Publications by authors named "Godwin Ogbole"

43 Publications

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106003DOI Listing
July 2021

The Global Reading Room: Imaging of Post-Traumatic Headache.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine; Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdan, The Netherlands.

A 19-year-old man presents to the emergency room with migraine headaches seven days after a blow to the head during martial arts competition. His neurologic examination is normal. The patient wishes to resume normal activities, including martial arts practice. As the radiologist, what imaging test, if any, do you recommend?
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.21.26587DOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of age on links between major modifiable risk factors and stroke occurrence in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 9;428:117573. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Background The burden of stroke in Africa is high. Understanding how age associates with major modifiable stroke risk factors could inform tailored demographic stroke prevention strategies. Purpose To quantify the magnitude and direction of the effect sizes of key modifiable stroke risk factors according to three age groups: <50 years (young), 50-65 years (middle age) and > 65 years (elderly) in West Africa. Methods This was a case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with CT/MRI scan-typed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using conditional logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) with 95% Confidence Interval of vascular risk factors by age groups. Results Among 3553 stroke cases, 813 (22.9%) were young, 1441 (40.6%) were middle-aged and 1299 (36.6%) were elderly. Among the 5 co-shared risk factors, dyslipidemia with PAR and aOR (95%CI) of 62.20% (52.82-71.58) and 4.13 (2.64-6.46) was highest among the young age group; hypertension with PAR of 94.31% (91.82-96.80) and aOR of 28.93 (15.10-55.44) was highest among the middle-age group. Diabetes with PAR of 32.29%(27.52-37.05) and aOR of 3.49 (2.56-4.75); meat consumption with PAR of 42.34%(32.33-52.35) and aOR of 2.40 (1.76, 3.26); and non-consumption of green vegetables, PAR of 16.81%(12.02-21.60) and aOR of 2.23 (1.60-3.12) were highest among the elderly age group. However confidence intervals of risk estimates overlapped across age groups. Additionally, among the young age group cigarette smoking, psychosocial stress and cardiac disease were independently associated with stroke. Furthermore, education, stress, physical inactivity and salt intake were associated with stroke in the middle-age group while cardiac disease was associated with stroke in the elderly age group. Conclusion There is a differential influence of age on the associations of major risk factors with stroke in this West African cohort. Targeting modifiable factors predominant within an age group may be more effective as a stroke prevention strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117573DOI Listing
July 2021

Frequency and factors associated with post-stroke seizures in a large multicenter study in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 9;427:117535. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Post-stroke seizures (PSS) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. There is a paucity of data on PSS in Africa.

Purpose: To assess the frequency and factors associated with PSS by stroke types across 15 hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana.

Methods: We analyzed data on all stroke cases recruited into the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN). We included adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PSS were defined as acute symptomatic seizures occurring at stroke onset and/or during acute hospitalization up until discharge. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3344 stroke patients, 499 (14.9%) had PSS (95% CI: 13.7-16.2%). The mean duration of admission in days for those with PSS vs no PSS was 17.4 ± 28.6 vs 15.9 ± 24.7, p = 0.72. There were 294(14.1%) PSS among 2091 ischemic strokes and 159(17.7%) among 897 with ICH, p = 0.01. The factors associated with PSS occurrence were age < 50 years, aOR of 1.59 (1.08-2.33), National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS), 1.29 (1.16-1.42) for each 5 units rise and white cell count 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for each 10^3 mm rise. Factors associated with PSS in ischemic were NIHSS score, aOR of 1.17 (1.04-1.31) and infarct volume of 10-30 cm aOR of 2.17(1.37-3.45). Among ICH, associated factors were alcohol use 5.91 (2.11-16.55) and lobar bleeds 2.22 (1.03-4.82).

Conclusion: The burden of PSS among this sample of west Africans is substantial and may contribute to poor outcomes of stroke in this region. Further longitudinal studies are required to understand the impact on morbidity and mortality arising from PSS in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325635PMC
August 2021

Factors associated with hypertension among stroke-free indigenous Africans: Findings from the SIREN study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 04 23;23(4):773-784. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) globally. Understanding risk factors for hypertension among individuals with matching characteristics with stroke patients may inform primordial/primary prevention of hypertension and stroke among them. This study identified the risk factors for hypertension among community-dwelling stroke-free population in Ghana and Nigeria. Data for 4267 community-dwelling stroke-free controls subjects in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study in Nigeria and Ghana were used. Participants were comprehensively assessed for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors using standard methods. Hypertension was defined as a previous diagnosis by a health professional or use of an anti-hypertensive drug or mean systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of hypertension and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) at p < .05. Overall, 56.7% of the participants were hypertensive with a higher proportion among respondents aged ≥60 years (53.0%). Factors including physical inactivity (aOR: 9.09; 95% CI: 4.03 to 20.53, p < .0001), diabetes (aOR: 2.70; CI: 1.91 to 3.82, p < .0001), being ≥60 years (aOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.77, p < .0001), and family history of CVD (aOR 2.02; CI: 1.59 to 2.56, p < .0001) were associated with increased aOR of hypertension. Lifestyle factors were associated with hypertension in the current population of community-dwelling stroke-free controls in west Africa. Community-oriented interventions to address sedentary lifestyles may benefit this population and reduce/prevent hypertension and stroke among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263562PMC
April 2021

Pre-Stroke Depression in Ghana and Nigeria: Prevalence, Predictors and Association With Poststroke Depression.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2020 Oct 19:891988720968274. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objectives: Depression is a risk factor for stroke. There is a knowledge gap on the predictors of prestroke depression in stroke survivors living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We estimated prevalence and predictors of prestroke depression, as well as its association with poststroke depression (PSD) in the largest study of stroke in Africa.

Methods: We evaluated information collected as part of the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study, a multicentre, case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Prestroke depression status was ascertained in stroke survivors using a validated self-report tool, while PSD was assessed using a stroke specific screening tool for depression ("HRQOLISP-E"). Independent associations were investigated using complementary log-log regression and binary logit models.

Results: Among 1,977 participants, prestroke depression was found in 141 (7.1%). In multivariate analyses, prestroke depression was significantly associated with tachycardia (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.37-3.56) and low consumption of green leafy vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.12-3.24). Forty-one (29.1%) of the prestroke depression sub-sample developed PSD. However, prestroke depression was not significantly associated with PSD.

Conclusion: The findings should energize before-the-stroke identification and prioritization of limited treatment resources in LMICs to persons with depression who have multiple, additional, risks of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988720968274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241399PMC
October 2020

Antecedent febrile illness and occurrence of stroke in West Africa: The SIREN study.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Nov 28;418:117158. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Acute infections have been posited as potential precipitants or triggers of the occurrence of stroke among adults with traditional vascular risk factors. We evaluated associations between stroke occurrence and reported febrile illness within 4 weeks (potential antecedent infections) among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) is a multicenter, case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases include adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed strokes. Controls were stroke-free adults matched with cased by age, gender and ethnicity. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. Participants were asked for evidence of any febrile illness within the past 4 weeks. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3588 stroke cases recruited in Ghana and Nigeria between August 2014 and July 2018, 363 cases (10.1%) reported having a febrile illness within the 4 weeks prior to stroke occurrence. Having an antecedent infection was associated with stroke occurrence with an unadjusted OR of 1.19 (1.00-1.51) but aOR of 0.83 (0.59-1.17) upon adjusting for traditional vascular risk factors. Stress, aOR of 4.69 (2.59-8.50) and consumption of green vegetables 2.27 (1.35-2.85) were associated with antecedent febrile illness.

Conclusion: 1 in 10 stroke cases reported antecedent history of febrile illness prior to occurrence of stroke but no independent association was observed in this study. Infectious exposures may be important triggers of cardiovascular events requiring further exploratory studies to better understand the role of this emerging risk factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006213PMC
November 2020

Low-Field MRI of Stroke: Challenges and Opportunities.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 08 22;54(2):372-390. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Medical Imaging Research Centre, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore, India.

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The reasons for increased stroke burden in developing countries are inadequately controlled risk factors resulting from poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Computed tomography and MRI are common neuroimaging modalities used to assess stroke with diffusion-weighted MRI, in particular, being the recommended choice for acute stroke imaging. However, access to these imaging modalities is primarily restricted to major cities and high-income groups. In the case of stroke, the time-window of treatment to limit the damage is of a few hours and needs a point-of-care diagnosis. A low-cost MR system typically achieved at the ultra-low- and very-low-field would meet the need for a geographically accessible and portable solution. We review studies focused on accessible stroke imaging and recent developments in MR methodologies, including hardware, to image at low fields. We hypothesize that in the absence of a formal, rapid stroke triaging system, the value of timely on-site delivery of the scanner to the stroke patient can be significant. To this end, we discuss multiple recent hardware and methods developments in the low-field regime. Our review suggests a compelling need to explore further the trade-offs between high signal, contrast, and accessibility at low fields in low-income communities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27324DOI Listing
August 2021

Association between white matter hyperintensities and stroke in a West African patient population: Evidence from the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network study.

Neuroimage 2020 07 7;215:116789. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: This study is part of the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN), the largest study of stroke patients in Africa to date, with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data for each patient to confirm stroke. Prior imaging studies performed using high-field MR (≥1.5T) have shown that white matter hyperintensities (WMH), signs of microangiopathy in the subcortical brain, are correlated with many stroke risk factors as well as poor stroke outcomes. The aim of this study was the evaluation of MR images (0.3T-1.5T) from the SIREN study to determine associations between WMH volumes in West African patients and both stroke outcomes and stroke risk factors identified in the SIREN study.

Materials And Methods: Brain MR images of 130 Western African stroke patients (age ​= ​57.87 ​± ​14.22) were processed through Lesion Segmentation Toolbox of the Statistical Parametric Mapping software to extract all areas of hyperintensity in the brain. WMH was separated from stroke lesion hyperintensity and WMH volume was computed and summed. A stepwise linear regression and multivariate analysis was performed between patients' WMH volume and sociodemographic and clinical indices.

Results: Multivariate analysis showed that high WMH volume was statistically significantly positively correlated with age (β ​= ​0.44, p ​= ​0.001), waist/hip ratio (β ​= ​0.22, p ​= ​0.03), and platelet count (β ​= ​0.19, p ​= ​0.04) after controlling for head size in a Western African stroke population.

Conclusion: Associations between WMH and age and waist/hip ratio previously identified in Western countries were demonstrated for the first time in a resource-limited, homogeneous black African community using low-field MR scanners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304372PMC
July 2020

Unraveling the risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage among West Africans.

Neurology 2020 03 19;94(10):e998-e1012. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

From Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S., L.A., A. Singh, D.O.), Kumasi, Ghana; University of California (B.O.), San Francisco; Medical University of South Carolina (M.G., D.L., C.J., F.M.), Charleston; College of Medicine (O. Akpa, G. Ogbole, M.O., J.A., A.O., A. Adeoye, L. Ogunjimi, O. Arulogun, F.A., O. Ogah, A. Makanjuola, O. Adebayo, A. Agunloye, S.L., S.D., M.F., C.E.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; University of Ghana Medical School (A. Akpalu, R.L., B.C.-T.), Accra; University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (K.W., L. Oyinloye, P.K., E.S.); Federal Medical Centre (R.A., O. Adeleye), Abeokuta; Ahmadu Bello University (R.O., O.B., V.S., H.I.), Zaria; Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (M.K., B.F., O. Ajose, S.O.), Ile-Ife; Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (L. Owolabi, A. Mande), Kano, Nigeria; University of Kentucky (D.A.), Lexington; University of Alabama at Birmingham (H.T.); University of Cambridge (H.S.M.), UK; Delta State University Teaching Hospital (O. Olugbo); Jos Teaching Hospital (G. Osaigbovo, A. Salaam, G.A., C.I.), Plateau State; Federal Medical Centre (I.C.), Umuahia, Abia State; Federal Medical Centre (T.S.), Owo, Ondo State; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (A. Akintunde), Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Objective: To characterize risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) occurrence and severity among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicenter case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Patients were adults ≥18 years old with CT-confirmed sICH with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched stroke-free community controls. Standard instruments were used to assess vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. Factors associated with sICH and its severity were assessed using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors.

Results: Of 2,944 adjudicated stroke cases, 854 were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Mean age of patients with ICH was 54.7 ± 13.9 years, with a male preponderance (63.1%), and 77.3% were nonlobar. Etiologic subtypes of sICH included hypertension (80.9%), structural vascular anomalies (4.0%), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (0.7%), systemic illnesses (0.5%), medication-related (0.4%), and undetermined (13.7%). Eight factors independently associated with sICH occurrence by decreasing order of PAR with their adjusted OR (95% CI) were hypertension, 66.63 (20.78-213.72); dyslipidemia, 2.95 (1.84-4.74); meat consumption, 1.55 (1.01-2.38); family history of CVD, 2.22 (1.41-3.50); nonconsumption of green vegetables, 3.61 (2.07-6.31); diabetes mellitus, 2.11 (1.29-3.46); stress, 1.68 (1.03-2.77); and current tobacco use, 14.27 (2.09-97.47). Factors associated with severe sICH using an NIH Stroke Scale score >15 with adjusted OR (95% CI) were nonconsumption of leafy green vegetables, 2.03 (1.43-2.88); systolic blood pressure for each mm Hg rise, 1.01 (1.00-1.01); presence of midline shift, 1.54 (1.11-2.13); lobar ICH, 1.72 (1.16-2.55); and supratentorial bleeds, 2.17 (1.06-4.46).

Conclusions: Population-level control of the dominant factors will substantially mitigate the burden of sICH in West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238923PMC
March 2020

Conceptual framework for establishing the African Stroke Organization.

Int J Stroke 2021 01 6;16(1):93-99. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.

Africa is the world's most genetically diverse, second largest, and second most populous continent, with over one billion people distributed across 54 countries. With a 23% lifetime risk of stroke, Africa has some of the highest rates of stroke worldwide and many occur in the prime of life with huge economic losses and grave implications for the individual, family, and the society in terms of mental capital, productivity, and socioeconomic progress. Tackling the escalating burden of stroke in Africa requires prioritized, multipronged, and inter-sectoral strategies tailored to the unique African epidemiological, cultural, socioeconomic, and lifestyle landscape. The African Stroke Organization (ASO) is a new pan-African coalition that brings together stroke researchers, clinicians, and other health-care professionals with participation of national and regional stroke societies and stroke support organizations. With a vision to reduce the rapidly increasing burden of stroke in Africa, the ASO has a four-pronged focus on (1) research, (2) capacity building, (3) development of stroke services, and (4) collaboration with all stakeholders. This will be delivered through advocacy, awareness, and empowerment initiatives to bring about people-focused changes in policy, clinical practice, and public education. In the spirit of the " the ASO will harness the power of diversity, inclusiveness, togetherness, and team work to build a strong, enduring, and impactful platform for tackling stroke in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019897871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006214PMC
January 2021

Gender differential in inclination to donate brain for research among Nigerians: the IBADAN Brain Bank Project.

Cell Tissue Bank 2019 Jun 26;20(2):297-306. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Health Promotion and Education, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Laboratory-based studies of neurological disease patterns and mechanisms are sparse in sub-Saharan Africa. However, availability of human brain tissue resource depends on willingness towards brain donation. This study evaluated the level of willingness among outpatient clinic attendees in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

Methods: Under the auspices of the IBADAN Brain Bank Project, a 43-item semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of individuals attending Neurology, Psychiatry and Geriatrics Outpatient clinics regarding willingness to donate brain for research. Association between participants characteristics and willingness towards brain donation was investigated using logistic regression models. Analysis was conducted using Stata SE version 12.0.

Results: A total of 412 participants were interviewed. Their mean age was 46.3 (16.1) years. 229 (55.6%) were females and 92.5% had at least 6 years of formal education. Overall, 109 (26.7%) were willing to donate brains for research. In analyses adjusting for educational status, religion, ethnicity, marital status and family setting, male sex showed independent association with willingness towards brain donation OR (95% CI) 1.7 (1.08-2.69), p = 0.023. Participants suggested public engagement and education through mass media (including social media) and involvement of religious and community leaders as important interventions to improve awareness and willingness towards brain donation.

Conclusion: The survey revealed low willingness among outpatient clinic attendees to donate brain for research, although men were more inclined to donate. It is imperative to institute public engagement and educational interventions in order to improve consent for brain donation for research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-019-09769-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556418PMC
June 2019

Differential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa.

Stroke 2019 04;50(4):820-827

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (R.A., A.A., M.O.).

Background and Purpose- The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods- SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results- Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49-71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19-28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42-3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29-2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11-4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53-3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48-3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07-2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89-4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33-3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%-99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%-98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions- Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433514PMC
April 2019

Clinical outcome of closed reduction of cervical spine injuries in a cohort of Nigerians.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2019 12;5:17. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Study Design: A prospective observational study.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of closed reduction of cervical spine injuries (CSIs) using cervical traction and identify probable complications.

Setting: Department of Neurological Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methods: Consecutive CSIs managed by closed reduction using Gardener-Well's Tongs traction were prospectively analysed. The data included imaging and neurological examinations findings, Frankel grading, and extent of reduction. Reduction of 95% or more was deemed satisfactory. The primary outcome measures were extent/degree of reduction and neurologic status classified as improved, same, or worse. Other complications were taken as secondary outcome measures.

Result: Seventy-four patients, 49 males, mean age 35.2 years (SD 9.7) were included. In all, 78.4% presented within 72 hours of injury. In total, 85.1% had road traffic crashes. Anterior subluxation was seen in 86.5%. The degree of displacement was <25% in 36/74 (48.6%), 25-50% in 19/74 (25.7%), 50-75% in 8/74 (10.8%), and >75% in 11/74 (14.9%). Traction reduction was done after 7 days of injury in 52.7% and same day of injury in 1.4%. Reduction weight ranged from 2 kg to 60 kg. Reduction was satisfactory in 67.6% and failed in 32.4%. In all, 81.1% of patients remained neurologically the same, while 18.9% improved. Causes of failed reduction were facet lock (15), old injury (8), new-onset/worsening pain (3), and over-distraction (2). Complications of closed reduction were over-distraction (5), tong pull-out (2), new-onset/worsening pain (2), and skull perforation (1).

Conclusions: Satisfactory closed reduction is feasible in patients with CSI and significant malalignment. The method is associated with few complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41394-019-0158-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372639PMC
April 2020

Survey of magnetic resonance imaging availability in West Africa.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 31;30:240. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Nigeria.

Introduction: The availability and utilization of MRI units across sub-Saharan Africa countries remain poor and its distribution is largely unknown. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the distribution and utilization of MRI facilities across the West African sub-region.

Methods: An interview and online search survey was conducted from September 2015 to September 2016, to determine the MRI facilities (Government/Public and Private) available in the West African sub-region. In Nigeria and Ghana, face-to-face interviews were conducted while for other West African countries, telephone interviews with radiologists and other health professionals as well as a Google online search were conducted to ascertain the distribution of the MRI facilities in the region. The number of MRI units in West Africa per million population was calculated and compared with other parts of the world from available published data.

Results: Eighty-four MRI units serve a combined population of 372,551,411 in the West African sub-region at the time of this report. Nigeria accounted for more than two-thirds (58 (69%)) of the available units. Of these, 45 (77.6%) of the units were low-field strength systems. Ghana's 14 MRI units were fairly equally distributed between the private (57%) and the public sectors (43%). Ghana with 0.48 units/million population had the highest number of MRI units/ million population followed by Nigeria with 0.30 units/million population.

Conclusion: Though there is an increase in the number of available MRI units in the West African sub region in the last decade, the numbers remain appallingly small for the population. Infrastructural and maintenance limitations constitute a major impediment to the use of high filed systems in the region. There may be need for greater cooperation between public and private enterprises for future improvement of MRI utilization in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.30.240.14000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295297PMC
January 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria: A SIREN call to action.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0206548. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Stroke is a prominent cause of death, disability, and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network works collaboratively with stroke survivors and individuals serving as community controls to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic and behavioral risk factors for stroke in SSA.

Purpose: In this paper, we aim to: i) explore the attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria using the process of qualitative description; and ii) propose actions for future research and community-based participation and education.

Methods: Stroke survivors, their caregivers, health care professionals, and community representatives and faith-based leaders participated in one of twenty-six focus groups, which qualitatively explored community beliefs, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria. Arthur Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness and the Social Ecological Model guided the questions and/or thematic analysis of the qualitative data. We hereby describe our focus group methods and analyses of qualitative data, as well as the findings and suggestions for improving stroke outcomes.

Results And Discussion: The major findings illustrate the fears, causes, chief problems, treatment, and recommendations related to stroke through the views of the participants, as well as recommendations for working effectively with the SIREN communities. Findings are compared to SIREN quantitative data and other qualitative studies in Africa. As far as we are aware, this is the first paper to qualitatively explore and contrast community beliefs, attitudes, and practices among stroke survivors and their caregivers, community and faith-based leaders, and health professionals in multiple communities within Nigeria and Ghana.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239297PMC
April 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of West Africans on genetic studies of stroke: Evidence from the SIREN Study.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 24;14(1):69-79. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

7 Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96).

Conclusion: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325169PMC
January 2019

Brain and spine imaging artefacts on low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Spectrum of findings in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.

Niger Postgrad Med J 2017 Apr-Jun;24(2):97-102

Department of Radiology, University College Hospital; Department of Radiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Low-field (LF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technology that is widely used in resource-limited settings for clinical imaging. The images produced, even though of low resolution with noise and artefacts, provide valuable information and guidance for patient assessment and treatment. This study shows a spectrum of MRI artefacts that affect image quality during routine clinical neuroradiology practice using LF MRI in a Nigerian hospital and suggests ways to avoid them.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed brain and spine MRI studies performed on a 0.36T MagSense 360 (Mindray, China) open MRI at our hospital over a 2-year period to identify image artefacts. About 90% of MRI studies performed at our facility during the study period were neuroimaging. The pattern and distribution of artefacts that featured during imaging were described and illustrative cases demonstrated highlighting their causes and ways to avoid or limit them.

Results: Of 936 brain and spine cases evaluated, 506 (54.1%) had artefacts with 369 (72.9%) seen in the brain. Truncation/Gibbs (37.6%) and motion (20.6%) were the most common artefacts in the series, seen most commonly in T2-weighted images. There was no significant difference in the proportion of artefacts between adults and children (P = 0.736).

Conclusion: Artefacts are relatively common in neuroimaging with LF MRI and may potentially degrade image quality and interfere with accurate radiological reporting and diagnosis. Improving the recognition of LF MRI artefacts may assist imaging practitioners to avoid or limit their effect on image quality and interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/npmj.npmj_27_17DOI Listing
April 2019

Development and Reliability of a User-Friendly Multicenter Phenotyping Application for Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Nov 29;26(11):2662-2670. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Annotation and Image Markup on ClearCanvas Enriched Stroke-phenotyping Software (ACCESS) is a novel stand-alone computer software application that allows the creation of simple standardized annotations for reporting brain images of all stroke types. We developed the ACCESS application and determined its inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study to assess its suitability for multicenter studies.

Methods: One hundred randomly selected stroke imaging reports from 5 SIREN sites were re-evaluated by 4 trained independent raters to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ACCESS (version 12.0) software for stroke phenotyping. To determine intra-rater reliability, 6 raters reviewed the same cases previously reported by them after a month of interval. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP), Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), and Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac source, Other cause (ASCO) protocols, while hemorrhagic stroke was classified using the Structural lesion, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertensive angiopathy and Undetermined (SMASH-U) protocol in ACCESS. Agreement among raters was measured with Cohen's kappa statistics.

Results: For primary stroke type, inter-rater agreement was .98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-1.00), while intra-rater agreement was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00). For OCSP subtypes, inter-rater agreement was .97 (95% CI, .92-1.00) for the partial anterior circulation infarcts, .92 (95% CI, .76-1.00) for the total anterior circulation infarcts, and excellent for both lacunar infarcts and posterior circulation infarcts. Intra-rater agreement was .97 (.90-1.00), while inter-rater agreement was .93 (95% CI, .84-1.00) for TOAST subtypes. Inter-rater agreement ranged between .78 (cardioembolic) and .91 (large artery atherosclerotic) for ASCO subtypes and was .80 (95% CI, .56-1.00) for SMASH-U subtypes.

Conclusion: The ACCESS application facilitates a concordant and reproducible classification of stroke subtypes by multiple investigators, making it suitable for clinical use and multicenter research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.06.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624839PMC
November 2017

Stroke in Indigenous Africans, African Americans, and European Americans: Interplay of Racial and Geographic Factors.

Stroke 2017 05 7;48(5):1169-1175. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

From the Department of Medicine (M.O., E.M.) and Department of Radiology (G.O.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana (F.S.); Department of Epidemiology (V.J.H., M.R.I.) and Department of Biostatistics (A.B., H.K.T., G.H.), University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Public Health Sciences (M.G.), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences (K.A.), Department of Neurology (R.S., D.T.L., B.O.), and Department of Nursing (C.J.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria (R.A.); Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Ghana, Accra (A.A., R.L.); Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Nigeria (K.W.W.); Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (L.O.); Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (B.F., M.K.); Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (R.O.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria (P.A.); Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York (J.M.M.); and College of Public Health, University of Kentucky at Lexington (D.K.A.).

Background And Purpose: The relative contributions of racial and geographic factors to higher risk of stroke in people of African ancestry have not been unraveled. We compared stroke type and contributions of vascular risk factors among indigenous Africans (IA), African Americans (AA), and European Americans (EA).

Methods: SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a large multinational case-control study in West Africa-the ancestral home of 71% AA-whereas REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) is a cohort study including AA and EA in the United States. Using harmonized assessments and standard definitions, we compared data on stroke type and established risk factors for stroke in acute stroke cases aged ≥55 years in both studies.

Results: There were 811 IA, 452 AA, and 665 EA stroke subjects, with mean age of 68.0±9.3, 73.0±8.3, and 76.0±8.3 years, respectively (<0.0001). Hemorrhagic stroke was more frequent among IA (27%) compared with AA (8%) and EA (5.4%; <0.001). Lacunar strokes were more prevalent in IA (47.1%), followed by AA (35.1%) and then EA (21.0%; <0.0001). The frequency of hypertension in decreasing order was IA (92.8%), followed by AA (82.5%) and then EA (64.2%; <0.0001) and similarly for diabetes mellitus IA (38.3%), AA (36.8%), and EA (21.0%; <0.0001). Premorbid sedentary lifestyle was similar in AA (37.7%) and EA (34.0%) but lower frequency in IA (8.0%).

Conclusions: Environmental risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the higher proportion of ischemic stroke in AA compared with IA, whereas racial factors may contribute to the higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among stroke subjects of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404953PMC
May 2017

Prevalence and Prognostic Features of ECG Abnormalities in Acute Stroke: Findings From the SIREN Study Among Africans.

Glob Heart 2017 06 14;12(2):99-105. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Africa has a growing burden of stroke with associated high morbidity and a 3-year fatality rate of 84%. Cardiac disease contributes to stroke occurrence and outcomes, but the precise relationship of abnormalities as noted on a cheap and widely available test, the electrocardiogram (ECG), and acute stroke outcomes have not been previously characterized in Africans.

Objectives: The study assessed the prevalence and prognoses of various ECG abnormalities among African acute stroke patients encountered in a multisite, cross-national epidemiologic study.

Methods: We included 890 patients from Nigeria and Ghana with acute stroke who had 12-lead ECG recording within first 24 h of admission and stroke classified based on brain computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke severity at baseline was assessed using the Stroke Levity Scale (SLS), whereas 1-month outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

Results: Patients' mean age was 58.4 ± 13.4 years, 490 were men (55%) and 400 were women (45%), 65.5% had ischemic stroke, and 85.4% had at least 1 ECG abnormality. Women were significantly more likely to have atrial fibrillation, or left ventricular hypertrophy with or without strain pattern. Compared to ischemic stroke patients, hemorrhagic stroke patients were less likely to have atrial fibrillation (1.0% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.002), but more likely to have left ventricular hypertrophy (64.4% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.004). Odds of severe disability or death at 1 month were higher with severe stroke (AOR: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 3.50), or atrial enlargement (AOR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.02).

Conclusions: About 4 in 5 acute stroke patients in this African cohort had evidence of a baseline ECG abnormality, but presence of any atrial enlargement was the only independent ECG predictor of death or disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582979PMC
June 2017

Exploring Overlaps Between the Genomic and Environmental Determinants of LVH and Stroke: A Multicenter Study in West Africa.

Glob Heart 2017 06 13;12(2):107-113.e5. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is determined by similar genomic and environmental risk factors with stroke, or is simply an intermediate stroke marker, is unknown.

Objectives: We present a research plan and preliminary findings to explore the overlap in the genomic and environmental determinants of LVH and stroke among Africans participating in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study.

Methods: SIREN is a transnational, multicenter study involving acute stroke patients and age-, ethnicity-, and sex-matched control subjects recruited from 9 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Genomic and environmental risk factors and other relevant phenotypes for stroke and LVH are being collected and compared using standard techniques.

Results: This preliminary analysis included only 725 stroke patients (mean age 59.1 ± 13.2 years; 54.3% male). Fifty-five percent of the stroke subjects had LVH with greater proportion among women (51.6% vs. 48.4%; p < 0.001). Those with LVH were younger (57.9 ± 12.8 vs. 60.6 ± 13.4; p = 0.006) and had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (167.1/99.5 mm Hg vs 151.7/90.6 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Uncontrolled blood pressure at presentation was prevalent in subjects with LVH (76.2% vs. 57.7%; p < 0.001). Significant independent predictors of LVH were age <45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 3.19), female sex (AOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.81), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mm Hg (AOR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.39 to 3.19; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The prevalence of LVH was high among stroke patients especially the younger ones, suggesting a genetic component to LVH. Hypertension was a major modifiable risk factor for stroke as well as LVH. It is envisaged that the SIREN project will elucidate polygenic overlap (if present) between LVH and stroke among Africans, thereby defining the role of LVH as a putative intermediate cardiovascular phenotype and therapeutic target to inform interventions to reduce stroke risk in populations of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583025PMC
June 2017

Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid pulsation artifacts on low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Potential pitfall in diagnosis?

Niger Med J 2016 Jan-Feb;57(1):59-63

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Background: Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation artifact can pose a diagnostic problem in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) appearing as intraventricular hyperintensity. The extent of this challenge among radiologists in Africa using low-field MRI systems is relatively sparsely documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence and frequency of ventricular CSF pulsation artifact (VCSFA) on FLAIR axial brain images with a low-field MR system.

Materials And Methods: FLAIR axial images were obtained on a low-field 0.3T unit (6000 ms/108 ms/2 [repetition time/echo time/excitations], inversion time = 1700 ms, field of view = 28 cm, matrix = 195 × 256, and 6 mm contiguous sections). Two experienced radiologists independently rated VCSFA in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles in 202 consecutive patients (age range 1-100 years) referred for brain MR for various indications. We reviewed the pattern of artifacts, to determine its relationship to age, gender, and third ventricular size.

Results: The low-field FLAIR MR brain images of 33 patients (16.3%) showed VCSFA in at least one ventricular cavity. The fourth ventricle was the most common site of VCSFA (n = 10), followed by the third ventricle (n = 8) and the lateral ventricles (n = 7). Eight patients had VCSFA in multiple locations, one of them in all ventricles. A smaller third ventricular size and, to a lesser extent, younger age was significantly associated with VCSFA. CSF Pulsation of VCSFA did not occur across the brain parenchyma in the phase encoding direction.

Conclusion: VCSFA may mimic pathology on low-field axial FLAIR brain images and are more common in young patients with smaller ventricular size. Although these artifacts are less frequently observed at lower magnetic field strengths, their recognition on low-field MRI systems is important in avoiding a misdiagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.180565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4859116PMC
May 2016

Role of Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Acute Stroke Management using Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Resource-limited Settings.

West Afr J Radiol 2015 Jul-Dec;22(2):61-66. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

A variety of imaging modalities exist for the diagnosis of stroke. Several studies have been carried out to ascertain their contribution to the management of acute stroke and to compare the benefits and limitations of each modality. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been described as the optimal imaging technique for diagnosing acute ischemic stroke, yet limited evidence is available on the value of DWI in the management of ischemic stroke with low-field magnetic resonance (MR) systems. Although high-field MR imaging (MRI) is desirable for DWI, low-field scanners provide an acceptable clinical compromise which is of importance to developing countries posed with the challenge of limited availability of high-field units. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the usefulness of DWI in acute stroke management with low-field MRI scanners and present the experience in Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1115-3474.162168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4689208PMC
November 2015

Multilingual Validation of the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status in West Africa.

Stroke 2016 Jan 17;47(1):167-72. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

From the Department of Medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana (F.S., S.A., V.O., N.B.-A., L.A.); Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, (M.G., B.O., K.A., R.S., C.J., D.L.); Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria (R.A.); Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria (L.O., S.I., N.T., A.M., A.D., N.I.); Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (R.O., E.T.-A., I.P., A.S., P.A.); Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (O. Akpa, O. Arulogun, A. Adeoye, A.T., O. Adeleye, A. Agunloye, G.O., J.A., S.M., E.U., G.A., S.K., M.O.); Department of Medicine, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana (A. Akpalu, Y.M., R.L.); and Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (D.A., H.T.).

Background And Purpose: The Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS), a method for verifying stroke-free status in participants of clinical, epidemiological, and genetic studies, has not been validated in low-income settings where populations have limited knowledge of stroke symptoms. We aimed to validate QVSFS in 3 languages, Yoruba, Hausa and Akan, for ascertainment of stroke-free status of control subjects enrolled in an on-going stroke epidemiological study in West Africa.

Methods: Data were collected using a cross-sectional study design where 384 participants were consecutively recruited from neurology and general medicine clinics of 5 tertiary referral hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana. Ascertainment of stroke status was by neurologists using structured neurological examination, review of case records, and neuroimaging (gold standard). Relative performance of QVSFS without and with pictures of stroke symptoms (pictograms) was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.

Results: The overall median age of the study participants was 54 years and 48.4% were males. Of 165 stroke cases identified by gold standard, 98% were determined to have had stroke, whereas of 219 without stroke 87% were determined to be stroke-free by QVSFS. Negative predictive value of the QVSFS across the 3 languages was 0.97 (range, 0.93-1.00), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 0.98, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively. Agreement between the questionnaire with and without the pictogram was excellent/strong with Cohen k=0.92.

Conclusions: QVSFS is a valid tool for verifying stroke-free status across culturally diverse populations in West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4696900PMC
January 2016

Medial temporal lobe atrophy, white matter hyperintensities and cognitive impairment among Nigerian African stroke survivors.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Oct 30;8:625. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Institute of Neuroscience, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE4 5PL, UK.

Background: Neuroimaging features associated with vascular cognitive impairment have not been examined in sub-Saharan Africans. We determined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with cognitive impairment in a sample of Nigerian stroke survivors.

Methods: Stroke survivors underwent brain MRI with standardized assessment of brain volumes and visual rating of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) at 3 months post-stroke. Demographic, clinical and psychometric assessments of global cognitive function, executive function, mental speed and memory were related to changes in structural MRI.

Results: In our pilot sample of 58 stroke survivors (60.1 ± 10.7 years old) MTA correlated significantly with age (r = 0.525), WMH (r = 0.461), memory (r = -0.702), executive function (r = -0.369) and general cognitive performance (r = -0.378). On univariate analysis, age >60 years (p = 0.016), low educational attainment (p < 0.001 to p < 0.003), total brain volume (p < 0.024 and p < 0.025) and MTA (p < 0.003 to p < 0.007) but not total WMH (p < 0.073, p = 0.610) were associated with cognitive outcome. In a two-step multivariate regression analysis, MTA (p < 0.035 and p < 0.016) and low educational attainment (p < 0.012 and p < 0.019) were sustained as independent statistical predictors of cognitive outcome.

Conclusions: Medial temporal lobe atrophy was a significant neuroimaging predictor of early post-stroke cognitive dysfunction in the Nigerian African stroke survivors. These observations have implications for a vascular basis of MTA in older stroke survivors among sub-Saharan Africans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1552-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4628353PMC
October 2015

Phenotyping Stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) Phenomics Protocol.

Neuroepidemiology 2015 19;45(2):73-82. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.

Background: As the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult-onset disability, stroke is a major public health concern particularly pertinent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where nearly 80% of all global stroke mortalities occur, and stroke burden is projected to increase in the coming decades. However, traditional and emerging risk factors for stroke in SSA have not been well characterized, thus limiting efforts at curbing its devastating toll. The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) project is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the key environmental and genomic risk factors for stroke (and its subtypes) in SSA while simultaneously building capacities in phenomics, biobanking, genomics, biostatistics, and bioinformatics for brain research.

Methods: SIREN is a transnational, multicentre, hospital and community-based study involving 3,000 cases and 3,000 controls recruited from 8 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases will be hospital-based patients with first stroke within 10 days of onset in whom neurovascular imaging will be performed. Etiological and topographical stroke subtypes will be documented for all cases. Controls will be hospital- and community-based participants, matched to cases on the basis of gender, ethnicity, and age (±5 years). Information will be collected on known and proposed emerging risk factors for stroke. STUDY SIGNIFICANCE: SIREN is the largest study of stroke in Africa to date. It is anticipated that it will shed light on the phenotypic characteristics and risk factors of stroke and ultimately provide evidence base for strategic interventions to curtail the burgeoning burden of stroke on the sub-continent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000437372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604029PMC
July 2016

The Clinical Epidemiology of Spontaneous ICH in a Sub-Sahara African Country in the CT Scan Era: A Neurosurgical In-Hospital Cross-Sectional Survey.

Front Neurol 2015 5;6:169. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, University College Hospital (UCH), University of Ibadan , Ibadan , Nigeria.

Background: There is paucity of data-driven scientific reports from sub-Saharan Africa on the burden of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). We have maintained a prospective consecutive in-hospital database of cases of sICH referred for neurosurgical intervention over a 5-year period.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the clinical epidemiology and brain computed tomography (CT) characterization of sICH from the database in this region in the current era.

Results: There were 63 subjects, 38 (60.3%) males, aged 28-85 years, mean 55.7 (SD, 12.7), the modal age distribution being the sixth decade. Uncontrolled hypertension was the main predisposition in the study: present, premorbid, in 79%, but uncontrolled in 88% of these known cases, and exhibited malignant derangements of blood pressure in more than half. The clinical ictus to in-hospital presentation was delayed, median 72 h; was in severe clinical state in 70%, 57% was comatose; and was complicated with fever in 57% and respiratory morbidity in 55.6%. The main clinical symptomatology was hemiparesis, headache, vomiting, and aphasia. The sICH was supratentorial on brain CT in 90.5%, ganglionic in 50.8%, and thalamic in 58.3% of the latter. The bleed had CT evidence of mass effect and intraventricular extension (IVH) in more than half. Twenty-three patients (36.5%) underwent operative interventions.

Conclusion: In this patient population, sICH is mainly ganglionic and thalamic in location with significant rate of associated IVH. In-hospital clinical presentation is delayed, and in a critical state, the bleeding is uncontrolled hypertension related in >95%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2015.00169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4525060PMC
August 2015

Incidental cranial CT findings in head injury patients in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

J Emerg Trauma Shock 2015 Apr-Jun;8(2):77-82

Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Incidental findings on computed tomography (CT) scans are occasionally noted in patients presenting with head injury. Since it can be assumed that head injured patients are of normal health status before the accident, these findings may be a representation of their frequency in the general population. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of such incidental findings among head injured patients in Nigeria's foremost center of clinical neurosciences.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of CT scan images of 591 consecutive eligible patients over a 5-year period (2006-2010) to identify incidental findings. The images were evaluated by consensus agreement of two radiologists. Associations with gender and age were explored using appropriate statistical tests with an alpha level of 0.05.

Results: The mean patient age was 34.6 ± 21.2 years, and male to female ratio was 3.2: 1. Incidental findings were noted in 503/591 (85.1 %) of the scans. Intracranial calcification was the commonest finding occurring in 61.8% of patients. Over 90% of the findings were benign. Compared with older ones, patients under the age of 60 were less likely, (P < 0.001), to have incidental findings.

Conclusion: Although the majority of incidental findings in this African cohort of head injury patients are benign some clinically significant lesions were detectable. It is therefore recommended that such findings be adequately described in the radiological reports for proper counseling and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-2700.155499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411581PMC
May 2015

Comparative analysis of clinical and computed tomography features of basal skull fractures in head injury in southwestern Nigeria.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2015 Apr-Jun;6(2):139-44

Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Basal skull fractures (BSF) in head injury may be missed clinically. Early detection ensures prompt treatment and prevention of complications We compared the clinical and Computed Tomography (CT) features of basal skull fractures in head injured patients in a southwestern Nigerian hospital.

Materials And Methods: Head injury patients who had cranial CT at a Southwestern Nigerian hospital were selected. CT images were acquired with a 64-slice Toshiba Aquillion CT scanner using a standard head protocol. The images were evaluated for evidence of skull fractures, and associated complications. The clinical data and CT findings were analyzed.

Results: One hundred and thirty patients were evaluated, including 103 (79.2%) males. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 81 years, mean 35 years (SD, 20.3). In 59 patients (45.4%, 59/130) BSF was detected on CT, while 71 (54.6%) had no evidence BSF. Forty-two (71.2%) of the 59 patients detected on CT had clinical suspicion of BSF (P < 0.001) while the remaining 17 (28.8%) were not clinically diagnosed. This equaled a sensitivity of 71.2% and, specificity of 90.1% for clinical determination of BSF in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between clinical and CT diagnosis (P > 0.05). The commonest observed clinical feature in patients with confirmed BSF was otorrhagia (45.8%) and the petrous temporal bone (45.8%) was the most commonly fractured bone. The BSF was caused most commonly by motor bike accidents in 53 (40.8%). The most common associated intracranial injuries were intracerebral haemorrhage (34.6%) and subdural (17.3%).

Conclusion: It appears that neurosurgical evaluation is comparatively reliable in evaluating basal skull fractures in this study area even as they are consistently demonstrated by high resolution CT scanners. A clinical suspicion of BSF should warrant a closer detailed CT evaluation and reporting by radiologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-3147.153215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4387799PMC
April 2015
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