Publications by authors named "Gong Chen"

925 Publications

Ultrasensitive Sub-monolayer Palladium Induced Chirality Switching and Topological Evolution of Skyrmions.

Nano Lett 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 20057, United States.

Chiral spin textures are fundamentally interesting, with promise for device applications. Stabilizing chirality is conventionally achieved by introducing Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in asymmetric multilayers, where the thickness of each layer is at least a few monolayers. Here we report an ultrasensitive chirality switching in (Ni/Co) multilayer induced by capping with only 0.22 monolayer of Pd. Using spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, we monitor the gradual evolution of domain walls from left-handed to right-handed Néel walls and quantify the DMI induced by the Pd capping layer. We also observe the chiral evolution of a skyrmion during the DMI switching, where no significant topological protection is found as the skyrmion winding number varies. This corresponds to a minimum energy cost of <1 attojoule during the skyrmion chirality switching. Our results demonstrate the detailed chirality evolution within skyrmions during the DMI sign switching, which is relevant to practical applications of skyrmionic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02043DOI Listing
August 2022

The Distribution and Potential Exposure Factors of Physical Activity Level Among Middle-Aged and Elderly Population - Six Communities, Beijing, China, October 2020 to January 2021.

China CDC Wkly 2022 Jul;4(27):593-600

Department of Physical Education, Peking University, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known About This Topic?: Available evidence suggested that 31% of the world's population do not meet the minimum recommendations for physical activity.

What Is Added By This Report?: The latest findings showed that physical activity level (PAL), metabolic equivalents (MET) in min/week with <4,500 (low), 4,500-6,000 (moderate) and ≥6,000 (high) accounted for 45.72%, 25.62%, and 28.66% of middle-aged and elderly population in Changchunyuan Community, Weixiuyuan Community, Zhongguanyuan Community, Yanbeiyuan Community, Kangzeyuan Community, and Xima Community, respectively. The moderate and high PAL was associated with a decreased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and poor sleep.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practice?: More attention should be given to the middle-aged population who may be at high risk of insufficient physical activity in urban environments as it is of public health significance for improving the community population health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2022.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339360PMC
July 2022

Abundant Hydrogen Bonds Formed in a Urea-Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte Improve Interfacial Stability in Lithium Metal Batteries.

ChemSusChem 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyu Road 1037, 430074, Wuhan, CHINA.

As emerging and potential replacement system for liquid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes (PEs) exhibit unique capacity in suppressing metal dendrite and leakage risk. However, the most used polymer matrix, including polyether, polyester, and polysiloxane, still cannot meet the practical demands for metal electrode compatibility and long lifespan. Herein, gel polymer electrolytes consisted of polyurea network and deep eutectic electrolyte (DEE) are designed and in-situ prepared. Abundant hydrogen bond interaction between each polyurea chains and polyurea-DEE ensures a good interfacial stability between PEs and lithium metal, as a result, the assembled Li/LFP cells based on this electrolyte deliver an ultra-long cycle life with 90% retention rate after 500 cycles and 76.5% retention rate after 1000 cycles at 1 C. In addition, flexible design characteristic of polyurea structure permits an easy operation for performance optimization via modulating the composition of hard and soft segments, and enhanced ionic conductivity and self-healing efficiency are obtained. This study provides a novel method for preparing advanced polymer electrolytes for lithium metal batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202201361DOI Listing
August 2022

Altered temporal-parietal morphological similarity networks in non-small cell lung cancer patients following chemotherapy: an MRI preliminary study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Sichuan Cancer Hospital & Institute, Sichuan Cancer Center, Cancer Hospital Affiliate to School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancer cases, and chemotherapy-related brain changes (known as "chemobrain") in NSCLC patients were found in previous studies. However, the effects of platinum-based chemotherapy on brain structural networks are still unclear. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data were collected from 32 NSCLC patients following platinum-based chemotherapy, 36 NSCLC patients without chemotherapy, and 39 healthy controls. Clinical physiological indicators of patients were collected. Then, morphological similarity networks were constructed using MRI data, and topological properties were calculated using graph theory method. Differences between three groups were investigated using one-way ANOVA and two-sample t-test, and relations between topological properties and clinical physiological indicators were calculated. We found that degree and nodal efficiency in temporal-parietal networks were significantly reduced in NSCLC patients following platinum-based chemotherapy compared to healthy controls/patients without chemotherapy (F-test, p < 0.001; post hoc t-test, p < 0.01, Bonferroni corrected). These changes (p < 0.05) were positively correlated with clinical measures, including thrombocytes, granulocytes and hemoglobin, and were negatively correlated with measures of triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Network properties including clustering coefficient (F(2,104) = 41.435, p < 0.001), number of K-edges (F(2,104) = 40.304, p < 0.001), density of K-edges (F(2,104) = 40.304, p < 0.001), global efficiency (F(2,104) = 42.585, p < 0.001) and small-world (F(2,104) = 37.132, p < 0.001) were also significantly reduced (post hoc t-test, p < 0.01, Bonferroni corrected). These results indicate that platinum-based chemotherapy might cause cerebrovascular damage and clinical indicators' changes, which then cause the properties of morphological similarity networks' changes in the temporal and parietal lobes. This study may help us better understand the "chemobrain" in NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-022-00709-7DOI Listing
August 2022

Femtosecond-laser-enabled simultaneous figuring and finishing of glass with a subnanometer optical surface.

Authors:
Gong Chen Jie Qiao

Opt Lett 2022 Aug;47(15):3860-3863

We demonstrate simultaneous figuring and surface finishing of glass using a femtosecond laser. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we have achieved deterministic material removal with nanometer precision and maintained sub-nanometer surface roughness without inducing any mid-spatial-frequency errors to the initial surface. A dynamic pulse propagation model is established to predict the interaction process, including plasma generation and surface temperature. The interactive modeling and the experiments enable the selection of a set of laser parameters to achieve controllable optical figuring and finishing. This demonstration shows the potential for using femtosecond lasers for advanced freeform optic forming, finishing, and reduction of detrimental mid-spatial-frequency errors, and laser-ablation-based patterning used for fabrication of integrated photonics and lasers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.467413DOI Listing
August 2022

The Cellular and Molecular Landscape of Synchronous Pediatric Sialoblastoma and Hepatoblastoma.

Front Oncol 2022 4;12:893206. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Birth Defect, Shanghai, China.

Sialoblastoma (SBL) is an infrequent embryonal malignant tumor originating from the salivary gland, resembling primitive salivary gland anlage, whereas hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common pediatric liver malignancy. The simultaneous occurrence of both tumors is extremely rare. Here we reported a case of a 6-month-old infant diagnosed with synchronous SBL and HB. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. Fresh tissues of both tumors were collected before and after chemotherapy, which were further profiled by whole exome sequencing (WES) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). WES analysis revealed potential somatic driver mutation p.Glu454Lys for SBL and canonical mutation p.Ser45Pro for HB. No shared somatic variants or common copy number alterations were found between SBL and HB primary tumor samples. Though scRNA-seq, single-cell atlases were constructed for both tumors. SBL may recapitulate a pre-acinar stage in the development of salivary gland, including basaloid, duct-like, myoepithelial-like, and cycling phenotypes. In the meantime, HB was composed of tumor cells resembling different stages of the liver, including hepatocyte-like, hepatic progenitor-like, and hepatoblast-like cells. After chemotherapy, both tumors were induced into a more mature phenotype. In terms of transcriptional signatures, SBL and HB showed enhanced expression of epithelial markers , and essential embryo development genes , indicating the disruption of normal embryo epithelium development. Finally, heterozygous deleterious germline mutation and were identified which could predispose the patient to higher cancer risk. It partially explained the reason for the co-occurrence of SBL and HB. Taken together, we provided valuable resources for deciphering cellular heterogeneity and adaptive change of tumor cells after chemotherapy for synchronous SBL and HB, providing insights into the mechanisms leading to synchronous pediatric tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.893206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9289541PMC
July 2022

Aetiology and outcomes of prolonged neonatal jaundice in tertiary centres: data from the China Neonatal Genome Project.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2022 Jul 18. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

The Centre for Pediatric Liver Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University,National Children's Medical Center, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To investigate the distribution of aetiologies and outcomes in neonates with prolonged neonatal jaundice.

Design: An observational study.

Setting: Multiple tertiary centres from the China Neonatal Genome Project.

Patients: Term infants with jaundice lasting more than 14 days or preterm infants with jaundice lasting more than 21 days were recruited between 1 June 2016 and 30 June 2020.

Main Outcome Measures: Aetiology and outcomes were recorded from neonates with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia (PUCHB) and prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia (PCHB).

Results: A total of 939 neonates were enrolled, and known aetiologies were identified in 84.1% of neonates (790 of 939). Among 411 neonates with PCHB, genetic disorders (27.2%, 112 of 411) were the leading aetiologies. There were 8 deceased neonates, 19 neonates with liver failure and 12 with neurodevelopmental delay. Among 528 neonates with PUCHB, a genetic aetiology was identified in 2 of 219 neonates (0.9%) who showed disappearance of jaundice within 4 weeks of age and in 32 of 309 neonates (10.4%) with persistent jaundice after 4 weeks of age. A total of 96 of 181 neonates (53.0%) who received genetic diagnoses had their clinical diagnosis modified as a result of the genetic diagnoses.

Conclusion: Known aetiologies were identified in approximately 80% of neonates in our cohort, and their overall outcomes were favourable. Genetic aetiology should be considered a priority in neonates with PCHB or the persistence of jaundice after 4 weeks of age. Moreover, genetic data can modify the clinical diagnosis and guide disease management, potentially improving outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2021-323413DOI Listing
July 2022

High Frequency Ultrasound Elastography to Assess the Nonlinear Elastic Properties of the Cornea and Ciliary Body.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2022 Jul 12;PP. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Mechanical properties of anterior anatomical structures of eye, such as the cornea and ciliary body, play a key role in ocular function and homeostasis. However, measuring the biomechanical properties of the anterior ocular structures, especially deeper structures such as the ciliary body, remains a challenge due to the lack of high-resolution imaging tools. Herein, we implemented a mechanical shaker-based high frequency ultrasound elastography technique that can track the induced elastic wave propagation to assess the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of anterior ocular structures. Findings of this study advance our understanding of the role of anterior ocular structures in the pathogenesis of different ocular disorders, such as glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2022.3190400DOI Listing
July 2022

Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2(ACSS2): a review with a focus on metabolism and tumor development.

Discov Oncol 2022 Jul 7;13(1):58. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Institute of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2), an important member of the acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACSS) family, can catalyze the conversion of acetate to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). Currently, acetyl-CoA is considered an important intermediate metabolite in the metabolism of energy substrates. In addition, nutrients converge through acetyl-CoA into a common metabolic pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Not only does ACSS2 play a crucial role in material energy metabolism, it is also involved in the regulation of various acetylation processes, such as regulation of histone and transcription factor acetylation. ACSS2-mediated regulation of acetylation is related to substance metabolism and tumorigenesis. In mammalian cells, ACSS2 utilizes intracellular acetate to synthesize acetyl-CoA, a step in the process of DNA and histone acetylation. In addition, studies in tumors have shown that cancer cells adapt to the growth conditions in the tumor microenvironment (TME) by activating or increasing the expression level of ACSS2 under metabolic stress. Therefore, this review mainly outlines the role of ACSS2 in substance metabolism and tumors and provides insights useful for investigating ACSS2 as a therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12672-022-00521-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263018PMC
July 2022

Flexible ultrasound-induced retinal stimulating piezo-arrays for biomimetic visual prostheses.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 4;13(1):3853. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Roski Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Electronic visual prostheses, or biomimetic eyes, have shown the feasibility of restoring functional vision in the blind through electrical pulses to initiate neural responses artificially. However, existing visual prostheses predominantly use wired connections or electromagnetic waves for powering and data telemetry, which raises safety concerns or couples inefficiently to miniaturized implant units. Here, we present a flexible ultrasound-induced retinal stimulating piezo-array that can offer an alternative wireless artificial retinal prosthesis approach for evoking visual percepts in blind individuals. The device integrates a two-dimensional piezo-array with 32-pixel stimulating electrodes in a flexible printed circuit board. Each piezo-element can be ultrasonically and individually activated, thus, spatially reconfigurable electronic patterns can be dynamically applied via programmable ultrasound beamlines. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the ultrasound-induced pattern reconstruction in ex vivo murine retinal tissue, showing the potential of this approach to restore functional, life-enhancing vision in people living with blindness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31599-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9253314PMC
July 2022

A Case Series of Pediatric Intestinal Ganglioneuromatosis With Novel Phenotypic and Genotypic Profile.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 16;9:883958. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (IGN) is a rare condition with enteric involvement. Herein, we report a case series of pediatric IGN with a novel phenotypic and genotypic profile.

Methods: The clinical presentation, histopathology, immunochemistry, molecular features, treatment, and prognosis of 3 cases of IGN were assessed.

Results: The cases involved 3 boys with an age range of 1 year and 4 months to 8 years, mimicking juvenile polyps or pseudomembranous enteritis. One patient carried a novel germline mutation in (c.296C > T/p.Pro99Leu) along with variants in (c.1489C > T/p.Arg497Xaa), (c.1514delC/p.Pro505Hisfs*15), and (c.315-48T > C/splicing), who died due to intractable inflammation. The other two patients underwent recurrence without significant signs of systemic syndrome or malignant progression.

Conclusion: This case series added to the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of pediatric IGN, which requires the accumulation of more cases and research for in-depth understanding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.883958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243541PMC
June 2022

Genome-Wide Analysis and Expression Profiling of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene Family in .

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 20;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase is one of the most widely studied enzymes in the plant kingdom. It is a crucial pathway from primary metabolism to significant secondary phenylpropanoid metabolism in plants, and plays an essential role in plant growth, development, and stress defense. Although PAL has been studied in many actual plants, only one report has been reported on potato, one of the five primary staple foods in the world. In this study, 14 StPAL genes were identified in potato for the first time using a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis, and the expression patterns of these genes were further investigated using qRT-PCR. The results showed that the expressions of StPAL1, StPAL6, StPAL8, StPAL12, and StPAL13 were significantly up-regulated under drought and high temperature stress, indicating that they may be involved in the stress defense of potato against high temperature and drought. The expressions of StPAL1, StPAL2, and StPAL6 were significantly up-regulated after MeJa hormone treatment, indicating that these genes are involved in potato chemical defense mechanisms. These three stresses significantly inhibited the expression of StPAL7, StPAL10, and StPAL11, again proving that PAL is a multifunctional gene family, which may give plants resistance to multiple and different stresses. In the future, people may improve critical agronomic traits of crops by introducing other PAL genes. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the versatility of the PAL gene family and provide a valuable reference for further genetic improvement of the potato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9224352PMC
June 2022

Prediction of the Old-Age Dependency Ratio in Chinese Cities Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 06 11;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Institute of Ageing Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The old-age dependency ratio (ODR) is an important indicator reflecting the degree of a regional population's aging. In the context of aging, this study provides a timely and effective method for predicting the ODR in Chinese cities. Using the provincial ODR from the Seventh National Population Census and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, this study aims to predict and analyze the spatial correlation of the municipal ODR in Chinese cities. First, the prediction model of the ODR was established with curve regression. Second, the spatial structure of the municipal ODR was investigated using the Moran's method. The experimental results show the following: (1) the correlation between the sum of the nighttime light and ODR is greater than the mean of nighttime light in the study areas; (2) the Sigmoid model fits better than other regression models using the provincial ODR in the past ten years; and (3) there exists an obvious spatial agglomeration and dependence on the municipal ODR. The findings indicate that it is reasonable to use nighttime light data to predict the municipal ODR in large and medium-sized cities. Our approach can provide support for future regional censuses and spatial simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9223023PMC
June 2022

Generalized Nonconvex Nonsmooth Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Framework With Feasible Algorithm Designs and Convergence Analysis.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 Jun 23;PP. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Decomposing data matrix into low-rank plus additive matrices is a commonly used strategy in pattern recognition and machine learning. This article mainly studies the alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM) with two dual variables, which is used to optimize the generalized nonconvex nonsmooth low-rank matrix recovery problems. Furthermore, the minimization framework with a feasible optimization procedure is designed along with the theoretical analysis, where the variable sequences generated by the proposed ADMM can be proved to be bounded. Most importantly, it can be concluded from the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem that there must exist a subsequence converging to a critical point, which satisfies the Karush-Kuhn-Tucher (KKT) conditions. Meanwhile, we further ensure the local and global convergence properties of the generated sequence relying on constructing the potential objective function Particularly, the detailed convergence analysis would be regarded as one of the core contributions besides the algorithm designs and the model generality. Finally, the numerical simulations and the real-world applications are both provided to verify the consistence of the theoretical results, and we also validate the superiority in performance over several mostly related solvers to the tasks of image inpainting and subspace clustering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3183970DOI Listing
June 2022

Productivity and quality improvement for a symmetric bispecific antibody through the application of intensified perfusion cell culture.

Antib Ther 2022 Apr 3;5(2):111-120. Epub 2022 May 3.

Biologics Development, WuXi Biologics, 288 Fute Zhong Road, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Shanghai 200131, China.

Background: Aggregation, fragmentation, and low yield are issues frequently found during the cell culture process of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), whose inherent complexity likely plays a role in causing these issues.

Methods: In this study, we made a head-to-head comparison between fed-batch cell culture and intensified perfusion cell culture with a symmetric bsAb case.

Results: In comparison with the fed-batch culture, a 6.6-fold improvement in integrated viable cell density and a 10.9-fold improvement in volumetric productivity were achieved with the intensified perfusion mode. In addition, a significant decrease in aggregation and fragmentation was observed with the intensified perfusion cell culture. Furthermore, product homogeneity was improved, which was reflected by the increased percentage of capillary isoelectric focusing main group. The quality improvement with intensified perfusion cell culture can be attributed to the shortened product retention in the bioreactor.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that intensified perfusion cell culture could be a better choice than traditional fed-batch especially for complex molecules like bsAbs. As this is a single case report, future studies on other cases are needed to further confirm the general applicability of this strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abt/tbac009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9199187PMC
April 2022

β2-adrenergic receptor drives the metastasis and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through activating Cdc42 signaling pathway.

J Mol Histol 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Taicang Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, The First People's Hospital of Taicang, Taicang, 215400, Jiangsu Province, China.

Recent investigations indicate that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) signaling may facilitate the progression of various tumors, whose underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. In the present study, we showed that β2-AR recruited Cdc42 in response to isoproterenol (ISO, a β-AR selective agonist) exposure in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. The association of β2-AR and Cdc42 promoted the activation of Cdc42, as revealed by increased levels of Cdc42-GTP, and co-incubation with β2-AR antagonist abrogated ISO-induced activation of Cdc42. β2-AR-mediated Cdc42 activation further led to the phosphorylation of downstream PAK1, LIMK1 and Merlin. Furthermore, we showed that the activation of β2-AR/Cdc42 signaling facilitated the migration and invasion of PDAC cells. In addition, β2-AR and Cdc42 were overexpressed in PDAC specimens, compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. High expression of β2-AR and Cdc42 were correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in PDAC patients. Finally, we showed that overexpression of β2-AR and Cdc42 were indicative of unfavorable prognosis in PDAC patients. Taken together, our findings suggested that β2-AR might facilitate Cdc42 signaling to drive the migration and invasion of PDAC cells, consequently resulting in the metastasis and dismal prognosis of PDAC. These studies highlight targeting β2-AR/Cdc42 signaling as a therapeutic strategy against PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-022-10076-8DOI Listing
June 2022

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase has different efficacy on biliary atresia diagnosis in different hospital patient groups: an application of machine learning approach.

Pediatr Surg Int 2022 Aug 17;38(8):1131-1141. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Birth Defect, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wan Yuan Road, Shanghai, 201102, China.

Objectives: Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is the most widely used biomarker in the early diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA), but its diagnostic efficacy is questionable in different sub-populations. We aim to identify subgroups that are defined by specific variables with cut-offs and can significantly affect the diagnostic efficacy of GGT for detecting BA.

Methods: Clinical data from 1273 infants with neonatal obstructive jaundice (NOJ) diagnosed between January 2012 and December 2017 at the Children's Hospital of Fudan University were enrolled, reviewed, and analyzed. Random forest-based Virtual Twins method was used to identify potential subgroups.

Results: Hemoglobin (HGB) and fasting gallbladder filling were selected as defining variables. The diagnostic efficacy of GGT was significantly better (AUC = 0.855) for patients with hemoglobin (HGB) ≤ 105 g/L and a gallbladder that was not or poorly filled. Diagnostic efficacy was worst in the subgroup defined by HGB > 105 g/L (AUC = 0.722). The inclusion of interaction terms between GGT and the subgroups in a logistic regression model significantly improved (p = 0.002) prediction performance.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the diagnostic efficacy of GGT can differ significantly across different subgroups. Therefore, a GGT diagnostic result should be interpreted cautiously when patients belong to subgroups with low diagnostic efficacy. The development of a prediction model and/or clinical diagnostic pathway for early detection of BA should also account for the heterogeneous diagnostic efficacy of GGT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-022-05148-5DOI Listing
August 2022

Ruthenium-Catalyzed Pyridine-Directed Aryl C-H Glycosylation with Glycosyl Chlorides.

J Org Chem 2022 07 13;87(13):8811-8818. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Metal-catalyzed CH glycosylation reactions with glycosyl chloride donors have emerged as a useful strategy for the synthesis of -glycosides. Previously, palladium and nickel complexes were reported to catalyze CH glycosylation reactions using amide-linked bidentate auxiliaries. Herein, a ruthenium-catalyzed ortho CH glycosylation reaction of arenes with various glycosyl chloride donors using a monodentate pyridine directing group is developed. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicated that two-electron oxidative addition and reductive elimination of ruthenocycle intermediate led to the glycosylation products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c00815DOI Listing
July 2022

Kinetic modeling: A tool for temperature shift and feeding optimization in cell culture process development.

Protein Expr Purif 2022 10 9;198:106130. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Technology and Process Development (TPD), WuXi Biologics, 288 Fute Zhong Road, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Shanghai, 200131, China. Electronic address:

Mammalian cells have dominated the biopharmaceutical industry for biotherapeutic protein production and tremendous efforts have been devoted to enhancing productivity during the cell culture process development. However, determining the optimal process conditions is still a huge challenge. Constrained by the limited resources and timeline, usually it is impossible to fully explore the optimal range of all process parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, basal and feeding medium, additives, etc.). Kinetic modeling, which finds out the global optimum by systematically screening all potential conditions for cell culture process, provides a solution to this dilemma. However, studies on optimizing temperature shift and feeding strategies simultaneously using this approach have not been reported. In this study, we built up a kinetic model of fed-batch culture process for simultaneous optimization of temperature shift and feeding strategies. The fitting results showed high accuracy and demonstrated that the kinetic model can be used to describe the mammalian cell culture performance. In addition, five more fed-batch experiments were conducted to test this model's predicting power on different temperature shift and feeding strategies. It turned out that the predicted data matched well with experimental ones on viable cell density (VCD), metabolites, and titer for the entire culture duration and allowed selecting the same best condition with the experimental results. Therefore, adopting this approach can potentially reduce the number of experiments required for culture process optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2022.106130DOI Listing
October 2022

Wavelike electronic energy transfer in donor-acceptor molecular systems through quantum coherence.

Nat Nanotechnol 2022 Jul 6;17(7):729-736. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Hefei National Research Center for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Quantum-coherent intermolecular energy transfer is believed to play a key role in light harvesting in photosynthesis and photovoltaics. So far, a direct, real-space demonstration of quantum coherence in donor-acceptor systems has been lacking because of the fragile quantum coherence in lossy molecular systems. Here, we precisely control the separations in well-defined donor-acceptor model systems and unveil a transition from incoherent to coherent electronic energy transfer. We monitor the fluorescence from the heterodimers with subnanometre resolution through scanning tunnelling microscopy induced luminescence. With decreasing intermolecular distance, the dipole coupling strength increases and two new emission peaks emerge: a low-intensity peak blueshifted from the donor emission, and an intense peak redshifted from the acceptor emission. Spatially resolved spectroscopic images of the redshifted emission exhibit a σ antibonding-like pattern and thus indicate a delocalized nature of the excitonic state over the whole heterodimer due to the in-phase superposition of molecular excited states. These observations suggest that the exciton can travel coherently through the whole heterodimer as a quantum-mechanical wavepacket. In our model system, the wavelike quantum-coherent transfer channel is three times more efficient than the incoherent channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-022-01142-zDOI Listing
July 2022

Turnover of dissolved organic carbon fuels nocturnal CO emissions from a headwater catchment reservoir, Southeastern China: Effects of ecosystem metabolism on source partitioning of CO emissions.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Nov 2;121:98-111. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Yangtze River Delta Branch, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang 322000, China.

Dam reservoirs in headwater catchments, as critical zones for their proximity to terrestrial sources, play important roles in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) cycling. However, the effects of ecosystem metabolism (EM) on DOC cycling are not well known. Here, in-situ diurnal and monthly observations were conducted to measure EM (including gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and heterotrophic respiration (HR)), DOC turnover and CO emissions in a headwater catchment reservoir in Southeastern China in 2020. Our study showed the nocturnal CO emission rate was about twice as high as in daytime, and was strongly driven by EM. The values for DOC turnover velocity ranged from 0.10 to 1.59 m/day, and the average DOC turnover rate was 0.13 day, with the average removal efficiency of 12%. The contribution of respired DOC to daily CO emissions ranged from 17% to 61%. The accumulated efficiencies were estimated to be 13% for the selected 15 reservoirs throughout the Changjiang River network, corresponding to about 0.34 Tg C/year of the respired DOC. The modified CO flux was 0.75 Tg C/year, and respired DOC accounted for about 45% of total emitted CO from the 15 larger reservoirs. Our research emphasizes the necessity of incorporating the effects of EM into studies of reservoir DOC removal and CO emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.09.020DOI Listing
November 2022

Association between smoking and postoperative delirium in surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension: a secondary analysis of a cohort study.

BMC Psychiatry 2022 06 1;22(1):371. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

Background: Previous studies have declared that smoking was a risk factor for postoperative delirium (POD), but others have inconsistent results. Up till now, the association between smoking and POD has not been verified. This study investigates the relationship between smoking and POD in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) in the United States.

Methods: Patients with PHTN who underwent non-cardiac, non-obstetric surgery were enrolled in the original research completed by Aalap C. et al. We further excluded the patients undergoing intracranial surgery and the patients with sepsis and perioperative stroke to avoid interference with POD assessment. The generalized linear model and generalized additive model were used to explore the relationship between smoking and POD. The propensity score adjustment was used for sensitivity analyses.

Results: Five hundred thirty-nine patients were included in this study. The overall incidence of POD was 3.0% (16/539). After adjusting the potential confounders (age, systemic hypertension, coronary artery disease, COPD, length of surgery, intrathoracic surgery, vascular surgery), a positive relationship was found between smoking status and POD (OR = 4.53, 95% CI: 1.22 to 16.86, P = 0.0243). In addition, the curvilinear relationship between smoking burden (pack-years) and POD is close to a linear relationship.

Conclusion: Smoking probably shows a positive correlation with POD in patients with PHTN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-022-03981-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9158079PMC
June 2022

Aberrant high expression of the TET1 gene in Hirschsprung's disease.

Pediatr Neonatol 2022 07 29;63(4):348-354. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Children's Medical Center, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) remains unclear but might involve genes participating in neural crest development. Gene methylation controls the expression of many genes and is involved in the development and migration of neural crest cells, but the involvement of demethylation in HSCR is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression of ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) (a demethylation protein) in patients with HSCR.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of surgical specimens from paediatric patients with and without HSCR (e.g., intussusception and incarcerated hernia) obtained from 07/2015 to 08/2017. TET1 expression was determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine were determined by the dot blot assay.

Results: The specimens of 35 patients with HSCR and 25 controls were collected. The median TET1 mRNA expression values were 1.028 [HSCR-stenotic (S)], 0.908 [HSCR-dilated (D)], and 0.467 (control) (HSCR-S vs. control: P = 0.002; HSCR-D vs. control: P = 0.008; HSCR-S vs. HSCR-D: P = 0.44). TET1 protein levels followed a similar pattern. The intensity of immunostaining identified higher expression of TET1 in HSCR colon tissues compared with control tissues. The 5-hmC levels in HSCR stenotic segment samples were significantly higher than those in controls.

Conclusion: The expression of TET1 is higher in paediatric patients with HSCR than in controls. DNA demethylation initiated by TET1 may be related to HSCR, which demonstrates that TET1 may play a role in the development of HSCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2022.03.003DOI Listing
July 2022

Construction of Complex Macromulticyclic Peptides via Stitching with Formaldehyde and Guanidine.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 06 31;144(22):10080-10090. Epub 2022 May 31.

State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

There is a growing interest in constructing multicyclic peptide structures to expand the chemical space of peptides. Conventional strategies for constructing large peptide structures are limited by the typical reliance on the inflexible coupling between premade templates equipped with fixed reactive handles and peptide substrates via cysteine anchors. Herein, we report the development of a facile three-component condensation reaction of primary alkyl amine, formaldehyde, and guanidine for construction of complex macromulticyclic peptides with novel topologies via lysine anchors. Moreover, the reaction sequences can be orchestrated in different anchor combinations and spatial arrangements to generate various macrocyclic structures crosslinked by distinct fused tetrahydrotriazine linkages. The macrocyclization reactions are selective, efficient, versatile, and workable in both organic and aqueous media. Thus, the condensation reaction provides a smart tool for stitching native peptides using simple methylene threads and guanidine joints in a flexible and programmable manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c04620DOI Listing
June 2022

Study of bacterial community succession and reconstruction of the core lactic acid bacteria to enhance the flavor of paocai.

Int J Food Microbiol 2022 Aug 6;375:109702. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Food Engineering, College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, PR China. Electronic address:

Paocai is a widely consumed traditional Chinese fermented vegetable product. To study the effects of bacterial community succession and core microbial reconstruction on the flavor of paocai, culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to analyze the bacterial community structure of naturally fermented paocai. HPLC and GC-MS were used to investigate changes in flavor compounds during the fermentation of paocai. Key odorants were identified by olfactometry combined with GC-MS. The results showed that dominant bacteria in the paocai fermentation were mostly cultivable. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Lactococcus lactis appeared at the start of fermentation, Leu. mesenteroides, L. lactis, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and Levilactobacillus brevis appeared in the middle of fermentation, and L. plantarum dominated fermentation in the late stage. Leuconostoc mesenteroides CPTCC 1R3 (LEM), Weissella cibaria CPTCC 1R15 (WC), Levilactobacillus brevis CPTCC 3R8 (LB), and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CPTCC 5R10 (LP) were screened from naturally fermented paocai and used for microbial reconstruction, revealing that the growth and fermentation profiles of the strains were closely related to the evolution of the bacterial community. Paocai inoculated with LEM had the following characteristics: fast fermentation, quickly disappearance of pungent odor of the raw materials, and the improved flavor and taste. Paocai inoculated with WC and LB contained ethanol and mannitol, but inoculated strains were poorly acid-tolerated. However, they can be used as auxiliary strains to enhance the flavor of paocai. Sample inoculated with LP resulted in slow fermentation and massive acid production. Mixed culture fermentation of paocai has more advantages than pure culture fermentation. Leu. mesenteroides and L. plantarum were the core microorganisms related to the flavor formation of paocai. These findings contributed to the better understanding of mechanisms underlie in the microbial community succession and flavor formation during paocai fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2022.109702DOI Listing
August 2022

Class-Wise Denoising for Robust Learning under Label Noise.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2022 May 30;PP. Epub 2022 May 30.

Label noise is ubiquitous in many real-world scenarios which often misleads training algorithm and brings about the degraded classification performance. Therefore, many approaches have been proposed to correct the loss function given corrupted labels to combat such label noise. Among them, a trend of works unbiasedly estimate the data centroid, which plays an important role in constructing an unbiased risk estimator. However, they usually handle the noisy labels in different classes all at once, so the local information inherited by each class is ignored. To address this defect, this paper presents a novel robust learning algorithm dubbed "Class-Wise Denoising" (CWD), which tackles the noisy labels in a class-wise way to ease the entire noise correction task. Specifically, two virtual auxiliary sets are respectively constructed by presuming that the positive and negative labels in the training set are clean, so the original false-negative labels and false-positive ones are tackled separately. As a result, an improved centroid estimator can be designed which helps to yield more accurate risk estimator. Our CWD can produce the improved classification performance under label noise, which is also demonstrated by the comparisons with ten representative state-of-the-art methods on a variety of benchmark datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2022.3178690DOI Listing
May 2022

Transcriptomic analyses of NeuroD1-mediated astrocyte-to-neuron conversion.

Dev Neurobiol 2022 07 23;82(5):375-391. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Biology, Huck Institutes of Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

Ectopic expression of a single neural transcription factor NeuroD1 can reprogram reactive glial cells into functional neurons both in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood yet. Here, we used RNA-sequencing technology to capture the transcriptomic changes at different time points during the reprogramming process. We found that following NeuroD1 overexpression, astroglial genes (ACTG1, ALDH1A3, EMP1, CLDN6, SOX21) were significantly downregulated, whereas neuronal genes (DCX, RBFOX3/NeuN, CUX2, RELN, SNAP25) were significantly upregulated. NeuroD family members (NeuroD1/2/6) and signaling pathways (Wnt, MAPK, cAMP) as well as neurotransmitter receptors (acetylcholine, somatostatin, dopamine) were also significantly upregulated. Gene co-expression analysis identified many central genes among the NeuroD1-interacting network, including CABP7, KIAA1456, SSTR2, GADD45G, LRRTM2, and INSM1. Compared to chemical conversion, we found that NeuroD1 acted as a strong driving force and triggered fast transcriptomic changes during astrocyte-to-neuron conversion process. Together, this study reveals many important downstream targets of NeuroD1 such as HES6, BHLHE22, INSM1, CHRNA1/3, CABP7, and SSTR2, which may play critical roles during the transcriptomic landscape shift from a glial profile to a neuronal profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22882DOI Listing
July 2022

Smart Memory Storage Solution and Elderly Oriented Smart Equipment Design under Deep Learning.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 9;2022:6448302. Epub 2022 May 9.

College of Automation, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, China.

This study explores the memory characteristics of elderly individuals to design effective smart devices based on smart memory storage solutions under deep learning to improve the learning efficiency of elderly individuals. The different memory formation stages in the existing human brain are analysed. A smart memory storage solution based on memory-enhanced embedded learning is constructed based on meta-learning under deep learning, which reduces the cost of learning new tasks to the greatest extent. Finally, the performance of the proposed solution is verified using different datasets. The results reveal that the solution based on deep learning has obvious effects on different datasets, with an average accuracy rate of 99.7%. By synthesizing a large number of target sample features, this solution can lower the learning difficulty and improve the learning effect. The proposed elderly oriented smart device effectively reduces the shortcomings in the current market and lowers the learning difficulty, which provides an important reference for further enriching devices in the ageing market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6448302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9110148PMC
May 2022

High dose chemoradiotherapy increases chance of organ preservation with satisfactory functional outcome for rectal cancer.

Radiat Oncol 2022 May 18;17(1):98. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.

Background: High dose chemoradiotherapy offers a curative chance for patients with rectal cancer that are unfit or unwilling to undergo surgical resection, yet its long-term survival and functional outcomes have been rarely investigated.

Methods: Patients with non-metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma who received pelvic radiation for curative intent from April 2006 to July 2017 were retrospectively investigated. Survival rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Quality of life and functional outcomes were evaluated using the EORTC quality of life questionnaire.

Results: A total of 57 patients were included, with a median age of 59.0 (range, 29-84) years. The numbers of patients who were diagnosed as stage I, II and III were 5 (8.8%), 16 (28.1%) and 36 (63.2%), respectively. 53 (93.0%) patients had tumor located within 5 cm from the anal verge. All patients received fluorouracil-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a median radiation dose of 80 (range, 60-86) Gy. All kinds of grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 18 (31.6%) patients. 42 (73.7%) patients achieved a clinical complete response after chemoradiotherapy. After a median follow-up of 43.5 (range 14.9-163.2) months, 12 (21.1%) patients had local progression and 11 (19.3%) developed distant metastasis. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival were 77.3% (95% CI, 65.7-88.8%) and 79.2% (95% CI, 68.2-90.2%), while the 3-year progression-free survival, cancer-specific survival, overall survival were 61.9% (95% CI, 48.8-75.0%), 93.1% (95% CI, 85.8-100.0%) and 91.4% (95% CI, 83.6-99.2%), respectively. For patients who had tumor located within 3 cm from the anal verge, the sphincter preservation rate was 85.3% at last follow-up. Long-term adverse events mainly were anal blood loss. 21 patients completed the quality-of-life questionnaire and had a score of the global health status of 78.57 ± 17.59. Of them, 95.2% reported no urinary incontinence and 85.7% reported no fecal incontinence.

Conclusions: High dose chemoradiation demonstrated promising survival outcomes with acceptable short-term and long-term side effects, and satisfying long-term functional outcomes and quality of life. It could be considered as a non-invasive alternative for rectal cancer patients who refuse surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-022-02066-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118735PMC
May 2022

Achieving Ultrahigh-Rate Planar and Dendrite-Free Zinc Electroplating for Aqueous Zinc Battery Anodes.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 4;34(28):e2202552. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH, UK.

Despite being one of the most promising candidates for grid-level energy storage, practical aqueous zinc batteries are limited by dendrite formation, which leads to significantly compromised safety and cycling performance. In this study, by using single-crystal Zn-metal anodes, reversible electrodeposition of planar Zn with a high capacity of 8 mAh cm can be achieved at an unprecedentedly high current density of 200 mA cm . This dendrite-free electrode is well maintained even after prolonged cycling (>1200 cycles at 50 mA cm ). Such excellent electrochemical performance is due to single-crystal Zn suppressing the major sources of defect generation during electroplating and heavily favoring planar deposition morphologies. As so few defect sites form, including those that would normally be found along grain boundaries or to accommodate lattice mismatch, there is little opportunity for dendritic structures to nucleate, even under extreme plating rates. This scarcity of defects is in part due to perfect atomic-stitching between merging Zn islands, ensuring no defective shallow-angle grain boundaries are formed and thus removing a significant source of non-planar Zn nucleation. It is demonstrated that an ideal high-rate Zn anode should offer perfect lattice matching as this facilitates planar epitaxial Zn growth and minimizes the formation of any defective regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202202552DOI Listing
July 2022
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