Publications by authors named "Golnar Radmand"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease in Iran: Prevalence and Risk Factors for COPD in North of Iran.

Int J Prev Med 2020 3;11:78. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Background: Globally chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was reported as the fourth leading cause of death (5.1%) in 2004 and is projected to occupy the third position (8.6%) in 2030. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and risk factors of COPD in a province in the north of Iran.

Methods: This study followed a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The stratification of the sample according to the 31 provinces of Iran is incorporated in the sampling process. The single most important outcome measure obtained as part of this protocol was spirometry before and after the administration of 200 mg (2 puffs) of salbutamol. The descriptive statistics for categorical variables included the number and percent and for continues variables included the mean ± SD.

Results: A total of 1007 subjects were included in the study. Among all participants, 46 (5%) subjects had COPD on the basis of symptoms and 43 (8.3%) subjects had COPD on the basis of spirometry criteria. In univariate analysis, urban inhabitants in comparison with rural inhabitants had lower COPD risk (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24-0.95), smoker had higher risk compared with nonsmokers (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.01-3.82), and subjects with exposure to dust (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.09-3.94) had higher risk compared with contrary status.

Conclusions: This study showed that occupational and environmental smoke exposure was associated with COPD. A new design of preventive measures must be taken to control cooking energy and cooking stoves, particularly in rural areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_478_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513778PMC
July 2020

First Experience with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Iran, under Difficult Conditions.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2018 Oct;13(4):166-172

Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides hemodynamic and oxygenation support in critical conditions. The commencement of this modality in Iran coincided with severe economic constraints across Iran. This retrospective study was performed in Masih Daneshvari Medical Center from 2010 to 2015, during which period, sanction-related limitations in the import of equipment prompted us to integrate a Medtronic or Stöckert head pump console into a Maquet ECMO Oxygenator so as to sustain the ECMO program. Comparisons were performed between successful and unsuccessful ECMO procedures and survivors. Factors associated with unsuccessful ECMO were evaluated with a multivariate logistic regression. Thirty-three (68.8%) patients were male and 15 (31.2%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 35±16.6 years. Thirty-seven (77.1%) patients were weaned off ECMO successfully; the rate was higher than that in previous studies. Totally, 35.4% of the study population survived to hospital discharge. The most common cause of death in all the ECMO patients who were successfully weaned was sepsis. The most common cause of death in the patients who underwent unsuccessful ECMO was multisystem organ failure. The mean ECMO support time was 53.37±46.26 hours. The patients who were alive at discharge were significantly younger (25.5±14.5 vs. 40.2±15.5 y; P=0.002) and had a significantly lower ECMO duration (24 [25-75% interquartile: 18.5-36] vs. 48 [25-75% interquartile: 24-72] h; P=0.044) than the non-survivors. An assembly of ECMO components from different companies could be done safely, at least for a short period of time.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450813PMC
October 2018

Burden of obstructive lung disease study in Iran: First report of the prevalence and risk factors of copd in five provinces.

Lung India 2019 Jan-Feb;36(1):14-19

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health burden that affects 300 million people worldwide. Globally, COPD was reported as the fourth leading cause of death in 2004 and is projected to occupy the third position in 2030. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and determine the causes and risk factors of COPD in five provinces of Iran.

Methods: This study followed a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population is all noninstitutionalized inhabitants, aged 18 and over, who inhabit in different provinces in Iran in the year 2017. The stratification of the sample according to the 31 provinces of Iran is incorporated in the sampling process. The core questionnaire was developed from preexisting validated questionnaires. The single most important outcome measure obtained as part of this protocol was spirometry before and after the administration of 200 mg (two puffs) of salbutamol.

Results: The most commonly reported respiratory symptoms were as follows: wheezing (N=217, 20.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 18%-22.8%), sputum production (N=173, 16.5%, 95% CI: 14.3%-18.8%), and dyspnea (N=131, 12.3%, 95% CI: 10.3%-14.3%). The overall COPD prevalence defined by the postbronchodilator spirometric Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria was 4.9%, higher in men (6.4%) than in women (3.9%). The prevalence of COPD was strongly dependent on smoking status, age, and sex.

Conclusion: COPD is considered a preventable disease, and avoidance of exposure to major risk factors can prevent the vast majority of cases. The present study findings add to the literature on the prevalence of COPD in Iran and will help policy-makers, specialists, and all stakeholders to strategize and evaluate medical services required for reducing the prevalence of respiratory diseases. The data from our present study will serve as baseline information for future national and regional studies of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_129_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330801PMC
January 2019

Prevalence of tobacco use and associated factors in Tehran: Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study.

Lung India 2017 May-Jun;34(3):225-231

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of all common types of tobacco use and identify factors associated with tobacco use among adults in Tehran based on information from the population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study in Tehran.

Materials And Methods: This study had a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population was all noninstitutionalized residents of Tehran over 18 years of age in 2013. A total of 1798 individuals were visited in 22 districts of Tehran; 811 (45.1%) men and 987 (54.9%) women participated in structured interviews.

Results: The estimated prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 10.6% overall, 20.9% in men and 2.2% in women. The prevalence of smoking was the highest among respondents between 45 and 54 years in both males and females. The mean age of initiation of tobacco smoking was 21.04 ± 6.42 years. The mean Fagerström test score was 2.87 ± 2.36 among current smokers. The mean number f cigarettes smoked daily by the participants was 11.39 ± 10.92 cigarettes/day (95% confidence interval = 12.58-10.21) (range 1-60 cigarettes).

Conclusions: The 10.6% prevalence of cigarette smoking is alarming in Tehran. We found that male gender, hookah smoking experience, and poor health status were major risk factors in our study population. Hookah smoking can be considered as a reflection of tobacco smoking in the society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-2113.205323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427748PMC
May 2017

Analysis of Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity Risk Factors in Iranian Patients with Solid Tumors: a Cohort, Prospective and Single Institute Study

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 03 1;18(3):753-758. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cisplatin has been associated with irreversible hearing damage. Up to now, there is no therapeutic intervention showing benefit in preventing Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors contributing to hearing impairment after cisplatin administration in Iranian patients. Methods: Hearing thresholds of 124 patients before and after cisplatin administration were assessed with reference to pure-tone audiometry averages at several frequencies from 2006 to 2010. Mean values were calculated at each tested frequency in each ear at baseline and subsequent follow-up audiometry. Hearing impairment was assessed with the Münster score. Results: The mean age at diagnosis and the median cumulative Cisplatin dose were 47.3 years and 453.8 milligrams, respectively. Bilateral hearing loss, mostly of grade 1, and tinnitus were detected in 26% and 3.2% of patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that a high cumulative dose of cisplatin was the most important risk factor for developing hearing damage (P=0.034). The most significant changes in the status of the auditory system and the most severe threshold shift from base line (35 dB) were observed at a frequency of 8 kHz. Also, patients who received higher individual doses of Cisplatin showed significantly more tinnitus (P=0.002). Conclusions: The results are testament to benefits of routine audiometric monitoring program during cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further research should be performed to understand other risk factors, such as genetic predictors of Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.3.753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5464495PMC
March 2017

Effect of short-term ε-aminocaproic acid treatment on patients undergoing endovascular coil embolization following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Neurosurg 2017 May 17;126(5):1606-1613. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Goodman Campbell Brain and Spine, Indiana University, Department of Neurological Surgery.

OBJECTIVE Aneurysmal rebleeding before definitive obliteration of the aneurysm is a cause of mortality and morbidity. There are limited data on the role of short-term antifibrinolytic therapy among patients undergoing endovascular intervention. METHODS All consecutive patients receiving endovascular therapy for their ruptured saccular aneurysm at the authors' institution between 2000 and 2011 were included in this study. These patients underwent endovascular coiling of their aneurysm within 72 hours of admission. In patients receiving ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the EACA administration was continued until the time of the endovascular procedure. Complications and clinical outcomes of endovascular treatment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were compared between EACA-treated and untreated patients. RESULTS During the 12-year study period, 341 patients underwent endovascular coiling. Short-term EACA treatment was administered in 146 patients and was withheld in the other 195 patients. EACA treatment did not change the risk of preinterventional rebleeding in this study (OR 0.782, 95% CI 0.176-3.480; p = 0.747). Moreover, EACA treatment did not increase the rate of thromboembolic events. On the other hand, patients who received EACA treatment had a significantly longer duration of hospital stay compared with their counterparts who were not treated with EACA (median 19 days, interquartile range [IQR] 12.5-30 days vs median 14 days, IQR 10-23 days; p < 0.001). EACA treatment was associated with increased odds of shunt requirement (OR 2.047, 95% CI 1.043-4.018; p = 0.037) and decreased odds of developing cardiac complications (OR 0.138, 95% CI 0.031-0.604; p = 0.009) and respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.471, 95% CI 0.239-0.926; p = 0.029). Short-term EACA treatment did not affect the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge, 6 months, or 1 year following discharge. CONCLUSIONS In this study, short-term EACA treatment in patients who suffered from aSAH and received endovascular aneurysm repair did not decrease the risk of preinterventional rebleeding or increase the risk of thrombotic events. EACA did not affect outcome. Randomized clinical trials are required to provide robust clinical recommendation on short-term use of EACA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.4.JNS152951DOI Listing
May 2017

Psychological Symptoms Before and After a 14-Day Initial Inpatient Treatment in Tuberculosis Patients Compared with Their Primary Caregivers and Healthy Controls.

Tanaffos 2015 ;14(3):182-92

Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most challenging public health burdens in the world. Recent research demonstrated high prevalence of mental disorders in TB patients and their caregivers. The purpose of this study was to assess mental health of TB patients and their caregivers in Iran before and after a two-week inpatient treatment and to determine the prevalence of psychological problems in these groups.

Materials And Methods: A standardized questionnaire (SCL-90) was used to assess psychological symptoms in 146 hospitalized TB patients and their caregivers (n=89). Furthermore, the scores of both target groups were compared with those of a group of healthy individuals (n=85).

Results: The mean scores before the start of the initial treatment of the patients were significantly lower for paranoid ideation (P=0.038) and hostility (P= 0.046), and the scores of depression (P=0.046) and somatization (P=0.001) were significantly higher than those of the healthy individuals. The patients scored significantly higher than the caregivers on depression (0.047) and somatization (P< 0.001), whereas the caregivers scored higher than the healthy individuals on paranoid ideation (P= 0.044) and hostility (P= 0.034). Multiple linear regression showed that age, educational level and marital status were factors affecting the mental health of TB patients and their caregivers. The variance in psychological symptoms of the patients was between 10% (paranoid ideation) and 27% (hostility) of the variance in the symptoms of their caregivers.

Conclusion: Tuberculosis control and treatment programs should not only address issues like continued respiratory symptoms, but should also focus on mental health in TB patients and their caregivers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4745187PMC
February 2016

Burden of obstructive lung disease study in Tehran: Prevalence and risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Lung India 2015 Nov-Dec;32(6):572-7

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was ranked the sixth-most common cause of death worldwide in 1990, but now it is the third-most common cause. The goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determine the causes and risk factors of COPD in Tehran.

Materials And Methods: This study followed a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population was all non-institutionalized inhabitants, aged 18 to 40 in one group and over 40 in another who resided in Tehran in 2013. The core questionnaire was developed from pre-existing validated questionnaires that had already been used in multi-national studies. The single most important outcome measure obtained as part of this protocol was spirometry before and after the administration of 200 mg (two puffs) of salbutamol.

Results: The most commonly reported respiratory symptoms were: sputum production in 291 patients (16.2%) [95% confidence interval (CI): 14.5-17.9%], chronic cough in 171 (9.5%) (95% CI: 8.2-10.9%), wheezing in 377 (21.0%) (95%CI: 19.1-22.9%) and dyspnea in 388 patients (21.6%) (95% CI: 19.7-23.5%). The overall COPD prevalence defined by the post-bronchodilator spirometric functional criteria was 9.2%. This value in men (10.1%) was higher than in women (8.5%); the prevalence was significantly higher in subjects aged over 55 years (P ≤ 0.002). The prevalence of COPD was strongly dependent on smoking status, especially in ex-smokers, and increased considerably with age. 69% of patients with COPD were non-smoker.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of verified COPD, a great deal of which was undiagnosed before by a physician, highlights the necessity of raising awareness of this disease among health professionals, and use of spirometry in the primary care setting. A future cross-sectional and prospective cohort study should be performed to explore all risk factors and their impact on decline in lung function and worsening of respiratory symptoms especially in non-smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-2113.168129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663859PMC
December 2015

Ultra fast-track extubation in heart transplant surgery patients.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2015 Apr-Jun;5(2):89-92

Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Heart transplant surgeries using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) typically requires mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICU) in post-operation period. Ultra fast-track extubation (UFE) have been described in patients undergoing various cardiac surgeries.

Aim: To determine the possibility of ultra-fast-track extubation instead of late extubation in post heart transplant patients.

Materials And Methods: Patients randomly assigned into two groups; Ultra fast-track extubation (UFE) group was defined by extubation inside operating room right after surgery. Late extubation group was defined by patients who were not extubated in operating room and transferred to post operation cardiac care unit (CCU) to extubate.

Results: The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 136.8 ± 25.7 minutes in ultra-fast extubation and 145.3 ± 29.8 minutes in late extubation patients (P > 0.05). Mechanical ventilation duration (days) was 0 days in ultra-fast and 2.31 ± 1.8 days in late extubation. Length of ICU stay was significantly higher in late extubation group (4.2 ± 1.2 days) than the UFE group (1.72 ± 1.5 days) (P = 0.02). In survival analysis there was no significant difference between ultra-fast and late extubation groups (Log-rank test, P = 0.9).

Conclusions: Patients undergoing cardiac transplant could be managed with "ultra-fast-track extubation", without increased morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.158394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477402PMC
July 2015

Interim Report from Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD Study) in Tehran: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Tanaffos 2014 ;13(3):6-13

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) is estimated to rank fifth in burden of disease and third in terms of mortality by 2020 worldwide. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and non-fully reversible airflow obstruction, causing structural changes in the lungs that can be demonstrated by a post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio <70%.

Materials And Methods: The sampling frame of the current study was the population of Tehran, the capital of Iran with the current population of nearly 8.1 million. A stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata was used in this study. The target population was all Tehran residents, aged 18 to 40 in one group and over 40 in another, in the year 2013. The stratification process of the sample according to the 22 municipal districts of Tehran city has been incorporated in the sampling process. Proportional to the number of households in the 22 districts, the appropriate number of clusters is weighted according to each district. The decision about the number of clusters is based on total sample size; mean household members; and logistical facilities for subject enumeration, transport, and examination.

Results: The overall COPD prevalence defined by the spirometric functional criteria was 10%, higher in men 12 (11.9%) than in women 15 (8.8%); the prevalence was significantly higher in subjects aged over 55 years (P =0.001). Only 10(3.7%) of these COPD patients had already been diagnosed by a physician. Of all subjects fulfilling the criteria for COPD according to the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) guidelines (post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<70%), 90(33.3%) had chronic productive cough, and 262(96.7%) had either long-standing cough, sputum production, recurrent wheeze, dyspnea, or attacks of shortness of breath.

Conclusion: Due to the small sample size at this stage of project, conclusions should be drawn with caution. In this first epidemiological report in Tehran about COPD, a moderate prevalence of the disease was determined, and a high percentage of this figure had not been diagnosed before by a physician.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338047PMC
February 2015

Secondary infection and clinical aspects after pandemic swine-origin influenza a (H1N1) admission in an Iranian critical care unite.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2014 Oct-Dec;4(4):309-13

Mycobacteriology Research Center Virology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: A new flu virus (H1N1) swine origin and cause of human infection with acute lung disease was published in the world and led to many patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU).

Materials And Methods: In a prospective descriptive study, all ICU patients in a pulmonary disease specialist hospital between April 2010 and July 2011 with confirmed infection (H1N1) were evaluated. Information including demographic, clinical and microbiology using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16 was studied and classified.

Results: Of 46 patients hospitalized with confirmed diagnosis of swine flu pneumonia (H1N1), 20 cases (43.7%) admitted in ICU out of which 10 cases were males (50%), the mean age was 36.9 and the range was 21-66 years. Nine patients (45%) had underlying diseases. Most underlying disease was respiratory disease in which four cases (20%) were of asthma and one patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). No admission of pregnant patient with swine flu was reported in the ICU. Cough and sputum were the most frequent symptoms (19 patients equal 95%). Four patients (20%) were admitted with decreased level of consciousness and five cases (25%) died during hospitalization.

Conclusion: It seems, swine flu with high mortality and transfer rates is a worldwide health problem. Because of limited treatment regimen, the risk of secondary infection and high need to intensive care in H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high risk people and public announcement, make determining role in controlling of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.147536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4296334PMC
January 2015

Comparison of i-gel™ and laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized paralyzed patients.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2014 Oct-Dec;4(4):288-92

Anesthesiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The i-gel™ is a new device introduced recently. It differs from other supraglottic airway devices. It has a non-inflatable, gel-made cuff. Previously used devices, have some disadvantages which are claimed to be absent in i-gel™. In this study we aimed to compare the performance of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Classic™ and i-gel™ during anesthesia in paralyzed patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of 64 anaesthetized patients with paralysis were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized control trial to be intubated with one of the devices. We compared the device insertion parameters, some ventilatory parameters, and adverse effects after device insertion.

Results: Vital signs were not significantly different between groups. Regarding duration of insertion attempts, the difference between groups was significant (P < 0.05); while the number of insertion attempts was insignificant (P = 0.265). There was no significant difference between both groups regarding postoperative complications (cough, sore throat, and blood on the cuff) (P > 0.05). Airway leak was assessed in both groups and data showed no significant difference (P = 0.662). Additionally, end-tidal CO2 change regarding the baseline value was significantly different after 10 and 15 min of anesthesia (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Successful insertion time was shorter significantly for i-gel™. As i-gel™ has easy application, it is advantageous to be used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by non-anesthetists in which time is very important. We concluded that i-gel™ can be an alternative to LMA-Classic™ for controlled ventilation during anesthesia as it is easier to be placed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.147520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4296330PMC
January 2015

Clinicopathologic and survival characteristics of malignant pleural mesothelioma registered in hospital cancer registry.

Tanaffos 2014 ;13(2):6-12

Department of Internal Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but fatal thoracic tumor, which in the majority of patients is caused by prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers. We aimed at presenting clinicopathological and treatment outcomes of 60 patients of MPM registered in our hospital cancer registry.

Materials And Methods: Demographic characteristics of patients, exposure to asbestos, smoking habit, their clinicopathologic characteristics and survival analysis were described.

Results: Sixty patients had MPM. Forty patients (66.7%) were men. The mean age of patients was 55.8±11 years. Chest pain and dyspnea were the most prevalent symptoms (31.7%, and 30%, respectively). Thirty-six (61.7%) patients reported asbestos exposure. The median survival and Progression free survival (PFS) were 10.5 months (0.95CI=9.22-11.78) and 7.57 months (0.95CI=5.68-9.45), respectively. In multivariate analysis, exposure to asbestos and epithelioid subtype significantly extended the survival time. Bilateral involvement, high blood level of LDH and platelet count ≥400,000 significantly shortened the overall survival.

Conclusion: MPM is still an important health problem in Iran. Given the aforementioned results, developing a national program to eliminate asbestos-related diseases according to the world health organization (WHO) recommendation is necessary.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260067PMC
December 2014

Effects of propofol versus isoflurane on liver function after open thoracotomy.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2015 Mar 15;23(3):292-8. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Anesthetic agents and type of surgery may contribute to postoperative hepatic injury. Inhalational anesthetics have been associated with hepatic dysfunction after surgery, however, propofol is expected to have a lower potential for postoperative liver injury. This prospective double-blind randomized clinical study was planned to determine whether postoperative liver function differs after anesthesia with isoflurane and total intravenous anesthesia with propofol in patients undergoing a posterolateral thoracotomy.

Methods: Eighty-eight patients in American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, aged 16-60 years, and scheduled for an elective posterolateral thoracotomy, were randomly assigned to an anesthetic protocol: propofol (n = 44) or isoflurane (n = 44). Induction of anesthesia was similar in both groups. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase were measured before induction of anesthesia and on the first and third days after either propofol or isoflurane anesthesia.

Results: Mild changes in postoperative serum levels of liver enzymes were significant within each group but the differences between groups were not significant.

Conclusions: Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia have a comparable minor effect on liver function after an elective posterolateral thoracotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492314551972DOI Listing
March 2015

Evaluation of plethysmography for diagnosis of postintubation tracheal stenosis.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2013 Apr;21(2):181-6

Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Post-intubation tracheal stenosis is a serious disease caused by cuff pressure during tracheal intubation. The reported prevalence of post-intubation tracheal stenosis is 10%-22% in intubated patients. Invasive diagnostic methods based on fiberoptic or rigid bronchoscopy are suggested for initial assessment and treatment. This study aimed to evaluate plethysmography as an alternative diagnostic tool for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. We also assessed the relationship between plethysmography and bronchoscopy findings in patients with post-intubation tracheal stenosis.

Methods: The sample included 30 patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit or surgical ward during the course of a year, and diagnosed with post-intubation tracheal stenosis. All patients underwent plethysmography and rigid bronchoscopy. The relationship between the plethysmography and bronchoscopy findings was examined.

Results: Stricture intensity had the strongest correlation with upper airway resistance (p = 0.001). The relationship of length of stricture to forced expiratory volume in 1 s and maximum expiratory flow 50 and 75 was significant in univariate analysis, and to reserve volume and total lung capacity in multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Significant relationships were found between plethysmography variables and rigid bronchoscopy findings in patients with post-intubation tracheal stenosis, and some formulas were developed to give an alternative estimate of stricture severity, without bronchoscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492312454537DOI Listing
April 2013

The Impact of Reverse Trendelenburg Versus Head-up Position on Intraoperative Bleeding of Elective Rhinoplasty.

Int J Prev Med 2013 Dec;4(12):1438-41

Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center (CRDRC), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU), Tehran, Iran.

Background: In spite of several efforts for decreasing blood loss, our experience sometimes shows that some patients bleed more profusely during rhinoplasty. Patient position could have deep impact on bleeding amount during surgical procedures.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare reverse trendelenburg position and head-up position on intra-operative bleeding of elective rhinoplasty. This was to check the effects of reverse trendelenburg position and head up position on the intraoperative bleeding of elective rhinoplasty.

Methods: In this study, 30 ASA I (American Society of Anesthesiology physical condition classification) patients between 18 and 40 years of age who were candidate to rhinoplasty operations for first time were included. Patients were randomly assigned to reverse trendelenburg or head-up position. Exclusion criteria was any history or lab indicating coagulation problems or using any drug. All gauzes used and the blood that accumulated in the aspirator throughout the operation were calculated.

Results: Our results showed that the mean amount of blood loss in reverse trendelenburg was lower (77.00 ± 13.20 ml) than head-up position (83.33 ± 21.18 ml), although, there was no statistical difference between two groups. However, there was no significant differences among two groups in different aspects of hemodynamic determinants and bleeding amount during and after rhinoplasty.

Conclusions: Our results showed that patient bleeding is not increased because of positioning per se. In conclusion, perhaps in the future reverse trendelenburg will be given more often during rhinoplasry.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898450PMC
December 2013

Modification of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score through recalibration of risk prediction model in critical care patients of a respiratory disease referral center.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2013 Jan;3(1):40-5

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Several models have been developed to measure the severity of illness in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, It is suggested that the models should be customized depending on the characteristics of different population of patients. This study is aimed to assess and modify the performance of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) model in a respiratory diseases referral center.

Materials And Methods: A total of 730 patients, admitted to an intensive care unit during one year, were divided into two sets (71% training and 29% test). Our modified APACHE-II model was developed and calibrated on training set. Then, the integrity of the customized model was checked and compared to the original APACHE-II, on the test set. Logistic regression was used to develop ROC analysis, F-measure and kappa coefficient and were employed to calibrate the model.

Results: Both Original and Our modified APACHE-II scores performed acceptable discriminative power (AUC = 0.908: 95%CI 0.861-0.854; and AUC = 0.856: 95%CI 0.789-0.923, respectively); the difference was not significant (P = 0.132). Our modified APACHE-II showed improved accuracy (87.9% vs. 84.1%) and sensitivity (56.4% vs. 16.3%) compared to the original model. F-measure and Kappa also gave the impression of improvement for our modified APACHE-II system.

Conclusion: The results demonstrated that a modified APACHE-II system in a local ICU of respiratory disease could have similar discrimination and comparable calibration to the original model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.109419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665118PMC
January 2013

Association between Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Tests.

Tanaffos 2013 ;12(1):36-41

Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is quite high and its prevalence is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the correlation of COPD severity according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria with spirometric measurements in patients admitted to the emergency ward.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 50 randomly selected patients with COPD admitted to the emergency ward in a tertiary care center were evaluated. The COPD severity according to the ATS criteria was measured and its association with spirometric findings was evaluated. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software and the Kendall's tau-b correlation test.

Results: The mean age (±standard deviation) was 64.3 ± 11.3 years. Twelve percent were females and 88 percent were males. The COPD severity, according to the ATS criteria, was mild in 16%, moderate in 48%, severe in 32% and very severe in four percent. There was a statistically significant correlation between total lung capacity (TLC) and COPD severity (P = 0.013, r = 275). Besides, there was a statistically significant correlation between functional residual capacity (FRC) and COPD severity (P = 0.022, r = 255). Age, sex, and the other spirometric findings especially FEV1 and FVC had no association with COPD severity (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it is concluded that determining the COPD severity according to the ATS criteria may help the physicians to estimate the patients' prognosis and therapeutic planning. However, the spirometric measurements may not be replaced by ATS criteria.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153230PMC
September 2014

The Relationship Between Vitamin E Plasma and BAL Concentrations, SOD Activity and Ventilatory Support Measures in Critically Ill Patients.

Iran J Pharm Res 2011 ;10(4):953-60

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Vitamin E is a potent reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) scavenger. It is a lipid-soluble vitamin and its main function is to protect polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidative stress. Twenty-five mechanically ventilated Intensive Care Unit (ICU) adult patients participated in a prospective randomized clinical trial receiving either placebo (10 patients) or 3 IM doses (1000 IU each) of vitamin E (15 patients). We determined plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid concentrations of vitamin E and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Among these 25 patients, there were 14 men and 11 women, aged 63.16 ±15.48 years (mean ± SD; range = 33 to 87 years). Vitamin E supplementation resulted in significant differences in plasma and BAL vitamin E concentrations between the two groups (p-value = 0.01, 0.01), decrease in SOD activities (not differ significantly in plasma (p-value = 0.23)), but with significant differences in BAL (p-value = 0.016) and progressive reduction in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) (p-value = 0.52) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) (p-value = 0.008) score in vitamin E group. From the results of this study, it seems that supplementation of vitamin E as a potent antioxidant, along with other supportive measures, can be beneficial in decreasing SOD total activity, ROM production and risk of organ failure in critically ill patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813061PMC
November 2013

Improving the Practice of Nutrition Therapy in the NRITLD Critically Ill Patients: An International Quality Improvement Project.

Tanaffos 2011 ;10(4):31-7

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology at Queen's University, Director of Research for the Critical Care Program and the Director of the Clinical Evaluation Research Unit at the Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Canada.

Background: In previous decades several studies have been performed demonstrating that providing appropriate nutritional support to intensive care unit patients affects complications, time of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and risk of death. In this study we provided a report of nutrition statuses in Masih Daneshvari's ICU as compared to 156 ICUs from 20 countries that participated in an international nutrition survey.

Materials And Methods: All patients admitted to an intensive care unit during a specified one-month period who required artificial nutrition were included in this study. Characteristics of patients, performance of nutrition practices, and ICU outcomes were registered for all patients and compared with data from 156 other intensive care units from various countries around the world.

Results: Twenty patients, of which 11(55%) were males and 9(45%) were females, were included in this study. The median age was 50.5 yrs (IQR: 40.5-56.0). Seventeen (85%) of them had EN nutrition only, 2(10%) had PN nutrition only, and 1(5%) had both EN and PN nutrition during their stay in the ICU. The adequacy of calorie intake was 67.6% (vs. 61.1% in all 157 ICUs) and the adequacy of protein intake was 84.9% (vs. 56.7% in 157 ICUs).

Conclusion: In our ICU, enteral feeding was superior to parenteral feeding. Also we considered early initiation of enteral feeding within 48 hours following ICU admission. We just used polymeric formula during this study. As a result of formula variation limits, we overestimated calories and protein needs. Glutamine and Selenium supplementations have not been used yet for patient in our ICU, regardless of their proven benefits in oxidative stress conditions like pulmonary diseases. Therefore, limited use of supplementations like selenium is inevitably among the disadvantages of Masih Daneshvari Hospital's ICU, which is a tertiary-care center for chronic pulmonary diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153167PMC
September 2014