISMA compliant meta-analysis (PROSPERO:CRD42020206271). Individual longitudinal studies conducted in individuals at CHR-P providing data on at least one of our outcomes of interest were included. We carried out random-effects pairwise meta-analyses, meta-regressions, and assessed publication bias and study quality. Analyses were two-tailed with α=0.05.

Findings: 75 prospective studies were included (n=5,288, age=20.0 years, females=44.5%). Attenuated positive symptoms improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.753, 95%CI=0.495-1.012) and 24 (Hedges' g=0.836, 95%CI=0.463-1.209), but not ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.315. 95%CI=-0.176-0.806). Negative symptoms improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.496, 95%CI=0.315-0.678), but not 24 (Hedges' g=0.499, 95%CI=-0.137-1.134) or ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.033, 95%CI=-0.439-0.505). Depressive symptoms improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.611, 95%CI=0.441-0.782) and 24 (Hedges' g=0.583, 95%CI=0.364-0.803), but not ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.512 95%CI=-0.337-1.361). Functioning improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.711, 95%CI=0.488-0.934), 24 (Hedges' g=0.930, 95%CI=0.553-1.306) and ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.392, 95%CI=0.117-0.667). Remission from CHR-P status occurred in 33.4% (95%CI=22.6-44.1%) at 12 months, 41.4% (95%CI=32.3-50.5%) at 24 months and 42.4% (95%CI=23.4-61.3%) at ≥36 months. Heterogeneity across the included studies was significant and ranged from I=53.6% to I=96.9%. The quality of the included studies (mean±SD) was 4.6±1.1 (range=2-8).

Interpretation: CHR-P individuals improve on symptomatic and functional outcomes over time, but these improvements are not maintained in the longer term, and less than half fully remit. Prolonged duration of care may be needed for this patient population to optimize outcomes.

Funding: None.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219991PMC
June 2021

Neurocognitive Functioning in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Neurocognitive functioning is a potential biomarker to advance detection, prognosis, and preventive care for individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P). The current consistency and magnitude of neurocognitive functioning in individuals at CHR-P are undetermined.

Objective: To provide an updated synthesis of evidence on the consistency and magnitude of neurocognitive functioning in individuals at CHR-P.

Data Sources: Web of Science database, Cochrane Central Register of Reviews, and Ovid/PsycINFO and trial registries up to July 1, 2020.

Study Selection: Multistep literature search compliant with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology performed by independent researchers to identify original studies reporting on neurocognitive functioning in individuals at CHR-P.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Independent researchers extracted the data, clustering the neurocognitive tasks according to 7 Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) domains and 8 CHR-P domains. Random-effect model meta-analyses, assessment of publication biases and study quality, and meta-regressions were conducted.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary effect size measure was Hedges g of neurocognitive functioning in individuals at CHR-P (1) compared with healthy control (HC) individuals or (2) compared with individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) or (3) stratified for the longitudinal transition to psychosis.

Results: A total of 78 independent studies were included, consisting of 5162 individuals at CHR-P (mean [SD; range] age, 20.2 [3.3; 12.0-29.0] years; 2529 [49.0%] were female), 2865 HC individuals (mean [SD; range] age, 21.1 [3.6; 12.6-29.2] years; 1490 [52.0%] were female), and 486 individuals with FEP (mean [SD; range] age, 23.0 [2.0; 19.1-26.4] years; 267 [55.9%] were female). Compared with HC individuals, individuals at CHR-P showed medium to large deficits on the Stroop color word reading task (g = -1.17; 95% CI, -1.86 to -0.48), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (g = -0.86; 95% CI, -1.43 to -0.28), digit symbol coding test (g = -0.74; 95% CI, -1.19 to -0.29), Brief Assessment of Cognition Scale Symbol Coding (g = -0.67; 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.39), University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (g = -0.55; 95% CI, -0.97 to -0.12), Hinting Task (g = -0.53; 95% CI, -0.77 to -0.28), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (g = -0.50; 95% CI, -0.78 to -0.21), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) (g = -0.50; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.36), and National Adult Reading Test (g = -0.52; 95% CI, -1.01 to -0.03). Individuals at CHR-P were less impaired than individuals with FEP. Longitudinal transition to psychosis from a CHR-P state was associated with medium to large deficits in the CVLT task (g = -0.58; 95% CI, -1.12 to -0.05). Meta-regressions found significant effects for age and education on processing speed.

Conclusions And Relevance: Findings from this meta-analysis support neurocognitive dysfunction as a potential detection and prognostic biomarker in individuals at CHR-P. These findings may advance clinical research and inform preventive approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.1290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209603PMC
June 2021

Age at onset of mental disorders worldwide: large-scale meta-analysis of 192 epidemiological studies.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Promotion of good mental health, prevention, and early intervention before/at the onset of mental disorders improve outcomes. However, the range and peak ages at onset for mental disorders are not fully established. To provide robust, global epidemiological estimates of age at onset for mental disorders, we conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review with meta-analysis of birth cohort/cross-sectional/cohort studies, representative of the general population, reporting age at onset for any ICD/DSM-mental disorders, identified in PubMed/Web of Science (up to 16/05/2020) (PROSPERO:CRD42019143015). Co-primary outcomes were the proportion of individuals with onset of mental disorders before age 14, 18, 25, and peak age at onset, for any mental disorder and across International Classification of Diseases 11 diagnostic blocks. Median age at onset of specific disorders was additionally investigated. Across 192 studies (n = 708,561) included, the proportion of individuals with onset of any mental disorders before the ages of 14, 18, 25 were 34.6%, 48.4%, 62.5%, and peak age was 14.5 years (k = 14, median = 18, interquartile range (IQR) = 11-34). For diagnostic blocks, the proportion of individuals with onset of disorder before the age of 14, 18, 25 and peak age were as follows: neurodevelopmental disorders: 61.5%, 83.2%, 95.8%, 5.5 years (k = 21, median=12, IQR = 7-16), anxiety/fear-related disorders: 38.1%, 51.8%, 73.3%, 5.5 years (k = 73, median = 17, IQR = 9-25), obsessive-compulsive/related disorders: 24.6%, 45.1%, 64.0%, 14.5 years (k = 20, median = 19, IQR = 14-29), feeding/eating disorders/problems: 15.8%, 48.1%, 82.4%, 15.5 years (k = 11, median = 18, IQR = 15-23), conditions specifically associated with stress disorders: 16.9%, 27.6%, 43.1%, 15.5 years (k = 16, median = 30, IQR = 17-48), substance use disorders/addictive behaviours: 2.9%, 15.2%, 48.8%, 19.5 years (k = 58, median = 25, IQR = 20-41), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders/primary psychotic states: 3%, 12.3%, 47.8%, 20.5 years (k = 36, median = 25, IQR = 20-34), personality disorders/related traits: 1.9%, 9.6%, 47.7%, 20.5 years (k = 6, median = 25, IQR = 20-33), and mood disorders: 2.5%, 11.5%, 34.5%, 20.5 years (k = 79, median = 31, IQR = 21-46). No significant difference emerged by sex, or definition of age of onset. Median age at onset for specific mental disorders mapped on a time continuum, from phobias/separation anxiety/autism spectrum disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/social anxiety (8-13 years) to anorexia nervosa/bulimia nervosa/obsessive-compulsive/binge eating/cannabis use disorders (17-22 years), followed by schizophrenia, personality, panic and alcohol use disorders (25-27 years), and finally post-traumatic/depressive/generalized anxiety/bipolar/acute and transient psychotic disorders (30-35 years), with overlap among groups and no significant clustering. These results inform the timing of good mental health promotion/preventive/early intervention, updating the current mental health system structured around a child/adult service schism at age 18.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01161-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Affective symptom dimensions in early-onset psychosis over time: a principal component factor analysis of the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, C/Ibiza, 43, 28009, Madrid, Spain.

Early-onset psychosis (EOP) is a complex disorder characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including affective symptoms. Our aim was to (1) examine the dimensional structure of affective symptoms in EOP, (2) evaluate the predominance of the clinical dimensions and (3) assess the progression of the clinical dimensions over a 2-year period. STROBE-compliant prospective principal component factor analysis of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 (HDRS-21) at baseline, 6-months, 1-year and 2-year follow-up. We included 108 EOP individuals (mean age = 15.5 ± 1.8 years, 68.5% male). The factor analysis produced a four-factor model including the following dimensions: mania, depression/anxiety, sleep and psychosis. It explained 47.4% of the total variance at baseline, 60.6% of the total variance at 6-months follow-up, 54.5% of the total variance at 1-year follow-up and 49.5% of the total variance at 2-year follow-up. According to the variance explained, the mania factor was predominant at baseline (17.4%), 6-month follow-up (23.5%) and 2-year follow-up (26.1%), while the depression/anxiety factor was predominant at 1-year follow-up (23.1%). The mania factor was the most stable; 58.3% items that appeared in this factor (with a load > 0.4) at any time point appeared in the same factor at ≥ 3/4 time points. Affective symptoms are frequent and persistent in EOP. Mania seems to be the most predominant and stable affective dimension. However, depression and anxiety may gain predominance with time. A comprehensive evaluation of the dimensional structure and the progression of affective symptoms may offer clinical and therapeutic advantages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-021-01815-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Psychotic experiences can occur in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some of the ASD individuals with these experiences may fulfil Clinical High-Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) criteria. A systematic literature search was performed to review the information on ASD and CHR-P. A meta-analysis of the proportion of CHR-P in ASD was conducted. The systematic review included 13 studies. The mean age of ASD individuals across the included studies was 11.09 years. The Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome subgroup was the most frequently reported. Four studies were meta-analysed, showing that 11.6% of CHR-P individuals have an ASD diagnosis. Symptoms of prodromal psychosis may be present in individuals with ASD. The transition from CHR-P to psychosis is not affected by ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05046-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Universal and Selective Interventions to Prevent Poor Mental Health Outcomes in Young People: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun 01;29(3):196-215

From the Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Laboratory, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London (Drs. Salazar de Pablo, De Micheli, Catalan, Verdino, Di Maggio, Radua, Provenzani, Montealegre, Signorini, and Fusar-Poli, and Mr. Oliver); Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Dr. Salazar de Pablo) and of Psychosis Studies (Drs. Bonoldi and Baccaredda Boy), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid (Drs. Salazar de Pablo and Arango); National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Drs. De Micheli and Fusar-Poli); Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia (Drs. Di Maggio, Provenzani, Ruzzi, Calorio, Nosari, Di Marco, Famularo, Molteni, Filosi, Mensi, Balottin, Politi, and Fusar-Poli); Neurosciences Department, University of Padova (Dr. Solmi); Mental Health Department, Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Basurto University Hospital, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Campus de Leioa, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain (Dr. Catalan); Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, University of Siena (Dr. Verdino); Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona (Dr. Radua); Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Dr. Radua); Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS) Mondino Foundation, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatric Unit (Dr. Mensi); Department of Paediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Dr. Shin); Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY (Dr. Correll); Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Dr. Correll); OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Dr. Fusar-Poli).

Background: Much is not known about the efficacy of interventions to prevent poor mental health outcomes in young people by targeting either the general population (universal prevention) or asymptomatic individuals with high risk of developing a mental disorder (selective prevention).

Methods: We conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of Web of Science to identify studies comparing post-test efficacy (effect size [ES]; Hedges' g) of universal or selective interventions for poor mental health outcomes versus control groups, in samples with mean age <35 years (PROSPERO: CRD42018102143). Measurements included random-effects models, I2 statistics, publication bias, meta-regression, sensitivity analyses, quality assessments, number needed to treat, and population impact number.

Results: 295 articles (447,206 individuals; mean age = 15.4) appraising 17 poor mental health outcomes were included. Compared to control conditions, universal and selective interventions improved (in descending magnitude order) interpersonal violence, general psychological distress, alcohol use, anxiety features, affective symptoms, other emotional and behavioral problems, consequences of alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder features, conduct problems, tobacco use, externalizing behaviors, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder features, and cannabis use, but not eating-related problems, impaired functioning, internalizing behavior, or sleep-related problems. Psychoeducation had the highest effect size for ADHD features, affective symptoms, and interpersonal violence. Psychotherapy had the highest effect size for anxiety features.

Conclusion: Universal and selective preventive interventions for young individuals are feasible and can improve poor mental health outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000294DOI Listing
May 2021

Association Between Specific Childhood Adversities and Symptom Dimensions in People With Psychosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jul;47(4):975-985

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Despite the accepted link between childhood abuse and positive psychotic symptoms, findings between other adversities, such as neglect, and the remaining dimensions in people with psychosis have been inconsistent, with evidence not yet reviewed quantitatively. The aim of this study was to systematically examine quantitatively the association between broadly defined childhood adversity (CA), abuse (sexual/physical/emotional), and neglect (physical/emotional) subtypes, with positive, negative, depressive, manic, and disorganized dimensions in those with psychosis. A search was conducted across EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Libraries using search terms related to psychosis population, CA, and psychopathological dimensions. After reviewing for relevance, data were extracted, synthesized, and meta-analyzed. Forty-seven papers were identified, including 7379 cases across 40 studies examining positive, 37 negative, 20 depressive, 9 disorganized, and 13 manic dimensions. After adjustment for publication bias, general adversity was positively associated with all dimensions (ranging from r = 0.08 to r = 0.24). Most forms of abuse were associated with depressive (ranging from r = 0.16 to r = 0.32), positive (ranging from r = 0.14 to r = 0.16), manic (r = 0.13), and negative dimensions (ranging from r = 0.05 to r = 0.09), while neglect was only associated with negative (r = 0.13) and depressive dimensions (ranging from r = 0.16 to r = 0.20). When heterogeneity was found, it tended to be explained by one specific study. The depressive dimension was influenced by percentage of women (ranging from r = 0.83 to r = 1.36) and poor-quality scores (ranging from r = -0.21 and r = -0.059). Quality was judged as fair overall. Broadly defined adversity and forms of abuse increase transdimensional severity. Being exposed to neglect during childhood seems to be exclusively related to negative and depressive dimensions suggesting specific effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266673PMC
July 2021

What are the physical and mental health implications of duration of untreated psychosis?

Eur Psychiatry 2021 Mar 29;64(1):e46. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.22DOI Listing
March 2021

Corrigendum to "Real-world long-term outcomes in individuals at clinical risk for psychosis: The case for extending duration of care" [EClinicalMedicine 28 (2020) 100,578].

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Feb 4;32:100729. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100578.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868808PMC
February 2021

Establishing a clinical service to prevent psychosis: What, how and when? Systematic review.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 13;11(1):43. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

The first rate-limiting step to successfully translate prevention of psychosis in to clinical practice is to establish specialised Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) services. This study systematises the knowledge regarding CHR-P services and provides guidelines for translational implementation. We conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant (PROSPERO-CRD42020163640) systematic review of Web of Science to identify studies until 4/05/2020 reporting on CHR-P service configuration, outreach strategy and referrals, service user characteristics, interventions, and outcomes. Fifty-six studies (1998-2020) were included, encompassing 51 distinct CHR-P services across 15 countries and a catchment area of 17,252,666 people. Most services (80.4%) consisted of integrated multidisciplinary teams taking care of CHR-P and other patients. Outreach encompassed active (up to 97.6%) or passive (up to 63.4%) approaches: referrals came mostly (90%) from healthcare agencies. CHR-P individuals were more frequently males (57.2%). Most (70.6%) services accepted individuals aged 12-35 years, typically assessed with the CAARMS/SIPS (83.7%). Baseline comorbid mental conditions were reported in two-third (69.5%) of cases, and unemployment in one third (36.6%). Most services provided up to 2-years (72.4%), of clinical monitoring (100%), psychoeducation (81.1%), psychosocial support (73%), family interventions (73%), individual (67.6%) and group (18.9%) psychotherapy, physical health interventions (37.8%), antipsychotics (87.1%), antidepressants (74.2%), anxiolytics (51.6%), and mood stabilisers (38.7%). Outcomes were more frequently ascertained clinically (93.0%) and included: persistence of symptoms/comorbidities (67.4%), transition to psychosis (53.5%), and functional status (48.8%). We provide ten practical recommendations for implementation of CHR-P services. Health service knowledge summarised by the current study will facilitate translational efforts for implementation of CHR-P services worldwide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01165-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807021PMC
January 2021

Real-world long-term outcomes in individuals at clinical risk for psychosis: The case for extending duration of care.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Nov 7;28:100578. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Most services for individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) provide short-term clinical care. This study determines the real-world and long-term clinical outcomes beyond transition to psychosis in a large cohort of CHR-P individuals.

Method: Retrospective RECORD-compliant real-world Electronic Health Records (EHR) cohort study in secondary mental health care (the South London and the Maudsley -SLaM- NHS Foundation Trust). All CHR-P patients accessing the CHR-P service at SLaM in the period 2001-2018 were included. Main outcomes were long-term cumulative risk of first: (i) developing an ICD-10 psychotic disorder (primary outcome), receiving a treatment with (iia) antipsychotic medication, (iib) benzodiazepines, (iic) other psychotropic medications, (iid) psychotherapy, receiving an (iiia) informal or (iiib) compulsory admission into a mental health hospital, and the time to these events; (iiic) number of days spent in hospital and (iv) cumulative risk of death for any reason and age/gender Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR). Data were extracted from the EHR and analysed with Kaplan Meier failure functions, Cox and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions.

Findings: 600 CHR-P patients (80.43% Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms, APS; 18.06%, Brief and Limited Intermittent Psychotic Symptoms, BLIPS, 1.51% Genetic Risk and Deterioration Syndrome) were included (mean age 22.63 years, range 13-36; 55.33% males; 46.44% white, mean duration of untreated attenuated psychotic symptoms 676.32 days, 1105.40 SD). The cumulative risk to first psychosis was 0.365 (95%CI 0.302-0.437) at 11 years; first antipsychotic 0.777 (95%CI 0.702-0.844) at 9 years; first benzodiazepine 0.259 (95%CI 0.183-0.359) at 12 years; first other types of medications 0.630 (95%CI 0.538-0.772) at 9 years; first psychotherapy 0.814 (95%CI 0.764-0.859) at 9 years; first informal admission 0.378 (95%CI 0.249-0.546) at 12 years; first compulsory admission 0.251 (95%CI 0.175-0.352) at 12 years; those admitted spent on average 94.84 (SD=169.94) days in hospital; the cumulative risk of death for any reason was 0.036 (95%CI 0.012-0.103) at 9 years, with an SMR of 3.9 (95%CI 1.20-6.6). Compared to APS, BLIPS had a higher risk of developing psychosis, being admitted compulsorily into hospital, receiving antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and lower probability of receiving psychotherapy. Other prognostic factors of long-term outcomes included age, symptoms severity, duration of untreated attenuated psychotic symptoms, ethnicity and employment status.

Interpretation: Duration of care provided by CHR-P services should be expanded to address long-term real-world outcomes.

Funding: This study was supported by the King's College London Confidence in Concept award from the Medical Research Council (MRC) (MC_PC_16048) to PF-P. GSP is supported by the Alicia Koplowitz Foundation. HB is supported by a National Institute for Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre studentship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700893PMC
November 2020

Changes in telepsychiatry regulations during the COVID-19 pandemic: 17 countries and regions' approaches to an evolving healthcare landscape.

Psychol Med 2020 Nov 27:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telemedicine as a way to reduce COVID-19 infections was noted and consequently deregulated. However, the degree of telemedicine regulation varies from country to country, which may alter the widespread use of telemedicine. This study aimed to clarify the telepsychiatry regulations for each collaborating country/region before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We used snowball sampling within a global network of international telepsychiatry experts. Thirty collaborators from 17 different countries/regions responded to a questionnaire on barriers to the use and implementation of telepsychiatric care, including policy factors such as regulations and reimbursement at the end of 2019 and as of May 2020.

Results: Thirteen of 17 regions reported a relaxation of regulations due to the pandemic; consequently, all regions surveyed stated that telepsychiatry was now possible within their public healthcare systems. In some regions, restrictions on prescription medications allowed via telepsychiatry were eased, but in 11 of the 17 regions, there were still restrictions on prescribing medications via telepsychiatry. Lower insurance reimbursement amounts for telepsychiatry consultations v. in-person consultations were reevaluated in four regions, and consequently, in 15 regions telepsychiatry services were reimbursed at the same rate (or higher) than in-person consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusions: Our results confirm that, due to COVID-19, the majority of countries surveyed are altering telemedicine regulations that had previously restricted the spread of telemedicine. These findings provide information that could guide future policy and regulatory decisions, which facilitate greater scale and spread of telepsychiatry globally.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720004584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750654PMC
November 2020

DSM-5 Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in Adolescents Hospitalized With Non-psychotic Psychiatric Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2020 21;11:568982. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Psychiatry, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY, United States.

Although attenuated psychotic symptoms often occur for the first time during adolescence, studies focusing on adolescents are scarce. Attenuated psychotic symptoms form the criteria to identify individuals at increased clinical risk of developing psychosis. The study of individuals with these symptoms has led to the release of the DSM-5 diagnosis of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) as a condition for further research. We aimed to characterize and compare hospitalized adolescents with DSM-5-APS diagnosis vs. hospitalized adolescents without a DSM-5-APS diagnosis. Interviewing help-seeking, hospitalized adolescents (aged 12-18 years) and their caregivers independently with established research instruments, we (1) evaluated the presence of APS among non-psychotic adolescents, (2) characterized and compared APS and non-APS individuals regarding sociodemographic, illness and intervention characteristics, (3) correlated psychopathology with levels of functioning and severity of illness and (4) investigated the influence of individual clinical, functional and comorbidity variables on the likelihood of participants to be diagnosed with APS. Among 248 consecutively recruited adolescents (age=15.4 ± 1.5 years, females = 69.6%) with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, 65 (26.2%) fulfilled APS criteria and 183 (73.8%) did not fulfill them. Adolescents with APS had higher number of psychiatric disorders than non-APS adolescents (3.5 vs. 2.4, < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.77), particularly, disruptive behavior disorders (Cramer's V = 0.16), personality disorder traits (Cramer's V = 0.26), anxiety disorders (Cramer's V = 0.15), and eating disorders (Cramer's V = 0.16). Adolescents with APS scored higher on positive (Cohen's d = 1.5), negative (Cohen's d = 0.55), disorganized (Cohen's d = 0.51), and general symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.84), and were more severely ill (Cohen's d = 1.0) and functionally impaired (Cohen's d = 0.31). Negative symptoms were associated with lower functional levels (Pearson ρ = -0.17 to -0.20; = 0.014 to 0.031). Global illness severity was associated with higher positive, negative, and general symptoms (Pearson ρ = 0.22 to 0.46; = 0.04 to < 0.001). APS status was independently associated with perceptual abnormalities (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.6-2.5, < 0.001), number of psychiatric diagnoses (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0, = 0.002), and impaired stress tolerance (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7, = 0.002) ( = 0.315, < 0.001). A considerable number of adolescents hospitalized with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders meet DSM-5-APS criteria. These help-seeking adolescents have more comorbid disorders and more severe symptoms, functional impairment, and severity of illness than non-APS adolescents. Thus, they warrant high intensity clinical care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.568982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609900PMC
October 2020

Universal and selective interventions to promote good mental health in young people: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 12 6;41:28-39. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Promotion of good mental health in young people is important. Our aim was to evaluate the consistency and magnitude of the efficacy of universal/selective interventions to promote good mental health. A systematic PRISMA/RIGHT-compliant meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42018088708) search of Web of Science until 04/31/2019 identified original studies comparing the efficacy of universal/selective interventions for good mental health vs a control group, in samples with a mean age <35 years. Meta-analytical random-effects model, heterogeneity statistics, assessment of publication bias, study quality and sensitivity analyses investigated the efficacy (Hedges' g=effect size, ES) of universal/selective interventions to promote 14 good mental health outcomes defined a-priori. 276 studies were included (total participants: 159,508, 79,142 interventions and 80,366 controls), mean age=15.0 (SD=7.4); female=56.0%. There was a significant overall improvement in 10/13 good mental health outcome categories that could be meta-analysed: compared to controls, interventions significantly improved (in descending order of magnitude) mental health literacy (ES=0.685, p<0.001), emotions (ES=0.541, p<0.001), self-perceptions and values (ES=0.49, p<0.001), quality of life (ES=0.457, p=0.001), cognitive skills (ES=0.428, p<0.001), social skills (ES=0.371, p<0.001), physical health (ES=0.285, p<0.001), sexual health (ES=0.257, p=0.017), academic/occupational performance (ES=0.211, p<0.001) and attitude towards mental disorders (ES=0.177, p=0.006). Psychoeducation was the most effective intervention for promoting mental health literacy (ES=0.774, p<0.001) and cognitive skills (ES=1.153, p=0.03). Physical therapy, exercise and relaxation were more effective than psychoeducation and psychotherapy for promoting physical health (ES=0.498, p<0.001). In conclusion, several universal/selective interventions can be effective to promote good mental health in young people. Future research should consolidate and extend these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.10.007DOI Listing
December 2020

Environmental risk factors, protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD: an umbrella review.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 11;7(11):955-970

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, UK; Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS) Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute of Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Many potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD have been investigated, but the consistency and magnitude of their effects are unclear. We aimed to systematically appraise the published evidence of association between potential risk factors, protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers, and ADHD.

Methods: In this umbrella review of meta-analyses, we searched PubMed including MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from database inception to Oct 31, 2019, and screened the references of relevant articles. We included systematic reviews that provided meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations of potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers with diagnosis of ADHD. We included meta-analyses that used categorical ADHD diagnosis criteria according to DSM, hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD, or criteria that were less rigorous than DSM or ICD, such as self-report. We excluded articles that did not examine environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers of ADHD; articles that did not include a meta-analysis; and articles that did not present enough data for re-analysis. We excluded non-human studies, primary studies, genetic studies, and conference abstracts. We calculated summary effect estimates (odds ratio [OR], relative risk [RR], weighted mean difference [WMD], Cohen's d, and Hedges' g), 95% CI, heterogeneity I statistic, 95% prediction interval, small study effects, and excess significance biases. We did analyses under credibility ceilings, and assessed the quality of the meta-analyses with AMSTAR 2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2). This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019145032.

Findings: We identified 1839 articles, of which 35 were eligible for inclusion. These 35 articles yielded 63 meta-analyses encompassing 40 environmental risk factors and environmental protective factors (median cases 16 850, median population 91 954) and 23 peripheral biomarkers (median cases 175, median controls 187). Evidence of association was convincing (class I) for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 1·63, 95% CI 1·49 to 1·77), childhood eczema (1·31, 1·20 to 1·44), hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (1·29, 1·22 to 1·36), pre-eclampsia (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and maternal acetaminophen exposure during pregnancy (RR 1·25, 95% CI 1·17 to 1·34). Evidence of association was highly suggestive (class II) for maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·45 to 1·76), childhood asthma (1·51, 1·4 to 1·63), maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and serum vitamin D (WMD -6·93, 95% CI -9·34 to -4·51).

Interpretation: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight; pre-eclampsia, hypertension, acetaminophen exposure, and smoking during pregnancy; and childhood atopic diseases were strongly associated with ADHD. Previous familial studies suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, overweight, and smoking during pregnancy are confounded by familial or genetic factors, and further high-quality studies are therefore required to establish causality.

Funding: None.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30312-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Relationship between jumping to conclusions and clinical outcomes in people at clinical high-risk for psychosis.

Psychol Med 2020 Oct 6:1-9. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Psychosis is associated with a reasoning bias, which manifests as a tendency to 'jump to conclusions'. We examined this bias in people at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR) and investigated its relationship with their clinical outcomes.

Methods: In total, 303 CHR subjects and 57 healthy controls (HC) were included. Both groups were assessed at baseline, and after 1 and 2 years. A 'beads' task was used to assess reasoning bias. Symptoms and level of functioning were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States scale (CAARMS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), respectively. During follow up, 58 (16.1%) of the CHR group developed psychosis (CHR-T), and 245 did not (CHR-NT). Logistic regressions, multilevel mixed models, and Cox regression were used to analyse the relationship between reasoning bias and transition to psychosis and level of functioning, at each time point.

Results: There was no association between reasoning bias at baseline and the subsequent onset of psychosis. However, when assessed after the transition to psychosis, CHR-T participants showed a greater tendency to jump to conclusions than CHR-NT and HC participants (55, 17, 17%; χ2 = 8.13, p = 0.012). There was a significant association between jumping to conclusions (JTC) at baseline and a reduced level of functioning at 2-year follow-up in the CHR group after adjusting for transition, gender, ethnicity, age, and IQ.

Conclusions: In CHR participants, JTC at baseline was associated with adverse functioning at the follow-up. Interventions designed to improve JTC could be beneficial in the CHR population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720003396DOI Listing
October 2020

Annual Research Review: Prevention of psychosis in adolescents - systematic review and meta-analysis of advances in detection, prognosis and intervention.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 14;62(5):657-673. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: The clinical high-risk state for psychosis (CHR-P) paradigm has facilitated the implementation of psychosis prevention into clinical practice; however, advancements in adolescent CHR-P populations are less established.

Methods: We performed a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review of the Web of Science database, from inception until 7 October 2019, to identify original studies conducted in CHR-P children and adolescents (mean age <18 years). Findings were systematically appraised around core themes: detection, prognosis and intervention. We performed meta-analyses (employing Q statistics and I test) regarding the proportion of CHR-P subgroups, the prevalence of baseline comorbid mental disorders, the risk of psychosis onset and the type of interventions received at baseline. Quality assessment and publication bias were also analysed.

Results: Eighty-seven articles were included (n = 4,667 CHR-P individuals). Quality of studies ranged from 3.5 to 8 (median 5.5) on a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Detection: Individuals were aged 15.6 ± 1.2 years (51.5% males), mostly (83%) presenting with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. CHR-P psychometric accuracy improved when caregivers served as additional informants. Comorbid mood (46.4%) and anxiety (31.4%) disorders were highly prevalent. Functioning and cognition were impaired. Neurobiological studies were inconclusive.

Prognosis: Risk for psychosis was 10.4% (95%CI: 5.8%-18.1%) at 6 months, 20% (95%CI: 15%-26%) at 12 months, 23% (95%CI: 18%-29%) at 24 months and 23.3% (95%CI: 17.3%-30.7%) at ≥36 months.

Interventions: There was not enough evidence to recommend one specific treatment (including cognitive behavioural therapy) over the others (including control conditions) to prevent the transition to psychosis in this population. Randomised controlled trials suggested that family interventions, cognitive remediation and fish oil supplementation may improve cognition, symptoms and functioning. At baseline, 30% of CHR-P adolescents were prescribed antipsychotics and 60% received psychotherapy.

Conclusions: It is possible to detect and formulate a group-level prognosis in adolescents at risk for psychosis. Future interventional research is required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13322DOI Listing
May 2021

Implementing Precision Psychiatry: A Systematic Review of Individualized Prediction Models for Clinical Practice.

Schizophr Bull 2021 03;47(2):284-297

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, UK.

Background: The impact of precision psychiatry for clinical practice has not been systematically appraised. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of validated prediction models to estimate the individual risk of being affected with a condition (diagnostic), developing outcomes (prognostic), or responding to treatments (predictive) in mental disorders.

Methods: PRISMA/RIGHT/CHARMS-compliant systematic review of the Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Reviews, and Ovid/PsycINFO databases from inception until July 21, 2019 (PROSPERO CRD42019155713) to identify diagnostic/prognostic/predictive prediction studies that reported individualized estimates in psychiatry and that were internally or externally validated or implemented. Random effect meta-regression analyses addressed the impact of several factors on the accuracy of prediction models.

Findings: Literature search identified 584 prediction modeling studies, of which 89 were included. 10.4% of the total studies included prediction models internally validated (n = 61), 4.6% models externally validated (n = 27), and 0.2% (n = 1) models considered for implementation. Across validated prediction modeling studies (n = 88), 18.2% were diagnostic, 68.2% prognostic, and 13.6% predictive. The most frequently investigated condition was psychosis (36.4%), and the most frequently employed predictors clinical (69.5%). Unimodal compared to multimodal models (β = .29, P = .03) and diagnostic compared to prognostic (β = .84, p < .0001) and predictive (β = .87, P = .002) models were associated with increased accuracy.

Interpretation: To date, several validated prediction models are available to support the diagnosis and prognosis of psychiatric conditions, in particular, psychosis, or to predict treatment response. Advancements of knowledge are limited by the lack of implementation research in real-world clinical practice. A new generation of implementation research is required to address this translational gap.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7965077PMC
March 2021

Impact of coronavirus syndromes on physical and mental health of health care workers: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2020 10 25;275:48-57. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Section of Psychiatry, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk of developing physical/mental health outcomes related to coronavirus syndromes. Nature and frequency of these outcomes are undetermined.

Methods: PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant (PROSPERO-CRD42020180205) systematic review of Web of Science/grey literature until 15th April 2020, to identify studies reporting physical/mental health outcomes in HCW infected/exposed to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -SARS-, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome -MERS-, Novel coronavirus -COVID-19-. Proportion random effect meta-analyses, I statistic, quality assessment and sensitivity analysis.

Results: 115 articles were included (n=60,458 HCW, age 36.1±7.1, 77.1% female). Physical health outcomes: 75.9% HCW infected by SARS/MERS/COVID-19 reported fever (95%CI=65.9-83.7%, k=12, n=949), 47.9% cough (95%CI=39.2-56.8%, k=14, n=970), 43.6% myalgias (95%CI=31.9-56.0%, k=13, n=898), 42.3% chills (95%CI=20.2-67.9%, k=7, n=716), 41.2% fatigue (95%CI=18.2-68.8%, k=6, n=386), 34.6% headaches (95%CI=23.1-48.2%, k=11, n=893), 31.2% dyspnoea (95%CI=23.2-40.5%, k=12, n=1003), 25.3% sore throat (95%CI=18.8-33.2%, k=8, n=747), 22.2% nausea/vomiting (95%CI=14.9-31.8%, k=6, n=662), 18.8% diarrhoea (95%CI=11.9-28.4%, k=9, n=824). Mental health outcomes: 62.5% HCW exposed to SARS/MERS/COVID-19 reported general health concerns (95%CI=57.0-67,8%, k=2, n=2254), 43.7% fear (95%CI=33.9-54.0%, k=4, n=584), 37.9% insomnia (95%CI=30.9-45.5%, k=6, n=5067), 37.8% psychological distress (95%CI=28.4-48.2%, k=15, n=24,346), 34.4% burnout (95%CI=19.3-53.5%, k=3, n=1337), 29.0% anxiety features (95%CI=14.2-50.3%, k=6, n=9191), 26.3% depressive symptoms (95%CI=12.5-47.1%, k=8, n=9893), 20.7% post-traumatic stress disorder features (95%CI=13.2-31%, k=11, n=3826), 16.1% somatisation (95%CI=0.2-96.0%, k=2, n=2184), 14.0% stigmatisation feelings (95%CI=6.4-28.1%, k=2, n=411).

Limitations: Limited amount of evidence for some outcomes and suboptimal design in several studies included.

Conclusions: SARS/MERS/COVID-19 have a substantial impact on the physical and mental health of HCW, which should become a priority for public health strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314697PMC
October 2020

Prenatal and perinatal risk and protective factors for psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 05 24;7(5):399-410. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Outreach And Support in South London (OASIS) Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Prenatal and perinatal insults are implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of psychotic disorders but the consistency and magnitude of their associations with psychosis have not been updated for nearly two decades. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of the evidence on the association between prenatal or perinatal risk and protective factors and psychotic disorders.

Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched the Web of Science database for articles published up to July 20, 2019. We identified cohort and case-control studies examining the association (odds ratio [OR]) between prenatal and perinatal factors and any International Classification of Diseases (ICD) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) non-organic psychotic disorder with a healthy comparison group. Other inclusion criteria were enough data available to do the analyses, and non-overlapping datasets. We excluded reviews, meta-analyses, abstracts or conference proceedings, and articles with overlapping datasets. Data were extracted according to EQUATOR and PRISMA guidelines. Extracted variables included first author, publication year, study type, sample size, type of psychotic diagnosis (non-affective psychoses or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, affective psychoses) and diagnostic instrument (DSM or ICD and version), the risk or protective factor, and measure of association (primary outcome). We did random-effects pairwise meta-analyses, Q statistics, I index, sensitivity analyses, meta-regressions, and assessed study quality and publication bias. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO, CRD42017079261.

Findings: 152 studies relating to 98 risk or protective factors were eligible for analysis. Significant risk factors were: maternal age younger than 20 years (OR 1·17) and 30-34 years (OR 1·05); paternal age younger than 20 years (OR 1·31) and older than 35 years (OR 1·28); any maternal (OR 4·60) or paternal (OR 2·73) psychopathology; maternal psychosis (OR 7·61) and affective disorder (OR 2·26); three or more pregnancies (OR 1·30); herpes simplex 2 (OR 1·35); maternal infections not otherwise specified (NOS; OR 1·27); suboptimal number of antenatal visits (OR 1·83); winter (OR 1·05) and winter to spring (OR 1·05) season of birth in the northern hemisphere; maternal stress NOS (OR 2·40); famine (OR 1·61); any famine or nutritional deficits in pregnancy (OR 1·40); maternal hypertension (OR 1·40); hypoxia (OR 1·63); ruptured (OR 1·86) and premature rupture (OR 2·29) of membranes; polyhydramnios (OR 3·05); definite obstetric complications NOS (OR 1·83); birthweights of less than 2000 g (OR 1·84), less than 2500 g (OR 1·53), or 2500-2999 g (OR 1·23); birth length less than 49 cm (OR 1·17); small for gestational age (OR 1·40); premature birth (OR 1·35), and congenital malformations (OR 2·35). Significant protective factors were maternal ages 20-24 years (OR 0·93) and 25-29 years (OR 0·92), nulliparity (OR 0·91), and birthweights 3500-3999 g (OR 0·90) or more than 4000 g (OR 0·86). The results were corrected for publication biases; sensitivity and meta-regression analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings for most factors.

Interpretation: Several prenatal and perinatal factors are associated with the later onset of psychosis. The updated knowledge emerging from this study could refine understanding of psychosis pathogenesis, enhance multivariable risk prediction, and inform preventive strategies.

Funding: None.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30057-2DOI Listing
May 2020

Prevention of Psychosis: Advances in Detection, Prognosis, and Intervention.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 07;77(7):755-765

Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Complutense, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Importance: Detection, prognosis, and indicated interventions in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) are key components of preventive psychiatry.

Objective: To provide a comprehensive, evidence-based systematic appraisal of the advancements and limitations of detection, prognosis, and interventions for CHR-P individuals and to formulate updated recommendations.

Evidence Review: Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Reviews, and Ovid/PsychINFO were searched for articles published from January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2019, to identify meta-analyses conducted in CHR-P individuals. MEDLINE was used to search the reference lists of retrieved articles. Data obtained from each article included first author, year of publication, topic investigated, type of publication, study design and number, sample size of CHR-P population and comparison group, type of comparison group, age and sex of CHR-P individuals, type of prognostic assessment, interventions, quality assessment (using AMSTAR [Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews]), and key findings with their effect sizes.

Findings: In total, 42 meta-analyses published in the past 6 years and encompassing 81 outcomes were included. For the detection component, CHR-P individuals were young (mean [SD] age, 20.6 [3.2] years), were more frequently male (58%), and predominantly presented with attenuated psychotic symptoms lasting for more than 1 year before their presentation at specialized services. CHR-P individuals accumulated several sociodemographic risk factors compared with control participants. Substance use (33% tobacco use and 27% cannabis use), comorbid mental disorders (41% with depressive disorders and 15% with anxiety disorders), suicidal ideation (66%), and self-harm (49%) were also frequently seen in CHR-P individuals. CHR-P individuals showed impairments in work (Cohen d = 0.57) or educational functioning (Cohen d = 0.21), social functioning (Cohen d = 1.25), and quality of life (Cohen d = 1.75). Several neurobiological and neurocognitive alterations were confirmed in this study. For the prognosis component, the prognostic accuracy of CHR-P instruments was good, provided they were used in clinical samples. Overall, risk of psychosis was 22% at 3 years, and the risk was the highest in the brief and limited intermittent psychotic symptoms subgroup (38%). Baseline severity of attenuated psychotic (Cohen d = 0.35) and negative symptoms (Cohen d = 0.39) as well as low functioning (Cohen d = 0.29) were associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Controlling risk enrichment and implementing sequential risk assessments can optimize prognostic accuracy. For the intervention component, no robust evidence yet exists to favor any indicated intervention over another (including needs-based interventions and control conditions) for preventing psychosis or ameliorating any other outcome in CHR-P individuals. However, because the uncertainty of this evidence is high, needs-based and psychological interventions should still be offered.

Conclusions And Relevance: This review confirmed recent substantial advancements in the detection and prognosis of CHR-P individuals while suggesting that effective indicated interventions need to be identified. This evidence suggests a need for specialized services to detect CHR-P individuals in primary and secondary care settings, to formulate a prognosis with validated psychometric instruments, and to offer needs-based and psychological interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.4779DOI Listing
July 2020

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics, Including Subsyndromal Symptoms Across Bipolar-Spectrum Disorders in Adolescents.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2020 05 21;30(4):222-234. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, New York, USA.

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating illness that often starts at an early age. Prevention of first and subsequent mood episodes, which are usually preceded by a period characterized by subthreshold symptoms is important. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics including severity and duration of subsyndromal symptoms across adolescents with three different bipolar-spectrum disorders. Syndromal and subsyndromal psychopathology were assessed in adolescent inpatients (age = 12-18 years) with a clinical mood disorder diagnosis. Assessments included the validated Bipolar Prodrome Symptom Interview and Scale-Prospective (BPSS-P). We compared phenomenology across patients with a research consensus conference-confirmed DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) diagnoses of BD-I, BD-not otherwise specified (NOS), or mood disorder (MD) NOS. Seventy-six adolescents (age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, females = 59.2%) were included (BD-I = 24; BD-NOS = 29; MD-NOS = 23) in this study. Median baseline global assessment of functioning scale score was 21 (interquartile range = 17-40; between-group  = 0.31). Comorbidity was frequent, and similar across groups, including disruptive behavior disorders (55.5%,  = 0.27), anxiety disorders (40.8%,  = 0.98), and personality disorder traits (25.0%,  = 0.21). Mania symptoms (most frequent: irritability = 93.4%,  = 0.82) and depressive symptoms (most frequent: depressed mood = 81.6%,  = 0.14) were common in all three BD-spectrum groups. Manic and depressive symptoms were more severe in both BD-I and BD-NOS versus MD-NOS ( < 0.0001). Median duration of subthreshold manic symptoms was shorter in MD-NOS versus BD-NOS (11.7 vs. 20.4 weeks,  = 0.002) and substantial in both groups. The most used psychotropics upon discharge were antipsychotics (65.8%; BD-I = 79.2%; BD-NOS = 62.1%; MD-NOS = 56.5%,  = 0.227), followed by mood stabilizers (43.4%; BD-I = 66.7%; BD-NOS = 31.0%; MD-NOS = 34.8%,  = 0.02) and antidepressants (19.7%; BD-I = 20.8%; BD-NOS = 10.3%; MD-NOS = 30.4%). Youth with BD-I, BD-NOS, and MD-NOS experience considerable symptomatology and are functionally impaired, with few differences observed in psychiatric comorbidity and clinical severity. Moreover, youth with BD-NOS and MD-NOS undergo a period with subthreshold manic symptoms, enabling identification and, possibly, preventive intervention of those at risk for developing BD or other affective episodes requiring hospitalization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2019.0138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232658PMC
May 2020

What is good mental health? A scoping review.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 02 31;31:33-46. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Promotion of good mental health in young people with and without mental disorders has received little empirical research attention and interventions for improving mental health in young people are not well established. This situation could be explained among other reasons due to the difficulties to define and operationalise what good mental health is. The current manuscript, produced by the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Thematic Working Group on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion (ECNP TWG PMD-MHP), presents a critical review of the available operationalizations for good mental health. A pragmatic conceptual operationalisation of good mental health is a much-needed step towards more standardised research in this field. Good mental health can be defined as a state of well-being that allows individuals to cope with the normal stresses of life and function productively. Universal and selective interventions are suitable to promote mental health. Core domains that define good mental health encompass: (i) mental health literacy, (ii) attitude towards mental disorders, (iii) self-perceptions and values, (iv) cognitive skills, (v) academic/ occupational performance, (vi) emotions, (vii) behaviours, (viii) self-management strategies, (ix) social skills, (x) family and significant relationships (xi) physical health, (xii) sexual health, (xiii) meaning of life, (xiv) and quality of life. These domains should be widely traceable in the literature and can be used to conduct further empirical research in the field of good mental health. Such data can lead to more robust evidence to identify and establish the pathways to follow in order to improve mental health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2019.12.105DOI Listing
February 2020

Clinical Validity of DSM-5 Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome: Advances in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 03;77(3):311-320

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Since the release of the DSM-5 diagnosis of attenuated psychosis syndrome (DSM-5-APS) in 2013, several research studies have investigated its clinical validity. Although critical and narrative reviews have reviewed these progresses, no systematic review has comprehensively summarized the available evidence regarding the clinical validity of DSM-5-APS.

Objective: To provide current evidence on the clinical validity of DSM-5-APS, focusing on recent advances in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

Evidence Review: A multistep literature search using the Web of Science database, Cochrane Central Register of Reviews, Ovid/PsychINFO, conference proceedings, and trial registries from database inception to June 16, 2019, was conducted following PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines and PROSPERO protocol. Studies with original data investigating individuals diagnosed using DSM-5-APS or meeting comparable criteria were included. The results of the systematic review were summarized in tables and narratively synthesized against established evidence-based antecedent, concurrent, and prognostic validators. A quantitative meta-analysis was conducted to explore the cumulative risk of psychosis onset at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months in individuals diagnosed using DSM-5-APS criteria.

Findings: The systematic review included 56 articles, which reported on 124 validators, including 15 antecedent, 55 concurrent, and 54 prognostic validators. The epidemiological prevalence of the general non-help-seeking young population meeting DSM-5-APS criteria was 0.3%; the prevalence of individuals meeting DSM-5-APS criteria was variable in clinical samples. The interrater reliability for DSM-5-APS criteria was comparable with that of other DSM-5 mental disorders and can be optimized by the use of specific psychometric instruments. DSM-5-APS criteria were associated with frequent depressive comorbid disorders, distress, suicidality, and functional impairment. The meta-analysis included 23 prospective cohort studies, including 2376 individuals. The meta-analytical risk of psychosis onset was 11% at 6 months, 15% at 12 months, 20% at 24 months, and 23% at 36 months. Research into predisposing and precipitating epidemiological factors, neurobiological correlates, and effective treatments for DSM-5-APS criteria has been limited.

Conclusions And Relevance: Over recent years, DSM-5-APS criteria have received substantial concurrent and prognostic validation, mostly driven by research into the clinical high-risk state for psychosis. Precipitating and predisposing factors, neurobiological correlates, and effective treatments are undetermined to date.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.3561DOI Listing
March 2020

Applications of Developmental Psychopathology.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1192:429-451

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, School of Medicine, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Complutense (UCM), IiSGM, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.

Developmental psychopathology studies the basic mechanisms, including not only biological factors but also environmental and social factors that may interact with them, by means of which developmental pathways deviate toward pathological or typical outcomes. Family studies conducted during the last century show substantial evidence of heritability among psychiatric disorders. Besides, a large number of genes implicated in shaping the development of the central nervous system have been related to psychiatric conditions. In addition, there is a wide range of stressors and harmful agents that, when acting on sensitive developmental periods, might damage brain function and generate or precipitate psychopathology over time. All these factors have the potential to change the way disorders with a neurodevelopmental origin are expressed, including their age of appearance and clinical manifestations. Both symptoms and social impairment need to be considered in clinical evaluations, as treatment is unlikely to be effective if the problem has not been characterized correctly or if the patients' particular characteristics, which change throughout development, are not taken into consideration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9721-0_21DOI Listing
November 2019

Functional Gastrointestinal Disease in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Descriptive Study in a Clinical Sample.

Front Psychiatry 2019 10;10:179. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with complex multifactorial etiologies. Medical comorbidities are common in ASD and include functional gastrointestinal disorders (fGID), which are reported in 30-70% of patients. In this research study, we aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal problems in ASD and describe their clinical correlates. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to the Comprehensive Medical Program for ASD (AMITEA) at Gregorio Marañón University General Hospital from January 2012 to December 2015. All patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for ASD (DSM-IV-TR). In addition to fGID, epidemiological and clinical variables were collected at intake. Clinical and demographic features were compared among subjects with and without comorbid gastrointestinal problems. The analyses included all patients with documented information about presence/absence of fGID ( = 845; 95% of patients). Ages ranged from 1 to 53 years (mean = 10.52; SD = 8.92; 80.4% males). At least one fGID was present in 30.5% of patients, constipation being the most prevalent (47.4% of fGID patients); fGID were significantly associated with intellectual disability (ID) ( = 0.017), sleep disorders ( = 0.012), and prescription of psychopharmacological treatment ( = 0.019). Almost one-third of ASD patients in our sample had at least one fGID. The presence of fGID was associated with ID, sleep problems and with behavioral problems (as measured by the prescription of psychotropic drugs). This subsample of ASD patients with fGID deserves particular attention in future research projects, focusing on specific phenotypic characteristics and overlapping biological markers that may underlie both pathologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469513PMC
April 2019

Importance of training in de-escalation techniques for the prevention and management of agitation.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2020 Jan - Mar;13(1):48-49. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Hospital Universitario de Alava-Santiago, CIBERSAM, EHU, Vitoria, España; Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría Biológica, CIBERSAM.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2019.02.004DOI Listing
April 2019
-->