Publications by authors named "Godwin O Ovenseri-Ogbomo"

6 Publications

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Misinformation About COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

Health Secur 2021 Jan-Feb;19(1):44-56

Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, PhD, is a Research Fellow, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Translational Research Unit, School of Medicine; and Kingsley Emwinyore Agho, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences; both at Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, Australia. Chundung A. Miner is an Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences; Piwuna Christopher Goson, MBBS, is a Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences; and Tanko Ishaya, PhD, is a Professor, Department of Computer Science; all at the University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Dipesh Bhattarai, PhD, is an Associate Lecturer, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. Khathutshelo Percy Mashige, PhD, is a Professor, Discipline of Optometry, African Vision Research Institute, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Richard Oloruntoba, PhD, is an Associate Professor, Supply Chain Management, School of Management and Marketing, Faculty of Business and Law, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia. Emmanuel Kwasi Abu, PhD, is Dean, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Bernadine Ekpenyong, PhD, is Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Timothy G. Chikasirimobi, MSc, is a Master's Student, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya. Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo, PhD, is an Assistant Professor, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, and Department of Optometry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Raymond Langsi, MBBS, is Head, Health Division, University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon. Deborah Donald Charwe, MSc, is Senior Research Nutritionist, Tanzania Food and Nutrition Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Obinna Nwaeze, MBBS, is a Practicing Physician, County Durham and Darlington, National Health Service Foundation, United Kingdom. Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, Bernadine Ekpenyong, Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo, and Kingsley Emwinyore Agho are also Conjoint Members, Discipline of Optometry, African Vision Research Institute, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Misinformation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant threat to global public health because it can inadvertently exacerbate public health challenges by promoting spread of the disease. This study used a convenience sampling technique to examine factors associated with misinformation about COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa using an online cross-sectional survey. A link to the online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,969 participants through social media platforms and the authors' email networks. Four false statements-informed by results from a pilot study-were included in the survey. The participants' responses were classified as "Agree," "Neutral," and "Disagree." A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associated factors. Among those who responded to the survey, 19.3% believed that COVID-19 was designed to reduce world population, 22.2% thought the ability to hold your breath for 10 seconds meant that you do not have COVID-19, 27.8% believed drinking hot water flushes down the virus, and 13.9% thought that COVID-19 had little effect on Blacks compared with Whites. An average of 33.7% were unsure whether the 4 false statements were true. Multivariate analysis revealed that those who thought COVID-19 was unlikely to continue in their countries reported higher odds of believing in these 4 false statements. Other significant factors associated with belief in misinformation were age (older adults), employment status (unemployed), gender (female), education (bachelor's degree), and knowledge about the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Strategies to reduce the spread of false information about COVID-19 and other future pandemics should target these subpopulations, especially those with limited education. This will also enhance compliance with public health measures to reduce spread of further outbreaks.
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February 2021

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Mental and Emotional Health Outcomes among Africans during the COVID-19 Lockdown Period-A Web-based Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 21;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

African Vision Research Institute (AVRI), Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 3629, South Africa.

Mental health and emotional responses to the effects of COVID-19 lockdown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are of serious public health concern and may negatively affect the mental health status of people. Hence, this study assessed the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as emotional reactions among sub-Saharan Africans (SSAs) and associated factors among SSAs during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This was a web-based cross-sectional study on mental health and emotional features from 2005 respondents in seven SSA countries. This study was conducted between 17 April and 17 May 2020 corresponding to the lockdown period in most SSA countries. Respondents aged 18 years and above and the self-reported symptoms were feeling anxious, being worried, angry, bored and frustrated. These were the main outcomes and were treated as dichotomous variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with these symptoms. We found that over half (52.2%) of the participants reported any of the mental health symptoms and the prevalence of feeling bored was 70.5% followed by feeling anxious (59.1%), being worried (57.5%), frustrated (51.5%) and angry (22.3%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariate analysis revealed that males, those aged >28 years, those who lived in Central and Southern Africa, those who were not married, the unemployed, those living with more than six persons in a household, had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Similarly, people who perceived low risk of contracting the infection, and those who thought the pandemic would not continue after the lockdown had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Health care workers had lower odds for feeling angry than non-healthcare workers. During the COVID-19 lockdown periods in SSA, about one in two participants reported mental health and emotional symptoms. Public health measures can be effectively used to identify target groups for prevention and treatment of mental health and emotional symptoms. Such interventions should be an integral component of SSA governments' response and recovery strategies of any future pandemic.
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January 2021

Comparison of measured with calculated amplitude of accommodation in Nigerian children aged six to 16 years.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 07 8;101(4):571-577. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Purpose: Amplitude of accommodation varies with race and ethnicity and Hofstetter's equations are commonly used in Nigeria to calculate expected amplitude of accommodation for clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to present normative values for amplitude of accommodation for Nigerian children and to compare the measured values with those calculated using Hofstetter's equations.

Methods: A total of 688 children aged six to 16 years from three selected cities in Nigeria were included in the study. Push-up technique was employed to measure the amplitude of accommodation. The measured values were compared with the calculated values (Hofstetter's equations) using the paired t-test and Bland and Altman plots.

Results: The measured amplitude of accommodation for the subjects ranged from 8.00 to 25.00 D with a mean of 15.88 ± 3.46 D. The calculated minimum amplitude of accommodation ranged from 11.00 to 13.50 D with a mean of 12.09 ± 0.55 D and the calculated average amplitude of accommodation ranged from 13.17 to 16.50 D with a mean of 14.62 ± 0.73 D. The calculated maximum amplitude of accommodation ranged from 18.60 to 22.60 D with a mean of 20.34 ± 0.88 D. The t-test indicated a significant difference between the measured and calculated minimum, average and maximum amplitudes of accommodation (p < 0.0001). Also, the Bland-Altman plot suggested that there was a lack of agreement between the measured and calculated amplitudes of accommodation.

Conclusion: The mean values of amplitude of accommodation in this study are different from those reported in the literature. Also, the measured values differed from the calculated values using Hofstetter's equation. This suggests that the use of Hosftetter's equations to predict amplitude of accommodation may not be accurate for Nigerian children.
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July 2018

Vergence findings and horizontal vergence dysfunction among first year university students in Benin City, Nigeria.

J Optom 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):258-63. Epub 2016 Mar 10.

Department of Optometry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Purpose: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of vergence dysfunctions among first year university students in Nigeria and to document the measures that define the vergence system of the visual system.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of first year students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, who presented for the mandatory eye examination as part of their medical examinations required for clearance was conducted. A battery of tests that defines the vergence system including near and far phoria, positive and negative fusional vergence amplitudes at far and near, near point of convergence (NPC) and AC/A ratio were measured using conventional clinical protocols.

Results: The prevalence of vergence dysfunction among 212 first year university students who satisfied the inclusion criteria and gave consent to participate was 12.7%, with convergence insufficiency being the most common vergence dysfunction. Blurred vision, headache and diplopia were the most frequently reported visual symptoms.

Conclusion: There is a considerable prevalence of previously undiagnosed vergence dysfunctions in this population of students. The study underscored the need to carry out a thorough binocular vision assessment as part of the battery of tests administered to newly admitted students in this community to forestall any adverse effect the presence of vergence dysfunctions might have on the academic activity of university students.
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April 2017

Knowledge of diabetes and its associated ocular manifestations by diabetic patients: A study at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

Niger Med J 2013 Jul;54(4):217-23

Department of Optometry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana ; Department of Optometry, Faculty of Life Science, University of Benin, Nigeria.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of visual impairment, hence adequate knowledge on this condition and its ocular manifestations is of immense importance to diabetic patients.

Aim: To assess the knowledge of diabetic patients on the disorder and its ocular manifestations, and their attitude towards ocular examinations.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving the use of a structured interview was conducted among diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Clinic of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Using Fishers Exact Chi-square (χ(2)) and Odds Ratios (ORs), data obtained was analyzed.

Results: Only 103 (26.4%) patients knew the type of diabetes mellitus they were suffering from. Knowledge on ocular effects of diabetes mellitus was low and only 15 (3.8%) knew that it could affect the ocular refraction with no patient mentioning that diabetes mellitus could cause cataract or diabetic retinopathy. Attitude to routine eye examination was poor. As much as 135 (34.6%) had never had an eye examination since being diagnosed of diabetes. Knowledge of the type of diabetes mellitus the individual had or any ocular complication of this disorder was significantly related (OR: 4.22; P < 0.001 and OR: 2.55; P < 0.001) respectively to their attitude to seeking eye care.

Conclusion: Diabetic patients' knowledge on diabetes mellitus and its ocular manifestations, and the attitude of diabetic patients towards eye examination were poor. Intensive health education by diabetes care givers and leaders of the Ghana Diabetic Association for diabetic patient is therefore required to improve attitude towards eye care to prevent visual impairment.
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July 2013

Investigation of amplitude of accommodation among Ghanaian school children.

Clin Exp Optom 2012 Mar 19;95(2):187-91. Epub 2012 Jan 19.

Department of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.

Background: Deficient amplitude of accommodation is the most frequently used criteria in an optometric practice in diagnosing whether a patient has accommodative insufficiency. This deficiency is determined based on an age-related expected finding calculated using Hofstetter's equation derived from Donder's and Duane's data. The aim of the present study was to investigate the amplitude of accommodation among Ghanaian school children and to compare the findings with age-expected norms predicted by Hofstetter's equation.

Methods: The amplitude of accommodation was measured using the push-up method in a random sample of 435 school children from the Cape Coast Municipality. The mean amplitude of accommodation was compared with the age-expected amplitude of accommodation as predicted by Hofstetter's equation for average amplitude of accommodation.

Results: The mean amplitude of accommodation was 16.86 ± 3.07 D (95% CI = 16.57, 17.15). This is significantly higher than age-expected norms calculated using Hofstetter's equation. The amplitude of accommodation showed the characteristic decline with age.

Conclusion: From the results, we conclude that the age-expected norms for amplitude of accommodation using Hofstetter's equation might not be accurate for Ghanaian children.
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March 2012