Publications by authors named "Goda Choi"

33 Publications

Allogeneic stem cell transplant in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and karnofsky performance status score less than or equal to 80%: A study from the acute leukemia working party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

Cancer Med 2021 Jan 26;10(1):23-33. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score <80% (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients with a KPS score =80%, a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was associated with an increased risk of relapse (p = 0.002) and lower GRFS (p < 0.001) compared to myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Differently, in patients with a KPS score <80%, a RIC regimen resulted in lower NRM (p < 0.001), whereas relapse incidence did not differ, thus leading to an improved GRFS (p = 0.008) as compared to MAC. A transplant from a matched sibling donor (MSD) was associated with a reduced incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (p < 0.01) and NRM (p < 0.01) in comparison to other donor types. In conclusion, allo-SCT appears feasible in AML patients with a jeopardized KPS score. Survival is significantly affected by the conditioning intensity, which should be adjusted according to the severity of KPS impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826477PMC
January 2021

Seasonal human coronaviruses respiratory tract infection in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

J Infect Dis 2020 Aug 29. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun UMK, University Hospital, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Background: Little is known about characteristics of seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) (NL63, 229E, OC43 and HKU1) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT).

Patients And Methods: this is a collaborative Spanish and European bone marrow transplantation groups retrospective multicentre study, which included allo-HCT recipients (adults and children) with upper and/or lower respiratory tract disease (U/LRTD) caused by seasonal HCoV diagnosed through multiplex PCR assays from January 2012 to January 2019.

Results: We included 402 allo-HCT recipients who developed 449 HCoV U/LRTD episodes. Median age of recipients was 46 years (range 0.3-73.8 years). HCoV episodes were diagnosed at a median of 222 days after transplantation. The most common HCoV subtype was OC43 (n=170, 38%). LRTD involvement occurred in 121 episodes (27%). HCoV infection frequently required hospitalization (18%), oxygen administration (13%) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3%). Three-month overall mortality after HCoV detection was 7% in the whole cohort and 16% in those with LRTD. We identified 3 conditions associated with higher mortality in recipients with LRTD: absolute lymphocyte count <0.1 x10 9/mL [hazard ratio (HR), 10.8], corticosteroid (HR 4.68) and ICU admission (HR 8.22) (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Seasonal HCoV after allo-HCT may involve the LRTD in many instances, leading to a significant morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499673PMC
August 2020

Fludarabine/busulfan versus fludarabine/total-body-irradiation (2 Gy) as conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients (≥60 years) with acute myelogenous leukemia: a study of the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 04 23;55(4):729-739. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy and ALWP EBMT Office, Hospital Saint Antoine Paris, Paris, France.

Nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning regimens facilitate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in elderly patients and/or in those with comorbidities. The acute leukemia working party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) compared the outcomes of patients ≥60 years with AML in first complete remission (CR1), that had received an alloSCT following NMA conditioning, i.e. either fludarabine/busulfan (FB2) or fludarabine/total-body-irradiation-2Gy (FluTBI2Gy). A total of 1088 patients were included (median age 65 years). Donors were matched siblings (MSD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD) in 47% and 53%, respectively. In vivo T-cell depletion (TCD) was applied to 79% and none (0%) of patients in the FB2 and FluTBI2Gy groups, respectively. In the MSD group we found a trend for less extensive cGVHD in patients receiving FB2 with in vivo TCD, HR: 0.49, p = 0.08, and in those without worse NRM, HR: 2.14, p = 0.04, and a trend for more total cGVHD, HR: 1.61, p = 0.09. Patients transplanted from MUDs had a significantly higher incidence of total cGVHD, extensive cGVHD and a worse GRFS with FluTBI2Gy in comparison to FB2, HR: 2.44; p < 0.0001; HR 4.59; p < 0.00001 and HR: 1.35; p = 0.03, respectively. No differences were observed with respect to LFS, OS, RI, NRM, and aGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0720-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Not type of induction therapy but consolidation with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation determines outcome in older AML patients: A single center experience of 355 consecutive patients.

Leuk Res 2019 05 18;80:33-39. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Haematology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9713 GZ, the Netherlands.

Therapeutic decision making is often challenging in older AML patients. We collected retrospective data of 355 consecutive AML patients (≥60 years) who were treated with intensive chemotherapy (IC) (n = 155), hypomethylating agents (HMA) (n = 83), or best supportive care (BSC) (n = 117) between 2002 and 2017. Overall survival (OS) and response rates after therapy were analyzed. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to analyze the impact of different treatment strategies on survival. The median OS was not significantly different between patients treated with IC or HMA (14.9 vs 10.9 months; HR = 1.32, p = 0.076)), despite a difference in complete remission rate (59% after IC vs 35% after HMA). Patients who received a allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) after treatment with IC or HMA had a significant survival benefit compared to patient who didn't proceed to allo HCT (median OS 65 vs 8 months, respectively, p < 0.001). The type of induction therapy (i.e. IC or HMA) did not impact on survival after allo HCT (48 vs 65 months, respectively, p = 0.440). In conclusion, consolidation with an allo HCT provides a significant benefit for older AML patients independent of upfront treatment with IC or HMA. Our data suggest that more older patients should be considered for an allo HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2019.03.004DOI Listing
May 2019

Time trend analysis of long term outcome of patients with haematological malignancies admitted at dutch intensive care units.

Br J Haematol 2018 04 22;181(1):68-76. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of Critical Care, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

A few decades ago, the chances of survival for patients with a haematological malignancy needing Intensive Care Unit (ICU) support were minimal. As a consequence, ICU admission policy was cautious. We hypothesized that the long-term outcome of patients with a haematological malignancy admitted to the ICU has improved in recent years. Furthermore, our objective was to evaluate the predictive value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. A total of 1095 patients from 5 Dutch university hospitals were included from 2003 until 2015. We studied the prevalence of patients' characteristics over time. By using annual odds ratios, we analysed which patients' characteristics could have had influenced possible trends in time. A approximated mortality rate was compared with the ICU mortality rate, to study the predictive value of the APACHE II score. Overall one-year mortality was 62%. The annual decrease in one-year mortality was 7%, whereas the APACHE II score increased over time. Decreased mortality rates were particularly observed in high-risk patients (acute myeloid leukaemia, old age, low platelet count, bleeding as admission reason and need for mechanical ventilation within 24 h of ICU admission). Furthermore, the APACHE II score overestimates mortality in this patient category.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15140DOI Listing
April 2018

The receptor for advanced glycation end products in ventilator-induced lung injury.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2014 Dec 2;2(1):22. Epub 2014 Aug 2.

Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology (L.E.I.C.A), Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, room M0-220, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, The Netherlands,

Background: Mechanical ventilation (MV) can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The innate immune response mediates this iatrogenic inflammatory condition. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that can amplify immune and inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that RAGE signaling contributes to the pro-inflammatory state induced by MV.

Methods: RAGE expression was analyzed in lung brush and lavage cells obtained from ventilated patients and lung tissue of ventilated mice. Healthy wild-type (WT) and RAGE knockout (KO) mice were ventilated with relatively low (approximately 7.5 ml/kg) or high (approximately 15 ml/kg) tidal volume. Positive end-expiratory pressure was set at 2 cm H2O during both MV strategies. Also, WT and RAGE KO mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury were ventilated with the above described ventilation strategies. In separate experiments, the contribution of soluble RAGE, a RAGE isoform that may function as a decoy receptor, in ventilated RAGE KO mice was investigated. Lung wet-to-dry ratio, cell and neutrophil influx, cytokine and chemokine concentrations, total protein levels, soluble RAGE, and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) presence in lung lavage fluid were analyzed.

Results: MV was associated with increased RAGE mRNA levels in both human lung brush samples and lung tissue of healthy mice. In healthy high tidal volume-ventilated mice, RAGE deficiency limited inflammatory cell influx. Other VILI parameters were not affected. In our second set of experiments where we compared RAGE KO and WT mice in a 2-hit model, we observed higher pulmonary cytokine and chemokine levels in RAGE KO mice undergoing LPS/high tidal volume MV as compared to WT mice. Third, in WT mice undergoing the LPS/high tidal volume MV, we observed HMGB1 presence in lung lavage fluid. Moreover, MV increased levels of soluble RAGE in lung lavage fluid, with the highest levels found in LPS/high tidal volume-ventilated mice. Administration of soluble RAGE to LPS/high tidal volume-ventilated RAGE KO mice attenuated the production of inflammatory mediators.

Conclusions: RAGE was not a crucial contributor to the pro-inflammatory state induced by MV. However, the presence of sRAGE limited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in our 2-hit model of LPS and high tidal volume MV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-014-0022-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678142PMC
December 2014

TLR2 deficiency aggravates lung injury caused by mechanical ventilation.

Shock 2014 Jul;42(1):60-4

*Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology (LEICA), and †Center of Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam; ‡Department of Intensive Care, Saint Lucas Andreas Hospital; §Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam; ∥Department of Respiratory Medicine, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis; and ¶Division of Infectious Diseases, and **Department of Intensive Care, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Innate immunity pathways are found to play an important role in ventilator-induced lung injury. We analyzed pulmonary expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in humans and mice and determined the role of TLR2 in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury in mice. Toll-like receptor 2 gene expression was analyzed in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells and murine lung tissue after 5 h of ventilation. In addition, wild-type (WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice were ventilated with either lower tidal volumes (VT) of 7 mL/kg with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or higher VT of 15 mL/kg without PEEP for 5 h. Spontaneously breathing mice served as controls. Total protein and immunoglobulin M levels in BALF, neutrophil influx into the alveolar compartment, and interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine concentrations in lung tissue homogenates were measured. We observed enhanced TLR2 gene expression in BALF cells of ventilated patients and in lung tissue of ventilated mice. In WT mice, ventilation with higher VT without PEEP resulted in lung injury and inflammation with higher immunoglobulin M levels, neutrophil influx, and levels of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In TLR2 KO mice, neutrophil influx and IL-6, IL-1β, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine were enhanced by this ventilation strategy. Ventilation with lower VT with PEEP only increased neutrophil influx and was similar in WT and TLR2 KO mice. In summary, injurious ventilation enhances TLR2 expression in lungs. Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency does not protect lungs from ventilator-induced lung injury. In contrast, ventilation with higher VT without PEEP aggravates inflammation in TLR2 KO mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000172DOI Listing
July 2014

Ventilator-induced lung injury is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Anesthesiology 2012 May;116(5):1104-15

Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology (LEICA), and Center of Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The innate immune response is important in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) but the exact pathways involved are not elucidated. The authors studied the role of the intracellular danger sensor NLRP3 inflammasome.

Methods: NLRP3 inflammasome gene expression was analyzed in respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages obtained from ventilated patients (n = 40). In addition, wild-type and NLRP3 inflammasome deficient mice were randomized to low tidal volume (approximately 7.5 ml/kg) and high tidal volume (approximately 15 ml/kg) ventilation. The presence of uric acid in lung lavage, activation of caspase-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome gene expression in lung tissue were investigated. Moreover, mice were pretreated with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, glibenclamide, or vehicle before start of mechanical ventilation. VILI endpoints were relative lung weights, total protein in lavage fluid, neutrophil influx, and pulmonary and systemic cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Data represent mean ± SD.

Results: Mechanical ventilation up-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of NLRP3 in alveolar macrophages (1.0 ± 0 vs. 1.70 ± 1.65, P less than 0.05). In mice, mechanical ventilation increased both NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein messenger RNA levels, respectively (1.08 ± 0.55 vs. 3.98 ± 2.89; P less than 0.001 and 0.95 ± 0.53 vs. 6.0 ± 3.55; P less than 0.001), activated caspase-1, and increased uric acid levels (6.36 ± 1.85 vs. 41.9 ± 32.0, P less than 0.001). NLRP3 inflammasome deficient mice displayed less VILI due to high tidal volume mechanical ventilation compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, treatment with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist or glibenclamide reduced VILI.

Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation induced a NLRP3 inflammasome dependent pulmonary inflammatory response. NLRP3 inflammasome deficiency partially protected mice from VILI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182518bc0DOI Listing
May 2012

A model for personalized in vivo analysis of human immune responsiveness.

Sci Transl Med 2012 Mar;4(125):125ra30

Transplantation Biology Research Center, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA.

Studies of human immune diseases are generally limited to the analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of heterogeneous patient populations. Improved models are needed to allow analysis of fundamental immunologic abnormalities predisposing to disease and in which to assess immunotherapies. Immunodeficient mice receiving human fetal thymus grafts and fetal CD34(+) cells intravenously produce robust human immune systems, allowing analysis of human T cell development and function. However, to use humanized mice to study human immune-mediated disorders, immune systems must be generated from adult hematopoietic cells. Here, we demonstrated robust immune reconstitution in mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) aspirated from bone marrow of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and healthy control volunteers. In these humanized mice, cryopreservation of human leukocyte antigen allele-matched fetal thymic tissue prevented allogeneic adult HSC rejection. Newly generated T cells, which included regulatory T cells (T(regs)), were functional and self-tolerant and had a diverse repertoire. The immune recognition of these mice mimicked that of the adult CD34(+) cell donor, but the T cell phenotypes were more predominantly "naïve" than those of the adult donors. HSCs from T1D and control donors generated similar numbers of natural T(regs) intrathymically; however, peripheral T cells from T1D subjects showed increased proportions of activated or memory cells compared to controls, suggesting possible HSC-intrinsic differences in T cell homeostasis that might underlie immune pathology in T1D. This "personalized immune" mouse provides a new model for individualized analysis of human immune responses that may provide new insights into not only T1D but also other forms of immune function and dysfunction as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697150PMC
March 2012

Relative Tissue Factor Deficiency Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Coagulopathy but Does Not Protect against Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice.

Crit Care Res Pract 2012 12;2012:130410. Epub 2011 Dec 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Preventing tissue-factor-(TF-) mediated systemic coagulopathy improves outcome in models of sepsis. Preventing TF-mediated pulmonary coagulopathy could attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We investigated the effect of relative TF deficiency on pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation in a murine model of VILI. Heterozygous TF knockout (TF(+/-)) mice and their wild-type (TF(+/+)) littermates were sedated (controls) or sedated, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with either low or high tidal volumes for 5 hours. Mechanical ventilation resulted in pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation, with more injury after mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes. Compared with TF(+/+) mice, TF(+/-) mice demonstrated significantly lower pulmonary thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in both ventilation groups. There were, however, no differences in lung wet-to-dry ratio, BALF total protein levels, neutrophil influx, and lung histopathology scores between TF(+/-) and TF(+/+) mice. Notably, pulmonary levels of cytokines were significantly higher in TF(+/-) as compared to TF(+/+) mice. Systemic levels of cytokines were not altered by the relative absence of TF. TF deficiency is associated with decreased pulmonary coagulation independent of the ventilation strategy. However, relative TF deficiency does not reduce VILI and actually results in higher pulmonary levels of inflammatory mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/130410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3238356PMC
August 2012

Pulmonary activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis after burn injuries and inhalation trauma.

J Trauma 2011 Jun;70(6):1389-97

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Pulmonary coagulopathy is intrinsic to pneumonia and other forms of acute lung injury. We hypothesized patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma to have similar alterations in pulmonary coagulation and fibrinolysis.

Methods: We performed a prospective study on changes in pulmonary and systemic thrombin generation and fibrinolytic activity in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation. Nondirected bronchial lavage was performed on alternate days. Patients requiring mechanical ventilation for nonpulmonary reasons who did not meet the North American European Consensus Conference criteria for acute lung injury functioned as control patients.

Results: We studied 13 patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma and 15 control patients. On admission, patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma showed a significant increase in thrombin generation in the airways compared with control patients, as reflected by increased lavage fluid levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and fibrin degradation products, and decreased lavage fluid levels of activated protein C and antithrombin. Simultaneously, burn patients showed a significant decrease in fibrinolytic activity, as reflected by decreased lavage fluid levels of plasminogen activator activity. Pulmonary coagulopathy persisted throughout the period of mechanical ventilation and was accompanied by similar changes in systemic coagulation and fibrinolysis. There was no significant correlation between changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis and the extent of burn injury.

Conclusions: Patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation show a distinct and sustained procoagulant and antifibrinolytic shift in the pulmonary compartment. Pulmonary coagulopathy could be an important therapeutic target in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e31820f85a7DOI Listing
June 2011

Acute stress elicited by bungee jumping suppresses human innate immunity.

Mol Med 2011 Mar-Apr;17(3-4):180-8. Epub 2010 Dec 10.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the β-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2119/molmed.2010.00204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060977PMC
August 2011

Nebulized anticoagulants limit pulmonary coagulopathy, but not inflammation, in a model of experimental lung injury.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2010 Apr;23(2):105-11

Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology (LEICA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Pulmonary coagulopathy may contribute to an adverse outcome in lung injury. We assessed the effects of local anticoagulant therapy on bronchoalveolar and systemic haemostasis in a rat model of endotoxemia-induced lung injury.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with nebulized normal saline (placebo), recombinant human-activated protein C (APC), plasma-derived antithrombin (AT), heparin, or danaparoid.

Results: Intravenous administration of LPS resulted in lung injury associated with elevated bronchoalveolar levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc), 6.9 +/- 0.8 ng/mL (placebo) versus 0.5 +/- 0.2 ng/mL (healthy control) (p < 0.01), and elevated bronchoalveolar levels of fibrin degradation products (FDP), 555 +/- 74 ng/mL versus 27 +/- 12 ng/mL (p < 0.01). Nebulized APC, AT, and danaparoid all significantly limited the rise of bronchoalveolar levels of TATc, 2.4 +/- 0.7 ng/mL), 1.5 +/- 0.2, 3.8 +/- 0.7, and 3.2 +/- 0.9 ng/mL, respectively (all p < 0.01 vs. placebo), and fibrin degradation products, 243 +/- 77, 113 +/- 20, 317 +/- 74, and 300 +/- 42 ng/mL (all p < 0.01 vs. placebo). Heparin and danaparoid also significantly affected systemic coagulopathy. However, pulmonary inflammatory responses [neutrophil influx into the lungs, bronchoalveolar levels of myeloperoxidase, and bronchoalveolar levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and CINC-3], and histopathology of lungs were not affected by nebulization of anticoagulants.

Conclusions: In conclusion, local treatment with APC, AT, heparin, or danaparoid attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy, but not inflammation, in rats with endotoxemia-induced lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jamp.2009.0779DOI Listing
April 2010

Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with conventional tidal volumes for patients without acute lung injury: a preventive randomized controlled trial.

Crit Care 2010 7;14(1):R1. Epub 2010 Jan 7.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Recent cohort studies have identified the use of large tidal volumes as a major risk factor for development of lung injury in mechanically ventilated patients without acute lung injury (ALI). We compared the effect of conventional with lower tidal volumes on pulmonary inflammation and development of lung injury in critically ill patients without ALI at the onset of mechanical ventilation.

Methods: We performed a randomized controlled nonblinded preventive trial comparing mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 10 ml versus 6 ml per kilogram of predicted body weight in critically ill patients without ALI at the onset of mechanical ventilation. The primary end point was cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma during mechanical ventilation. The secondary end point was the development of lung injury, as determined by consensus criteria for ALI, duration of mechanical ventilation, and mortality.

Results: One hundred fifty patients (74 conventional versus 76 lower tidal volume) were enrolled and analyzed. No differences were observed in lavage fluid cytokine levels at baseline between the randomization groups. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels decreased significantly more strongly in the lower-tidal-volume group ((from 51 (20 to 182) ng/ml to 11 (5 to 20) ng/ml versus 50 (21 to 122) ng/ml to 21 (20 to 77) ng/ml; P = 0.01)). The trial was stopped prematurely for safety reasons because the development of lung injury was higher in the conventional tidal-volume group as compared with the lower tidal-volume group (13.5% versus 2.6%; P = 0.01). Univariate analysis showed statistical relations between baseline lung-injury score, randomization group, level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), the number of transfused blood products, the presence of a risk factor for ALI, and baseline IL-6 lavage fluid levels and the development of lung injury. Multivariate analysis revealed the randomization group and the level of PEEP as independent predictors of the development of lung injury.

Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation with conventional tidal volumes is associated with sustained cytokine production, as measured in plasma. Our data suggest that mechanical ventilation with conventional tidal volumes contributes to the development of lung injury in patients without ALI at the onset of mechanical ventilation.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN82533884.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc8230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2875503PMC
September 2010

Mechanical ventilation using non-injurious ventilation settings causes lung injury in the absence of pre-existing lung injury in healthy mice.

Crit Care 2009 19;13(1):R1. Epub 2009 Jan 19.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Mechanical ventilation (MV) may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Present models of VILI use exceptionally large tidal volumes, causing gross lung injury and haemodynamic shock. In addition, animals are ventilated for a relative short period of time and only after a 'priming' pulmonary insult. Finally, it is uncertain whether metabolic acidosis, which frequently develops in models of VILI, should be prevented. To study VILI in healthy mice, the authors used a MV model with clinically relevant ventilator settings, avoiding massive damage of lung structures and shock, and preventing metabolic acidosis.

Methods: Healthy C57Bl/6 mice (n = 66) or BALB/c mice (n = 66) were ventilated (tidal volume = 7.5 ml/kg or 15 ml/kg; positive end-expiratory pressure = 2 cmH2O; fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.5) for five hours. Normal saline or sodium bicarbonate were used to correct for hypovolaemia. Lung histopathology, lung wet-to-dry ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein content, neutrophil influx and levels of proinflammatory cytokines and coagulation factors were measured.

Results: Animals remained haemodynamically stable throughout the whole experiment. Lung histopathological changes were minor, although significantly more histopathological changes were found after five hours of MV with a larger tidal volume. Lung histopathological changes were no different between the strains. In both strains and with both ventilator settings, MV caused higher wet-to-dry ratios, higher bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein levels and more influx of neutrophils, and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and coagulation factors. Also, with MV higher systemic levels of cytokines were measured. All parameters were higher with larger tidal volumes. Correcting for metabolic acidosis did not alter endpoints.

Conclusions: MV induces VILI, in the absence of a priming pulmonary insult and even with use of relevant (least injurious) ventilator settings. This model offers opportunities to study the pathophysiological mechanisms behind VILI and the contribution of MV to lung injury in the absence of pre-existing lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc7688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2688111PMC
March 2010

Recombinant human soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor fusion protein partly attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury.

Shock 2009 Mar;31(3):262-6

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, C3-423, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Ventilator-induced lung injury is mediated, at least in part, by TNF-alpha. We determined the effect of a recombinant human soluble TNF receptor fusion protein (etanercept) on mechanical ventilation (MV)-induced changes in a murine ventilator-induced lung injury model. After pretreatment with etanercept or placebo, C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized and randomized to MV with either low tidal volumes (VT, approximately 7.5 mL/kg) or high VT ( approximately 15 mL/kg) for 5 h. Instrumented but spontaneously breathing mice served as controls. End points were lung wet-to-dry ratios, lung histopathology scores, protein levels, neutrophil cell counts and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and cytokine levels in lung homogenates. The number of caspase 3-positive cells was used as a measure for apoptosis. Etanercept treatment attenuated MV-induced changes, in particular, in MV with high VT. Compared with placebo, etanercept reduced the number of neutrophils in BALF and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in BALF and cytokine levels in lung homogenates. Lung wet-to-dry ratios, histopathology scores, and local protein levels in BALF, however, were not influenced by etanercept treatment. The number of caspase 3-positive cells was significantly higher in etanercept-treated animals. Inhibition of TNF by etanercept attenuates, in part, MV-induced changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e31817d42ddDOI Listing
March 2009

Pulmonary levels of high-mobility group box 1 during mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Shock 2008 Apr;29(4):441-5

Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

High-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 is a recently discovered proinflammatory mediator that contributes to acute lung injury. We determined HMGB-1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients during mechanical ventilation (MV) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from patients who were ventilated for 5 h because of an elective surgical procedure ("short-term MV"; n = 40) or for several days because of respiratory failure without acute lung injury ("long-term MV"; n = 10) and from patients who developed unilateral VAP (n = 4). Ten healthy volunteers served as controls. In healthy volunteers, HMGB-1 levels were low (median, 1.6 ngmL(-1); interquartile range [IQR], 0.7-3.7 ng mL(-1)). Although HMGB-1 levels were elevated after short-term MV, differences were not statistically significant compared with healthy volunteers (1.7 ng mL(-1); IQR, 0.8-8.5 ng mL(-1), P = 0.493 vs. healthy volunteers; P = 0.250 vs. start of MV). However, HMGB-1 levels were significantly higher in "long-term" MV patients (11.7 ng mL(-1); IQR, 8.7-37.0 ng mL(-1); P < 0.0001 vs. healthy volunteers). With unilateral VAP, HMGB-1 levels from the infected lung.were 17.4 (IQR, 8.5-23.2) ng mL(-1) (P = 0.014 vs. healthy controls); these levels were not different from those measured in the contralateral noninfected lung (P = 0.625). Summarized, long-term MV is associated with increased HMGB-1 levels in contrast to "short-term" MV. In addition, HMGB-1 levels during VAP are increased compared with healthy volunteers; however, they are not different from those found in patients intubated and mechanically ventilated for a similar period of time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e318157edddDOI Listing
April 2008

Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure prevents pulmonary inflammation in patients without preexisting lung injury.

Anesthesiology 2008 Jan;108(1):46-54

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes aggravates lung injury in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The authors sought to determine the effects of short-term mechanical ventilation on local inflammatory responses in patients without preexisting lung injury.

Methods: Patients scheduled to undergo an elective surgical procedure (lasting > or = 5 h) were randomly assigned to mechanical ventilation with either higher tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg ideal body weight and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or lower tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg and 10 cm H2O PEEP. After induction of anesthesia and 5 h thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or blood was investigated for polymorphonuclear cell influx, changes in levels of inflammatory markers, and nucleosomes.

Results: Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP (n = 21) attenuated the increase of pulmonary levels of interleukin (IL)-8, myeloperoxidase, and elastase as seen with higher tidal volumes and no PEEP (n = 19). Only for myeloperoxidase, a difference was found between the two ventilation strategies after 5 h of mechanical ventilation (P < 0.01). Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were not affected by mechanical ventilation. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-8 increased with mechanical ventilation, but there were no differences between the two ventilation groups.

Conclusion: The use of lower tidal volumes and PEEP may limit pulmonary inflammation in mechanically ventilated patients without preexisting lung injury. The specific contribution of both lower tidal volumes and PEEP on the protective effects of the lung should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000296068.80921.10DOI Listing
January 2008

Antithrombin inhibits bronchoalveolar activation of coagulation and limits lung injury during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia in rats.

Crit Care Med 2008 Jan;36(1):204-10

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Alveolar fibrin deposition is a hallmark of pneumonia. It has been proposed that natural inhibitors of coagulation, including activated protein C, antithrombin, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, exert lung-protective effects via anticoagulant and possibly anti-inflammatory pathways. We investigated the role of these natural anticoagulants in Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

Design: A controlled in vivo laboratory study.

Setting: Research laboratory of a university hospital.

Subjects: Total of 98 male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Interventions: Rats were challenged intratracheally with S. pneumoniae (serotype 3, 10(6) colony forming units), inducing pneumonia. Rats were randomized to intravenous treatment with normal saline, activated protein C, antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, heparin, or tissue-type plasminogen activator.

Measurements And Main Results: Rats infected with S. pneumoniae had increased thrombin-antithrombin complexes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, with decreased levels of antithrombin activity and fibrin degradation products. Administration of activated protein C, antithrombin, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor significantly limited these procoagulant changes. Furthermore, antithrombin treatment resulted in less bacterial outgrowth of S. pneumoniae and less histopathologic damage in lungs.

Conclusions: Anticoagulant treatment attenuates pulmonary coagulopathy during S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Antithrombin seems to exert significant lung-protective effects in pneumococcal pneumonia in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.CCM.0000292012.87482.F4DOI Listing
January 2008

Lung epithelial injury markers are not influenced by use of lower tidal volumes during elective surgery in patients without preexisting lung injury.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2008 Feb 14;294(2):L344-50. Epub 2007 Dec 14.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Clara cell protein levels are elevated in plasma of individuals with mild or subclinical lung injury. We studied the influence of two mechanical ventilation strategies on local and systemic levels of Clara cell protein (CC16) and compared them with levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and surfactant proteins (SP)-A and -D in patients undergoing elective surgery. Saved samples from a previously reported investigation were used for the study. Forty patients planned for elective surgery were randomized to mechanical ventilation with either a conventional tidal volume (V(T)) of 12 ml/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or low V(T) of 6 ml/kg and 10 cmH(2)O PEEP. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected directly after intubation and after 5 h of mechanical ventilation. While systemic levels of SP-A and SP-D remained unchanged, systemic levels of CC16 and sRAGE increased significantly in both groups after 5 h (P < 0.001 for both). BALF levels of SP-A, SP-D, CC16, and sRAGE remained unaffected. No differences were found between the two mechanical ventilation strategies regarding any of the measured biological markers. In conclusion, systemic levels of CC16 and sRAGE rise after 5 h in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for elective surgery. Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP did not have a different effect on levels of biomarkers of lung epithelial injury compared with conventional mechanical ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00268.2007DOI Listing
February 2008

Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes does not influence the prescription of opioids or sedatives.

Crit Care 2007 ;11(4):R77

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: We compared the effects of mechanical ventilation with a lower tidal volume (V(T)) strategy versus those of greater V(T) in patients with or without acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on the use of opioids and sedatives.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a previously conducted before/after intervention study, which consisting of feedback and education on lung protective mechanical ventilation using lower V(T). We evaluated the effects of this intervention on medication prescriptions from days 0 to 28 after admission to our multidisciplinary intensive care unit.

Results: Medication prescriptions in 23 patients before and 38 patients after intervention were studied. Of these patients, 10 (44%) and 15 (40%) suffered from ALI/ARDS. The V(T) of ALI/ARDS patients declined from 9.7 ml/kg predicted body weight (PBW) before to 7.8 ml/kg PBW after the intervention (P = 0.007). For patients who did not have ALI/ARDS there was a trend toward a decline from 10.2 ml/kg PBW to 8.6 ml/kg PBW (P = 0.073). Arterial carbon dioxide tension was significantly greater after the intervention in ALI/ARDS patients. Neither the proportion of patients receiving opioids or sedatives, or prescriptions at individual time points differed between pre-intervention and post-intervention. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in doses of sedatives and opioids. Findings were no different between non-ALI/ARDS patients and ALI/ARDS patients.

Conclusion: Concerns regarding sedation requirements with use of lower V(T) are unfounded and should not preclude its use in patients with ALI/ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc5969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2206517PMC
March 2008

Recombinant human C1-inhibitor in the treatment of acute angioedema attacks.

Transfusion 2007 Jun;47(6):1028-32

Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Patients with hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency have recurrent attacks of angioedema, preferably treated with C1-inhibitor concentrate. A recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rHuC1INH) was developed, derived from milk from transgenic rabbits. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of rHuC1INH in the treatment of acute angioedema attacks in patients with a hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency.

Study Design And Methods: Patients with hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency were treated with rHuC1INH (at a dose of 100 U/kg) within 8 hours after onset of an acute attack. Time to initiation of relief and time to minimal symptoms were reported by both the patient and the treating physician.

Results: Thirteen severe angioedema attacks in 9 patients with hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency were treated with rHuC1INH. There was rapid improvement of clinical conditions for all attacks, with approximately 80 percent of treated patients experiencing symptom relief within 2 hours and minimal symptoms within 12 hours. There were no drug-related adverse events or immunogenic reactions to C1-inhibitor or rabbit proteins.

Conclusion: The transgenically produced rHuC1INH was successfully used in the treatment of acute angioedema attacks in patients with hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2007.01239.xDOI Listing
June 2007

Recombinant human activated protein C inhibits local and systemic activation of coagulation without influencing inflammation during Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats.

Crit Care Med 2007 May;35(5):1362-8

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Alveolar fibrin deposition is a hallmark of pneumonia. It has been proposed that recombinant human activated protein C exerts lung-protective effects via anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory pathways. We investigated the role of the protein C system in pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the organism that is predominantly involved in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Design: An observational clinical study and a controlled, in vivo laboratory study.

Setting: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit and a research laboratory of a university hospital.

Patients And Subjects: Patients with unilateral ventilator-associated pneumonia and male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Interventions: Bilateral bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in five patients with unilateral ventilator-associated pneumonia. A total of 62 rats were challenged with intratracheal P. aeruginosa (10 colony-forming units), inducing pneumonia. Rats were randomized to treatment with normal saline, recombinant human activated protein C, heparin, or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

Measurements And Main Results: Patients with pneumonia demonstrated suppressed levels of protein C and activated protein C in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from the infected site compared with the contralateral uninfected site. Intravenous administration of recombinant human activated protein C in rats with P. aeruginosa pneumonia limited bronchoalveolar generation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, largely preserving local antithrombin activity. However, recombinant human activated protein C did not have effects on neutrophil influx and activity, expression of pulmonary cytokines, or bacterial clearance.

Conclusions: In patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, the pulmonary protein C pathway is impaired at the site of infection, and local anticoagulant activity may be insufficient. Recombinant human activated protein C prevents procoagulant changes in the lung; however, it does not seem to alter the pulmonary host defense against P. aeruginosa pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.CCM.0000261888.32654.6DDOI Listing
May 2007

Clinical and hemostatic responses to treatment in ventilator-associated pneumonia: role of bacterial pathogens.

Crit Care Med 2007 Feb;35(2):490-6

Western New York Respiratory Research Center, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA.

Objective: To determine pathogen-specific kinetic changes in the alveolar procoagulant (PC) activity, tissue factor (TF), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) expression during the course of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and to assess the relationship between clinical resolution, intra-alveolar bacterial eradication, and restoration of hemostatic balance.

Design: Prospective, multiple-center study in a cohort of VAP patients.

Setting: Two university-affiliated intensive care units.

Patients: Thirty-five patients with microbiologically documented VAP who received adequate antimicrobial coverage and 13 controls.

Interventions: Nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at the onset of VAP and on days 4 and 8 after initiation of antibiotic therapy. Samples were assayed for PC, TF, TFPI, and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc). The corresponding Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) was collected simultaneously.

Measurements And Main Results: Isolated pathogens included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=13), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n=8), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (n=7), and Escherichia coli (n=7). Although PC activity and TF were increased among the various pathogens at the onset of VAP, the levels of those with P. aeruginosa remained elevated at the end of treatment compared with controls and other etiological agents. TFPI levels were elevated for the duration of the study for all pathogens. A universal increase in TATc was noted at the onset of VAP, but the difference among the group of pathogens was significant at days 4 and 8 posttherapy. Despite the persisting hemostatic imbalance and incomplete intra-alveolar eradication of P. aeruginosa at end of therapy, the CPIS fell comparably at each time point irrespective of the etiological agents.

Conclusions: Alveolar activation of the TF-dependent pathway may be species-specific in VAP and may not be adequately balanced by TFPI. The disparity between clinical response and eradication of P. aeruginosa from the intra-alveolar space suggests the need for biological markers to guide response to therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.CCM.0000253308.93761.09DOI Listing
February 2007

Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure prevents alveolar coagulation in patients without lung injury.

Anesthesiology 2006 Oct;105(4):689-95

Dept. of Intensive Care Medicine, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Alveolar fibrin deposition is a hallmark of acute lung injury, resulting from activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Previous studies have shown that mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes may aggravate lung injury in patients with sepsis and acute lung injury. The authors sought to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation on the alveolar hemostatic balance in patients without preexistent lung injury.

Methods: Patients scheduled for an elective surgical procedure (lasting > or = 5 h) were randomly assigned to mechanical ventilation with either higher tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg ideal body weight and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or lower tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg and 10 cm H2O PEEP. After induction of anesthesia and 5 h later bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood samples were obtained, and markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were measured.

Results: In contrast to mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP (n = 21), the use of higher tidal volumes without PEEP (n = 19) caused activation of bronchoalveolar coagulation, as reflected by a marked increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble tissue factor, and factor VIIa after 5 h of mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes without PEEP caused an increase in soluble thrombomodulin in lavage fluids and lower levels of bronchoalveolar activated protein C in comparison with lower tidal volumes and PEEP. Bronchoalveolar fibrinolytic activity did not change by either ventilation strategy.

Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes and no PEEP promotes procoagulant changes, which are largely prevented by the use of lower tidal volumes and PEEP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200610000-00013DOI Listing
October 2006

The relationship between inflammation and the coagulation system.

Swiss Med Wkly 2006 Mar;136(9-10):139-44

Department of Intensive Care, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Inflammation and coagulation play pivotal roles in host defence. As phylogenetically old responses, there is extensive cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation in enabling an adequate immune response against potentially injurious stimuli. Immune cells are important in the initiation of coagulation pathways, while various inflammatory mediators are capable of altering haemostasis. Vice versa, coagulation proteases have significant immunomodulatory effects. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation may yield new therapeutic strategies for human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/2006/09/smw-11059DOI Listing
March 2006