Publications by authors named "Gonzalo Rincon"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Intestinal Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Enrichment of Genes Associated with Immune and Lipid Mechanisms, Favoring Soybean Meal Tolerance in High-Growth Zebrafish ().

Genes (Basel) 2021 05 8;12(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Núcleo de Investigaciones Aplicadas en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas, Universidad de Las Américas, Avenida Manuel Montt 948, Santiago 7500975, Chile.

The molecular mechanisms underlying fish tolerance to soybean meal (SBM) remain unclear. Identifying these mechanisms would be beneficial, as this trait favors growth. Two fish replicates from 19 experimental families were fed fishmeal-(100FM) or SBM-based diets supplemented with saponin (50SBM + 2SPN) from juvenile to adult stages. Individuals were selected from families with a genotype-by-environment interaction higher (HG-50SBM + 2SPN, 170 ± 18 mg) or lower (LG-50SBM + 2SPN, 76 ± 10 mg) weight gain on 50SBM + 2SPN for intestinal transcriptomic analysis. A histological evaluation confirmed middle intestinal inflammation in the LG- vs. HG-50SBM + 2SPN group. Enrichment analysis of 665 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified pathways associated with immunity and lipid metabolism. Genes linked to intestinal immunity were downregulated in HG fish (, , , , , , ), likely dampening inflammatory responses. Conversely, genes involved in retinol signaling were upregulated (, , ), potentially favoring growth by suppressing insulin responses. Genes associated with lipid metabolism were upregulated, including key components of the SREBP (, , ) and cholesterol catabolism (), as well as the downregulation of . These results strongly suggest that transcriptomic changes in lipid metabolism mediate SBM tolerance. Genotypic variations in DEGs may become biomarkers for improving early selection of fish tolerant to SMB or others plant-based diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12050700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151431PMC
May 2021

More than one million barriers fragment Europe's rivers.

Nature 2020 12 16;588(7838):436-441. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Łódź, Poland.

Rivers support some of Earth's richest biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services to society, but they are often fragmented by barriers to free flow. In Europe, attempts to quantify river connectivity have been hampered by the absence of a harmonized barrier database. Here we show that there are at least 1.2 million instream barriers in 36 European countries (with a mean density of 0.74 barriers per kilometre), 68 per cent of which are structures less than two metres in height that are often overlooked. Standardized walkover surveys along 2,715 kilometres of stream length for 147 rivers indicate that existing records underestimate barrier numbers by about 61 per cent. The highest barrier densities occur in the heavily modified rivers of central Europe and the lowest barrier densities occur in the most remote, sparsely populated alpine areas. Across Europe, the main predictors of barrier density are agricultural pressure, density of river-road crossings, extent of surface water and elevation. Relatively unfragmented rivers are still found in the Balkans, the Baltic states and parts of Scandinavia and southern Europe, but these require urgent protection from proposed dam developments. Our findings could inform the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy, which aims to reconnect 25,000 kilometres of Europe's rivers by 2030, but achieving this will require a paradigm shift in river restoration that recognizes the widespread impacts caused by small barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-3005-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Integrated Transcriptome and Histone Modification Analysis Reveals NDV Infection Under Heat Stress Affects Bursa Development and Proliferation in Susceptible Chicken Line.

Front Genet 2020 25;11:567812. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Two environmental factors, Newcastle disease and heat stress, are concurrently negatively impacting poultry worldwide and warrant greater attention into developing genetic resistance within chickens. Using two genetically distinct and highly inbred layer lines, Fayoumi and Leghorn, we explored how different genetic backgrounds affect the bursal response to a treatment of simultaneous Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection at 6 days postinfection (dpi) while under chronic heat stress. The bursa is a primary lymphoid organ within birds and is crucial for the development of B cells. We performed RNA-seq and ChIP-seq targeting histone modifications on bursa tissue. Differential gene expression revealed that Leghorn, compared to Fayoumi, had significant down-regulation in genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell division. Interestingly, we also found greater differences in histone modification levels in response to treatment in Leghorns than Fayoumis, and biological processes enriched in associated target genes of H3K27ac and H3K4me1 were similarly associated with cell cycle and receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Lastly, we found candidate variants between the two genetic lines within exons of differentially expressed genes and regulatory elements with differential histone modification enrichment between the lines, which provides a strong foundation for understanding the effects of genetic variation on NDV resistance under heat stress. This study provides further understanding of the cellular mechanisms affected by NDV infection under heat stress in chicken bursa and identified potential genes and regulatory regions that may be targets for developing genetic resistance within chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.567812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545831PMC
September 2020

T cell epitope content comparison (EpiCC) analysis demonstrates a bivalent PCV2 vaccine has greater T cell epitope overlap with field strains than monovalent PCV2 vaccines.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2020 May 6;223:110034. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Zoetis, Inc., Kalamazoo, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has one of the highest evolutionary rates among DNA viruses. Traditionally, PCV2 vaccines have been based on the 2a genotype as this was the first genotype discovered. Today, eight genotypes of PCV2 viruses have been identified, and, taken together with the rapid evolutionary rate, propensity to recombine, and high rate of vaccination, further variation in PCV2 is expected. For these reasons, there is a growing genetic gap between available vaccines and field strains. When selecting vaccines, it is important to consider vaccines that contain T cell epitopes that are well-matched to the circulating strains. To quantify the relatedness between PCV2 vaccines and field strains, we predicted and compared their T cell epitope content and calculated Epitope Content Comparison (EpiCC) scores using established in silico tools. T cell epitopes predicted to bind common class I and class II swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) alleles were identified from two major structural proteins, the capsid (encoded by ORF2) and the replicase (encoded by ORF1). The T cell epitope content of three commercial PCV2a-based vaccines (a baculovirus expressed PCV2a ORF2 [VacAlt], a PCV1-PCV2a chimeric virus vaccine [VacA] and a combination cPCV2a-cPCV2b chimeric virus vaccine [VacAB]) and an experimental PCV2b ORF2-based chimeric virus vaccine [VacB] (Table 1), were compared to that of 161 PCV2 field strains (representing genotypes a-f). The T cell epitope content and conservation between vaccine and field strains varied. While all vaccine strains provided broad coverage of the field strains including heterologous genotypes, none of the vaccines covered all the putative T cell epitopes identified in the field strains. PCV2a-based vaccine strains generally scored higher in terms of conserved epitope content against PCV2a field isolates but were not identical. The PCV2b-based vaccine strain had higher scores against PCV2b and PCV2d field strains. The combination PCV2a-PCV2b vaccine (VacAB) had, on average, the highest EpiCC score. PCV2 continues to evolve and EpiCC analysis provides a new tool to assess the possible impact of virus genetic divergence on T cell epitope coverage of vaccine strains. Given that multiple genotypes are currently found and may co-exist on farms, this analysis suggests that a combination of PCV2a and PCV2b vaccine strains may be required to provide optimal coverage of current and future field isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2020.110034DOI Listing
May 2020

Revisiting the Evolution and Taxonomy of Clostridia, a Phylogenomic Update.

Genome Biol Evol 2019 07;11(7):2035-2044

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Clostridium is a large genus of obligate anaerobes belonging to the Firmicutes phylum of bacteria, most of which have a Gram-positive cell wall structure. The genus includes significant human and animal pathogens, causative of potentially deadly diseases such as tetanus and botulism. Despite their relevance and many studies suggesting that they are not a monophyletic group, the taxonomy of the group has largely been neglected. Currently, species belonging to the genus are placed in the unnatural order defined as Clostridiales, which includes the class Clostridia. Here, we used genomic data from 779 strains to study the taxonomy and evolution of the group. This analysis allowed us to 1) confirm that the group is composed of more than one genus, 2) detect major differences between pathogens classified as a single species within the group of authentic Clostridium spp. (sensu stricto), 3) identify inconsistencies between taxonomy and toxin evolution that reflect on the pervasive misclassification of strains, and 4) identify differential traits within central metabolism of members of what has been defined earlier and confirmed by us as cluster I. Our analysis shows that the current taxonomic classification of Clostridium species hinders the prediction of functions and traits, suggests a new classification for this fascinating class of bacteria, and highlights the importance of phylogenomics for taxonomic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656338PMC
July 2019

Identification and quantification of domestic feline cytochrome P450 transcriptome across multiple tissues.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jan 31;42(1):7-15. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Lab Sciences, VMRD, Zoetis, Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Understanding of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform distribution and function in the domestic feline is limited. Only a few studies have defined individual CYP isoforms across metabolically relevant tissues, hampering the ability to predict drug metabolism and potential drug-drug interactions. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), transcriptomes from the 99 Lives Cat Genome Sequencing Initiative databank combined with experimentally acquired whole transcriptome sequencing of healthy, adult male (n = 2) and female (n = 2) domestic felines, expression of 42 CYP isoforms were identified in 20 different tissues. Thirty-seven of these isoforms had not been previously reported in cats. Depending on the tissue, three to twenty-nine CYP isoform transcripts were expressed. The feline genome annotations did not differentiate CYP2E1 and 2E2 genes, demonstrating poor annotation for this gene using the reference genome. As the majority of the sequences are based on automated pipelines, complete cDNA sequences for translation into CYP protein sequences could not be determined. This study is the first to identify and characterize 37 additional CYP isoforms in feline tissues, increasing the number of identified CYP from the previously reported seven isoforms to 42 across 20 tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322962PMC
January 2019

Polymorphisms within the prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 functional pathways associated with fertility traits in Holstein cows raised in a hot-humid climate.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Dec 20;50(8):1913-1920. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Departamento de Ciencias Agronómicas y Veterinarias, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, Calle 5 de Febrero 818 Sur, Colonia Centro, 85000, Cd. Obregón, Sonora, México.

Prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are in hormone-response pathways involved in energy metabolism during thermoregulation processes in cattle. Objective herein was to study the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within genes of the PRL and GH/IGF-1 pathways with fertility traits such as services per conception (SPC) and days open (DO) in Holstein cattle lactating under a hot-humid climate. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI) which revealed that the cows were exposed to heat stress conditions from June to November of 2012 in southern Sonora, Mexico. Individual blood samples from all cows were collected, spotted on FTA cards, and used to genotype a 179 tag SNP panel within 44 genes from the PRL and GH/IGF-1 pathways. The associative analyses among SNP genotypes and fertility traits were performed using mixed-effect models. Allele substitution effects were calculated using a regression model that included the genotype term as covariate. Single-SNP association analyses indicated that eight SNP within the genes IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGFBP5, PAPPA1, PMCH, PRLR, SOCS5, and SSTR2 were associated with SPC (P < 0.05), whereas four SNP in the genes GHR, PAPPA2, PRLR, and SOCS4 were associated with DO (P < 0.05). In conclusion, SNP within genes of the PRL and GH/IGF-1 pathways resulted as predictors of reproductive phenotypes in heat-stressed Holstein cows, and these SNP are proposed as candidates for a marker-assisted selection program intended to improve fertility of dairy cattle raised in warm climates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1645-0DOI Listing
December 2018

Neuropeptidome of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland of Indicine × Taurine Heifers: Evidence of Differential Neuropeptide Processing in the Pituitary Gland before and after Puberty.

J Proteome Res 2018 05 6;17(5):1852-1865. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Department of Animal Sciences , Colorado State University , Fort Collins , Colorado 80523 , United States.

Puberty in cattle is regulated by an endocrine axis, which includes a complex milieu of neuropeptides in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The neuropeptidome of hypothalamic-pituitary gland tissue of pre- (PRE) and postpubertal (POST) Bos indicus-influenced heifers was characterized, followed by quantitative analysis of 51 fertility-related neuropeptides in these tissues. Comparison of peptide abundances with gene expression levels allowed assessment of post-transcriptional peptide processing. On the basis of classical cleavage, 124 mature neuropeptides from 35 precursor proteins were detected in hypothalamus and pituitary gland tissues of three PRE and three POST Brangus heifers. An additional 19 peptides (cerebellins, PEN peptides) previously reported as neuropeptides that did not follow classical cleavage were also identified. In the pre-pubertal hypothalamus, a greater diversity of neuropeptides (25.8%) was identified relative to post-pubertal heifers, while in the pituitary gland, 38.6% more neuropeptides were detected in the post-pubertal heifers. Neuro-tissues of PRE and POST heifers revealed abundance differences ( p < 0.05) in peptides from protein precursors involved in packaging and processing (e.g., the granin family and ProSAAS) or neuron stimulation (PENK, CART, POMC, cerebellins). On their own, the transcriptome data of the precursor genes could not predict the neuropeptide profile in the exact same tissues in several cases. This provides further evidence of the importance of differential processing of the neuropeptide precursors in the pituitary before and after puberty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00875DOI Listing
May 2018

Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

PLoS One 2016 28;11(3):e0152274. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

VMRD Genetics R&D, Zoetis Inc., Kalamazoo, MI, United States of America.

Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other traits and gene co-expression networks.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152274PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4809598PMC
August 2016

A clone-free, single molecule map of the domestic cow (Bos taurus) genome.

BMC Genomics 2015 Aug 28;16:644. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Laboratory for Molecular and Computational Genomics, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Genetics, and the UW Biotechnology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 425 Henry Mall, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: The cattle (Bos taurus) genome was originally selected for sequencing due to its economic importance and unique biology as a model organism for understanding other ruminants, or mammals. Currently, there are two cattle genome sequence assemblies (UMD3.1 and Btau4.6) from groups using dissimilar assembly algorithms, which were complemented by genetic and physical map resources. However, past comparisons between these assemblies revealed substantial differences. Consequently, such discordances have engendered ambiguities when using reference sequence data, impacting genomic studies in cattle and motivating construction of a new optical map resource--BtOM1.0--to guide comparisons and improvements to the current sequence builds. Accordingly, our comprehensive comparisons of BtOM1.0 against the UMD3.1 and Btau4.6 sequence builds tabulate large-to-immediate scale discordances requiring mediation.

Results: The optical map, BtOM1.0, spanning the B. taurus genome (Hereford breed, L1 Dominette 01449) was assembled from an optical map dataset consisting of 2,973,315 (439 X; raw dataset size before assembly) single molecule optical maps (Rmaps; 1 Rmap = 1 restriction mapped DNA molecule) generated by the Optical Mapping System. The BamHI map spans 2,575.30 Mb and comprises 78 optical contigs assembled by a combination of iterative (using the reference sequence: UMD3.1) and de novo assembly techniques. BtOM1.0 is a high-resolution physical map featuring an average restriction fragment size of 8.91 Kb. Comparisons of BtOM1.0 vs. UMD3.1, or Btau4.6, revealed that Btau4.6 presented far more discordances (7,463) vs. UMD3.1 (4,754). Overall, we found that Btau4.6 presented almost double the number of discordances than UMD3.1 across most of the 6 categories of sequence vs. map discrepancies, which are: COMPLEX (misassembly), DELs (extraneous sequences), INSs (missing sequences), ITs (Inverted/Translocated sequences), ECs (extra restriction cuts) and MCs (missing restriction cuts).

Conclusion: Alignments of UMD3.1 and Btau4.6 to BtOM1.0 reveal discordances commensurate with previous reports, and affirm the NCBI's current designation of UMD3.1 sequence assembly as the "reference assembly" and the Btau4.6 as the "alternate assembly." The cattle genome optical map, BtOM1.0, when used as a comprehensive and largely independent guide, will greatly assist improvements to existing sequence builds, and later serve as an accurate physical scaffold for studies concerning the comparative genomics of cattle breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1823-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4551733PMC
August 2015

Transcriptional Response to Acute Thermal Exposure in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Determined by RNAseq.

G3 (Bethesda) 2015 Apr 24;5(7):1335-49. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616.

Thermal exposure is a serious and growing challenge facing fish species worldwide. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) living in the southern portion of their native range are particularly likely to encounter warmer water due to a confluence of factors. River alterations have increased the likelihood that juveniles will be exposed to warm water temperatures during their freshwater life stage, which can negatively impact survival, growth, and development and pose a threat to dwindling salmon populations. To better understand how acute thermal exposure affects the biology of salmon, we performed a transcriptional analysis of gill tissue from Chinook salmon juveniles reared at 12° and exposed acutely to water temperatures ranging from ideal to potentially lethal (12° to 25°). Reverse-transcribed RNA libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform and a de novo reference transcriptome was created. Differentially expressed transcripts were annotated using Blast2GO and relevant gene clusters were identified. In addition to a high degree of downregulation of a wide range of genes, we found upregulation of genes involved in protein folding/rescue, protein degradation, cell death, oxidative stress, metabolism, inflammation/immunity, transcription/translation, ion transport, cell cycle/growth, cell signaling, cellular trafficking, and structure/cytoskeleton. These results demonstrate the complex multi-modal cellular response to thermal stress in juvenile salmon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.115.017699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4502368PMC
April 2015

RNA sequencing to study gene expression and SNP variations associated with growth in zebrafish fed a plant protein-based diet.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2015 Jun 22;17(3):353-63. Epub 2015 Feb 22.

Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco, Chile,

The objectives of this study were to measure gene expression in zebrafish and then identify SNP to be used as potential markers in a growth association study. We developed an approach where muscle samples collected from low- and high-growth fish were analyzed using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq), and SNP were chosen from the genes that were differentially expressed between the low and high groups. A population of 24 families was fed a plant protein-based diet from the larval to adult stages. From a total of 440 males, 5 % of the fish from both tails of the weight gain distribution were selected. Total RNA was extracted from individual muscle of 8 low-growth and 8 high-growth fish. Two pooled RNA-Seq libraries were prepared for each phenotype using 4 fish per library. Libraries were sequenced using the Illumina GAII Sequencer and analyzed using the CLCBio genomic workbench software. One hundred and twenty-four genes were differentially expressed between phenotypes (p value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.2). From these genes, 164 SNP were selected and genotyped in 240 fish samples. Marker-trait analysis revealed 5 SNP associated with growth in key genes (Nars, Lmod2b, Cuzd1, Acta1b, and Plac8l1). These genes are good candidates for further growth studies in fish and to consider for identification of potential SNPs associated with different growth rates in response to a plant protein-based diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-015-9624-1DOI Listing
June 2015

Genomic variation and population structure detected by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in Corriedale, Merino and Creole sheep.

Genet Mol Biol 2014 Jun;37(2):389-95

Meat and Wool National Program , Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria , Las Brujas, Canelones , Uruguay .

THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE GENETIC DIVERSITY WITHIN AND AMONG THREE BREEDS OF SHEEP: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip(®). Genetic diversity was evaluated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (FST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (FST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (FST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1415-47572014000300011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094612PMC
June 2014

Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

PLoS One 2014 21;9(7):e102551. Epub 2014 Jul 21.

Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics analyses improve understanding of the number of genes and their complex interactions for puberty in cattle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0102551PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105537PMC
April 2015

Comparison of five different RNA sources to examine the lactating bovine mammary gland transcriptome using RNA-Sequencing.

Sci Rep 2014 Jul 8;4:5297. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

1] Department of Animal Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, 95616, CA, USA [2].

The objective of this study was to examine five different sources of RNA, namely mammary gland tissue (MGT), milk somatic cells (SC), laser microdissected mammary epithelial cells (LCMEC), milk fat globules (MFG) and antibody-captured milk mammary epithelial cells (mMEC) to analyze the bovine mammary gland transcriptome using RNA-Sequencing. Our results provide a comparison between different sampling methods (invasive and non-invasive) to define the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue and milk cells. This information will be of value to investigators in choosing the most appropriate sampling method for different research applications to study specific physiological states during lactation. One of the simplest procedures to study the transcriptome associated with milk appears to be the isolation of total RNA directly from SC or MFG released into milk during lactation. Our results indicate that the SC and MFG transcriptome are representative of MGT and LCMEC and can be used as effective and alternative samples to study mammary gland expression without the need to perform a tissue biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5381611PMC
July 2014

Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences.

J Hered 2014 May-Jun;105(3):312-23. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

the School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Palmer Research Center, 1509 South Trunk Road, Palmer, AK 99645.

We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/est133DOI Listing
January 2015

RNA-seq analysis of single bovine blastocysts.

BMC Genomics 2013 May 25;14:350. Epub 2013 May 25.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Background: Use of RNA-Seq presents unique benefits in terms of gene expression analysis because of its wide dynamic range and ability to identify functional sequence variants. This technology provides the opportunity to assay the developing embryo, but the paucity of biological material available from individual embryos has made this a challenging prospect.

Results: We report here the first application of RNA-Seq for the analysis of individual blastocyst gene expression, SNP detection, and characterization of allele specific expression (ASE). RNA was extracted from single bovine blastocysts (n = 5), amplified, and analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 38 million sequencing reads were generated per embryo and 9,489 known bovine genes were found to be expressed, with a high correlation of expression levels between samples (r > 0.97). Transcriptomic data was analyzed to identify SNP in expressed genes, and individual SNP were examined to characterize allele specific expression. Expressed biallelic SNP variants with allelic imbalances were observed in 473 SNP, where one allele represented between 65-95% of a variant's transcripts.

Conclusions: This study represents the first application of RNA-seq technology in single bovine embryos allowing a representation of the embryonic transcriptome and the analysis of transcript sequence variation to describe specific allele expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668197PMC
May 2013

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCMO1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults.

Lipids Health Dis 2013 May 8;12:66. Epub 2013 May 8.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Background: In a marker-trait association study we estimated the statistical significance of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 candidate genes on HDL levels of two independent Caucasian populations. Each population consisted of men and women and their HDL levels were adjusted for gender and body weight. We used a linear regression model. Selected genes corresponded to folate metabolism, vitamins B-12, A, and E, and cholesterol pathways or lipid metabolism.

Methods: Extracted DNA from both the Sacramento and Beltsville populations was analyzed using an allele discrimination assay with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform. The adjusted phenotype, y, was HDL levels adjusted for gender and body weight only statistical analyses were performed using the genotype association and regression modules from the SNP Variation Suite v7.

Results: Statistically significant SNP (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included: CETP (rs7499892 and rs5882); SLC46A1 (rs37514694; rs739439); SLC19A1 (rs3788199); CD36 (rs3211956); BCMO1 (rs6564851), APOA5 (rs662799), and ABCA1 (rs4149267). Many prior association trends of the SNP with HDL were replicated in our cross-validation study. Significantly, the association of SNP in folate transporters (SLC46A1 rs37514694 and rs739439; SLC19A1 rs3788199) with HDL was identified in our study.

Conclusions: Given recent literature on the role of niacin in the biogenesis of HDL, focus on status and metabolism of B-vitamins and metabolites of eccentric cleavage of β-carotene with lipid metabolism is exciting for future study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653731PMC
May 2013

Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

J Nutr 2012 Sep 25;142(9):1764-71. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.160333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3417835PMC
September 2012

Transcriptional profiling of bovine milk using RNA sequencing.

BMC Genomics 2012 Jan 25;13:45. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, CA, 95616-8521, USA.

Background: Cow milk is a complex bioactive fluid consumed by humans beyond infancy. Even though the chemical and physical properties of cow milk are well characterized, very limited research has been done on characterizing the milk transcriptome. This study performs a comprehensive expression profiling of genes expressed in milk somatic cells of transition (day 15), peak (day 90) and late (day 250) lactation Holstein cows by RNA sequencing. Milk samples were collected from Holstein cows at 15, 90 and 250 days of lactation, and RNA was extracted from the pelleted milk cells. Gene expression analysis was conducted by Illumina RNA sequencing. Sequence reads were assembled and analyzed in CLC Genomics Workbench. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were performed using the Blast2GO program and GeneGo application of MetaCore program.

Results: A total of 16,892 genes were expressed in transition lactation, 19,094 genes were expressed in peak lactation and 18,070 genes were expressed in late lactation. Regardless of the lactation stage approximately 9,000 genes showed ubiquitous expression. Genes encoding caseins, whey proteins and enzymes in lactose synthesis pathway showed higher expression in early lactation. The majority of genes in the fat metabolism pathway had high expression in transition and peak lactation milk. Most of the genes encoding for endogenous proteases and enzymes in ubiquitin-proteasome pathway showed higher expression along the course of lactation.

Conclusions: This is the first study to describe the comprehensive bovine milk transcriptome in Holstein cows. The results revealed that 69% of NCBI Btau 4.0 annotated genes are expressed in bovine milk somatic cells. Most of the genes were ubiquitously expressed in all three stages of lactation. However, a fraction of the milk transcriptome has genes devoted to specific functions unique to the lactation stage. This indicates the ability of milk somatic cells to adapt to different molecular functions according to the biological need of the animal. This study provides a valuable insight into the biology of lactation in the cow, as well as many avenues for future research on the bovine lactome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3285075PMC
January 2012

Polymorphisms in genes in the SREBP1 signalling pathway and SCD are associated with milk fatty acid composition in Holstein cattle.

J Dairy Res 2012 Feb 25;79(1):66-75. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Genes in the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) pathway play a central role in regulation of milk fat synthesis, especially the de-novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids. SCD, a SREBP-responsive gene, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the mammary gland. In the present study, we discovered SNP in candidate genes associated with this signalling pathway and SCD to identify genetic markers that can be used for genetic and metabolically directed selection in cattle. We resequenced six candidate genes in the SREBP1 pathway (SREBP1, SCAP, INSIG1, INSIG2, MBTPS1, MBTPS2) and two genes for SCD (SCD1 and SCD5) and discovered 47 Tag SNP that were used in a marker-trait association study. Milk and blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in their 1st or 2nd parity at 100-150 days of lactation. Individual fatty acids from C4 to C20, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content, monounsaturated fatty acid content, polyunsaturated fatty acid content and desaturase indexes were measured and used to perform the asociation analysis. Polymorphisms in the SCD5 and INSIG2 genes were the most representative markers associated with SFA/unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) ratio in milk. The analysis of desaturation activity determined that markers in the SCD1 and SCD5 genes showed the most significant effects. DGAT1 K232A marker was included in the study to examine the effect of this marker on the variation of milk fatty acids in our Holstein population. The percentage of variance explained by DGAT1 in the analysis was only 6% of SFA/UFA ratio. Milk fat depression was observed in one of the dairy herds and in this particular dairy one SNP in the SREBP1 gene (rs41912290) accounted for 40% of the phenotypic variance. Our results provide detailed SNP information for key genes in the SREBP1 signalling pathway and SCD that can be used to change milk fat composition by marker-assisted breeding to meet consumer demands regarding human health, as well as furthering understanding of technological aspects of cows' milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002202991100080XDOI Listing
February 2012

Comparison of buccal and blood-derived canine DNA, either native or whole genome amplified, for array-based genome-wide association studies.

BMC Res Notes 2011 Jun 30;4:226. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Background: The availability of array-based genotyping platforms for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the canine genome has expanded the opportunities to undertake genome-wide association (GWA) studies to identify the genetic basis for Mendelian and complex traits. Whole blood as the source of high quality DNA is undisputed but often proves impractical for collection of the large numbers of samples necessary to discover the loci underlying complex traits. Further, many countries prohibit the collection of blood from dogs unless medically necessary thereby restricting access to critical control samples from healthy dogs. Alternate sources of DNA, typically from buccal cytobrush extractions, while convenient, have been suggested to have low yield and perform poorly in GWA. Yet buccal cytobrushes provide a cost-effective means of collecting DNA, are readily accepted by dog owners, and represent a large resource base in many canine genetics laboratories. To increase the DNA quantities, whole genome amplification (WGA) can be performed. Thus, the present study assessed the utility of buccal-derived DNA as well as whole genome amplification in comparison to blood samples for use on the most recent iteration of the canine HD SNP array (Illumina).

Findings: In both buccal and blood samples, whether whole genome amplified or not, 97% of the samples had SNP call rates in excess of 80% indicating that the vast majority of the SNPs would be suitable to perform association studies regardless of the DNA source. Similarly, there were no significant differences in marker intensity measurements between buccal and blood samples for copy number variations (CNV) analysis.

Conclusions: All DNA samples assayed, buccal or blood, native or whole genome amplified, are appropriate for use in array-based genome-wide association studies. The concordance between subsets of dogs for which both buccal and blood samples, or those samples whole genome amplified, was shown to average >99%. Thus, the two DNA sources were comparable in the generation of SNP genotypes and intensity values to estimate structural variation indicating the utility for the use of buccal cytobrush samples and the reliability of whole genome amplification for genome-wide association and CNV studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145587PMC
June 2011

Transcriptome profiling of bovine milk oligosaccharide metabolism genes using RNA-sequencing.

PLoS One 2011 Apr 25;6(4):e18895. Epub 2011 Apr 25.

Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

This study examines the genes coding for enzymes involved in bovine milk oligosaccharide metabolism by comparing the oligosaccharide profiles with the expressions of glycosylation-related genes. Fresh milk samples (n = 32) were collected from four Holstein and Jersey cows at days 1, 15, 90 and 250 of lactation and free milk oligosaccharide profiles were analyzed. RNA was extracted from milk somatic cells at days 15 and 250 of lactation (n = 12) and gene expression analysis was conducted by RNA-Sequencing. A list was created of 121 glycosylation-related genes involved in oligosaccharide metabolism pathways in bovine by analyzing the oligosaccharide profiles and performing an extensive literature search. No significant differences were observed in either oligosaccharide profiles or expressions of glycosylation-related genes between Holstein and Jersey cows. The highest concentrations of free oligosaccharides were observed in the colostrum samples and a sharp decrease was observed in the concentration of free oligosaccharides on day 15, followed by progressive decrease on days 90 and 250. Ninety-two glycosylation-related genes were expressed in milk somatic cells. Most of these genes exhibited higher expression in day 250 samples indicating increases in net glycosylation-related metabolism in spite of decreases in free milk oligosaccharides in late lactation milk. Even though fucosylated free oligosaccharides were not identified, gene expression indicated the likely presence of fucosylated oligosaccharides in bovine milk. Fucosidase genes were expressed in milk and a possible explanation for not detecting fucosylated free oligosaccharides is the degradation of large fucosylated free oligosaccharides by the fucosidases. Detailed characterization of enzymes encoded by the 92 glycosylation-related genes identified in this study will provide the basic knowledge for metabolic network analysis of oligosaccharides in mammalian milk. These candidate genes will guide the design of a targeted breeding strategy to optimize the content of beneficial oligosaccharides in bovine milk.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0018895PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081824PMC
April 2011

SNP discovery in the bovine milk transcriptome using RNA-Seq technology.

Mamm Genome 2010 Dec 6;21(11-12):592-8. Epub 2010 Nov 6.

IRTA, Genètica i Millora Animal, 191 Alcalde Rovira Roure Av, 25198, Lleida, Spain.

High-throughput sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was developed primarily to analyze global gene expression in different tissues. However, it also is an efficient way to discover coding SNPs. The objective of this study was to perform a SNP discovery analysis in the milk transcriptome using RNA-Seq. Seven milk samples from Holstein cows were analyzed by sequencing cDNAs using the Illumina Genome Analyzer system. We detected 19,175 genes expressed in milk samples corresponding to approximately 70% of the total number of genes analyzed. The SNP detection analysis revealed 100,734 SNPs in Holstein samples, and a large number of those corresponded to differences between the Holstein breed and the Hereford bovine genome assembly Btau4.0. The number of polymorphic SNPs within Holstein cows was 33,045. The accuracy of RNA-Seq SNP discovery was tested by comparing SNPs detected in a set of 42 candidate genes expressed in milk that had been resequenced earlier using Sanger sequencing technology. Seventy of 86 SNPs were detected using both RNA-Seq and Sanger sequencing technologies. The KASPar Genotyping System was used to validate unique SNPs found by RNA-Seq but not observed by Sanger technology. Our results confirm that analyzing the transcriptome using RNA-Seq technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to identify SNPs in transcribed regions. This study creates guidelines to maximize the accuracy of SNP discovery and prevention of false-positive SNP detection, and provides more than 33,000 SNPs located in coding regions of genes expressed during lactation that can be used to develop genotyping platforms to perform marker-trait association studies in Holstein cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-010-9297-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002166PMC
December 2010

The bovine lactation genome: insights into the evolution of mammalian milk.

Genome Biol 2009 24;10(4):R43. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Background: The newly assembled Bos taurus genome sequence enables the linkage of bovine milk and lactation data with other mammalian genomes.

Results: Using publicly available milk proteome data and mammary expressed sequence tags, 197 milk protein genes and over 6,000 mammary genes were identified in the bovine genome. Intersection of these genes with 238 milk production quantitative trait loci curated from the literature decreased the search space for milk trait effectors by more than an order of magnitude. Genome location analysis revealed a tendency for milk protein genes to be clustered with other mammary genes. Using the genomes of a monotreme (platypus), a marsupial (opossum), and five placental mammals (bovine, human, dog, mice, rat), gene loss and duplication, phylogeny, sequence conservation, and evolution were examined. Compared with other genes in the bovine genome, milk and mammary genes are: more likely to be present in all mammals; more likely to be duplicated in therians; more highly conserved across Mammalia; and evolving more slowly along the bovine lineage. The most divergent proteins in milk were associated with nutritional and immunological components of milk, whereas highly conserved proteins were associated with secretory processes.

Conclusions: Although both copy number and sequence variation contribute to the diversity of milk protein composition across species, our results suggest that this diversity is primarily due to other mechanisms. Our findings support the essentiality of milk to the survival of mammalian neonates and the establishment of milk secretory mechanisms more than 160 million years ago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2009-10-4-r43DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2688934PMC
September 2009

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):522-8

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943200PMC
April 2009

Overexpression of Scg5 increases enzymatic activity of PCSK2 and is inversely correlated with body weight in congenic mice.

BMC Genet 2008 Apr 25;9:34. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8521, USA.

Background: The identification of novel genes is critical to understanding the molecular basis of body weight. Towards this goal, we have identified secretogranin V (Scg5; also referred to as Sgne1), as a candidate gene for growth traits.

Results: Through a combination of DNA microarray analysis and quantitative PCR we identified a strong expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) regulating Scg5 expression in two mouse chromosome 2 congenic strains and three additional F2 intercrosses. More importantly, the eQTL was coincident with a body weight QTL in congenic mice and Scg5 expression was negatively correlated with body weight in two of the F2 intercrosses. Analysis of haplotype blocks and genomic sequencing of Scg5 in high (C3H/HeJ, DBA/2J, BALB/cByJ, CAST/EiJ) and low (C57BL/6J) expressing strains revealed mutations unique to C57BL/6J and possibly responsible for the difference in mRNA abundance. To evaluate the functional consequence of Scg5 overexpression we measured the pituitary levels of 7B2 protein and PCSK2 activity and found both to be increased. In spite of this increase, the level of pituitary alpha-MSH, a PCSK2 processing product, was unaltered.

Conclusion: Together, these data support a role for Scg5 in the modulation of body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-9-34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2386500PMC
April 2008

Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus) using RBG-banding.

Genet Sel Evol 2002 Nov-Dec;34(6):649-56

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Genetic Section, Laboratory of Genetics Analysis in Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary, UDELAR, A. Lasplaces 1550 CP 11600, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Fragile sites (FS) seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 microM) to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P<0.05). According to this result, 30 of the 72 different break points observed were scored as fragile sites. The Pearson correlation test showed a positive association between chromosome length and the number of fragile sites (r=0.54). On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-34-6-649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2705442PMC
June 2003
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