Publications by authors named "Glover K"

286 Publications

Disentangling the effects of sex, life history and genetic background in Atlantic salmon: growth, heart and liver under common garden conditions.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Oct 7;7(10):200811. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Population Genetics Research Group, Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 1870, Nordnes 5817, Bergen, Norway.

Livestock domestication has long been a part of agriculture, estimated to have first occurred approximately 10 000 years ago. Despite the plethora of traits studied, there is little understanding of the possible impacts domestication has had on internal organs, which are key determinants of survival. Moreover, the genetic basis of observed associated changes in artificial environments is still puzzling. Here we examine impacts of captivity on two organs in Atlantic salmon () that have been domesticated for approximately 50 years: heart and liver, in addition to growth. We studied multiple families of wild, domesticated, F and F hybrid, and backcrossed strains of in replicated common garden tanks during the freshwater and marine stages of development. Heart and liver weight were investigated, along with heart morphology metrics examined in just the wild, domesticated and F hybrid strains (heart height and width). Growth was positively linked with the proportion of the domesticated strain, and recombination in F hybrids (and the potential disruption of co-adapted gene complexes) did not influence growth. Despite the influence of domestication on growth, we found no evidence for domestication-driven divergence in heart or liver morphology. However, sexual dimorphism was detected in heart morphology, and after controlling for body size, females exhibited significantly larger heart weight and heart width when compared with males. Wild females also had an increased heart height when compared with wild males, and this was not observed in any other strain. Females sampled in saltwater showed significantly larger heart height with rounder hearts, than saltwater males. Collectively, these results demonstrate an additive basis of growth and, despite a strong influence of domestication on growth, no clear evidence of changes in heart or liver morphology associated with domestication was identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.200811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657880PMC
October 2020

The pantophysin gene and its relationship with survival in early life stages of Atlantic cod.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Oct 14;7(10):191983. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Institute of Marine Research, POB 1870, 5817 Bergen, Norway.

Genetic markers are widely used in fisheries management around the world. While the genetic structure and markers selected are usually based on samples from the wild, very few controlled experiments have been carried out to investigate possible differences in influence on traits between markers. Here we examine the bi-allelic gene pantophysin (Pan I), widely used in the management of Atlantic cod, in a series of crosses under a range of temperatures. It has been proposed that this gene, or another tightly linked gene, may be under strong divergent selection. Resolving this issue is essential in order to interpret results when using this gene marker for stock management. We found no evidence of departure from the expected 1 : 2 : 1 Mendelian ratio for any of the three genotypes during the egg stage, while both the 6 and 12°C temperature regimes in tank experiments favoured the survival of the Pan I genotype. No difference in genotype survival was, however, found in a more natural mesocosm environment. Collectively, these results suggest that for the early life stages of Atlantic cod, and under the current experimental conditions, there is no strong consistent influence of Pan I genotype on survival. The results also emphasize the importance of varied experimental studies to verify the importance of environmental factors influencing genotype selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657904PMC
October 2020

Development of supermale and all-male Atlantic salmon to research the vgll3 allele - puberty link.

BMC Genet 2020 11 12;21(1):123. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Matre Aquaculture Research Station, 5984, Matredal, Norway.

Background: Farmed Atlantic salmon are one of the most economically significant global aquaculture products. Early sexual maturation of farmed males represents a significant challenge to this industry and has been linked with the vgll3 genotype. However, tools to aid research of this topic, such as all-male and clonal fish, are still lacking. The present 6-year study examined if all-male production is possible in Atlantic salmon, a species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes (males being XY, females XX), and if all-male fish can be applied to further explore the vgll3 contribution on the likelihood of early maturation.

Results: Estrogen treatment of mixed sex yolk sac larvae gave rise to one sexually mature hermaphrodite with a male genotype (XY) that was used to produce both self-fertilized offspring and androgenetic double haploid (dh) offspring following egg activation with UV treated sperm and pressure shock to block the first mitotic division. There were YY supermales among both offspring types, which were crossed with dh females. Between 1 and 8% of the putative all-male offspring from the eight crosses with self-fertilized supermales were found to have ovaries, and 95% of these phenotypic females were also genetically female. None of the offspring from the one dh supermale cross had ovaries. When assessing the general contribution of the vgll3 locus on the likelihood of early post-smolt sexual maturation (jacking) in the all-male populations we found individuals that were homozygous for the early maturing genotype (97%) were more likely to enter puberty than individuals that were homozygous for the late maturing genotype (26%). However, the likelihood of jacking within individuals with an early/late heterozygous genotype was higher when the early allele came from the dam (94%) compared to the sire (45%).

Conclusions: The present results show that supermale Atlantic salmon are viable and fertile and can be used as a research tool to study important aspects of sexual maturation, such as to further explore the sex dependent parental genetic contribution to age at puberty in Atlantic salmon. In addition, we report the production of viable double haploid supermale fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00927-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664053PMC
November 2020

Autosomal Pseudogenes Explain Discordances Between Phenotypic Sex and DNA Marker for Sex Identification in Atlantic Salmon.

Front Genet 2020 14;11:544207. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway.

Despite the key role that sex-determination plays in evolutionary processes, it is still poorly understood in many species. In salmonids, which are among the best studied fishes, the master sex-determining gene sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome () has been identified. However, displays unexplained discordance to the phenotypic sex, with a variable frequency of phenotypic females being reported as genetic males. Multiple sex determining loci in Atlantic salmon have also been reported, possibly as a result of recent transposition events in this species. We hypothesized the existence of an autosomal copy of , causing apparent discordance between phenotypic and genetic sex, that is transmitted in accordance with autosomal inheritance. To test this, we developed a qPCR methodology to detect the total number of copies present in the genome. Based on the observed phenotype/genotype frequencies and linkage analysis among 2,025 offspring from 64 pedigree-controlled families of accurately phenotyped Atlantic salmon, we identified both males and females carrying one or two autosomal copies of in addition to the Y-specific copy present in males. Patterns across families were highly consistent with autosomal inheritance. These autosomal copies appear to have lost the ability to function as a sex determining gene and were only occasionally assigned to the actual sex chromosome in any of the affected families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.544207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591749PMC
October 2020

Genome wide analysis reveals genetic divergence between Goldsinny wrasse populations.

BMC Genet 2020 10 9;21(1):118. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Marine fish populations are often characterized by high levels of gene flow and correspondingly low genetic divergence. This presents a challenge to define management units. Goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) is a heavily exploited species due to its importance as a cleaner-fish in commercial salmonid aquaculture. However, at the present, the population genetic structure of this species is still largely unresolved. Here, full-genome sequencing was used to produce the first genomic reference for this species, to study population-genomic divergence among four geographically distinct populations, and, to identify informative SNP markers for future studies.

Results: After construction of a de novo assembly, the genome was estimated to be highly polymorphic and of ~600Mbp in size. 33,235 SNPs were thereafter selected to assess genomic diversity and differentiation among four populations collected from Scandinavia, Scotland, and Spain. Global F among these populations was 0.015-0.092. Approximately 4% of the investigated loci were identified as putative global outliers, and ~ 1% within Scandinavia. SNPs showing large divergence (F > 0.15) were picked as candidate diagnostic markers for population assignment. One hundred seventy-three of the most diagnostic SNPs between the two Scandinavian populations were validated by genotyping 47 individuals from each end of the species' Scandinavian distribution range. Sixty-nine of these SNPs were significantly (p < 0.05) differentiated (mean F = 0.065, F = 0.140). Using these validated SNPs, individuals were assigned with high probability (≥ 94%) to their populations of origin.

Conclusions: Goldsinny wrasse displays a highly polymorphic genome, and substantial population genomic structure. Diversifying selection likely affects population structuring globally and within Scandinavia. The diagnostic loci identified now provide a promising and cost-efficient tool to investigate goldsinny wrasse populations further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00921-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547435PMC
October 2020

Indigenous People's Experiences and Expectations of Health Care Professionals When Accessing Care for Family Violence: A Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2022 04 7;23(2):567-580. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Although many Indigenous peoples demonstrate resilience and strength despite the ongoing impact colonization has on their peoples, evidence suggests poor experiences and expectations of health care professionals and access to health care. Health care professionals play an essential role in responding to family violence (FV), yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing Indigenous people's experiences and expectations of health care professionals in the context of FV. Using a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies, this article aims to address the following research question: What are Indigenous people's experiences and expectations of health care professionals when experiencing FV? The inclusion criteria comprised a qualitative study design, Indigenous voices, and a focus on expectations and experiences of health care professionals when FV is experienced. Reviewers independently screened article abstracts, and the findings from included papers were subject to a thematic analysis. Six studies were included in the final meta-synthesis representing studies from Australia, the Americas, and New Zealand. Three themes were identified. Health care professionals need to center the Indigenous person in the care they provide and demonstrate cultural awareness of how history and culture influence an individual's care requirements. Health care professionals also need to ensure they are connecting for trust with the Indigenous person, by slowly developing a rapport, yarning, and investing in the relationship. Finally, Indigenous peoples want their health care professional to work on strengthening safety from culturally inappropriate care, institutional control, and potential lack of confidentiality associated with tight-knit communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524838020961879DOI Listing
April 2022

Genetic analysis redraws the management boundaries for the European sprat.

Evol Appl 2020 Sep 17;13(8):1906-1922. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Institute of Marine Research Bergen Norway.

Sustainable fisheries management requires detailed knowledge of population genetic structure. The European sprat is an important commercial fish distributed from Morocco to the Arctic circle, Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black seas. Prior to 2018, annual catch advice on sprat from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was based on five putative stocks: (a) North Sea, (b) Kattegat-Skagerrak and Norwegian fjords, (c) Baltic Sea, (d) West of Scotland-southern Celtic Seas, and (e) English Channel. However, there were concerns that the sprat advice on stock size estimates management plan inadequately reflected the underlying biological units. Here, we used ddRAD sequencing to develop 91 SNPs that were thereafter used to genotype approximately 2,500 fish from 40 locations. Three highly distinct and relatively homogenous genetic groups were identified: (a) Norwegian fjords; (b) Northeast Atlantic including the North Sea, Kattegat-Skagerrak, Celtic Sea, and Bay of Biscay; and (c) Baltic Sea. Evidence of genetic admixture and possibly physical mixing was detected in samples collected from the transition zone between the North and Baltic seas, but not between any of the other groups. These results have already been implemented by ICES with the decision to merge the North Sea and the Kattegat-Skagerrak sprat to be assessed as a single unit, thus demonstrating that genetic data can be rapidly absorbed to align harvest regimes and biological units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463317PMC
September 2020

Zika Infection Disrupts Proteins Involved in the Neurosensory System.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 29;8:571. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Newly re-emerging viruses are of great global concern, especially when there are no therapeutic interventions available during the time of an outbreak. There are still no therapeutic interventions for the prevention of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections despite its resurgence more than a decade ago. Newborns infected with ZIKV suffer from microcephaly and delayed neurodevelopment, but the underlying causes are largely unknown. All viruses hijack the host cellular machinery to undergo successful replication. Our tandem mass tag mass spectrometry-based proteomic monitoring of cells infected with ZIKV revealed that among the thousands of host proteins dysregulated over time, many protein candidates were linked to neurodevelopmental processes, including the development of the auditory and visual/retinal system. The role of these dysregulated neurodevelopmental-associated host proteins for ZIKV propagation in eukaryotic cells remains elusive. For the first time, we present temporal neurodevelopmental proteomic responses in cells undergoing ZIKV infection. The future goal is to identify host proteins whose dysregulation results in neurosensory alterations reported in children born to ZIKV-infected mothers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403212PMC
July 2020

A transcriptomic analysis of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon lenses with and without cataracts.

Exp Eye Res 2020 10 28;199:108150. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Institute of Marine Research, Nordnes, Bergen, Norway; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

To avoid negative environmental impacts of escapees and potential inter-breeding with wild populations, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has and continues to extensively test triploid fish that are sterile. However, they often show differences in performance, physiology, behavior and morphology compared to diploid fish, with increased prevalence of vertebral deformities and ocular cataracts as two of the most severe disorders. Here, we investigated the mechanisms behind the higher prevalence of cataracts in triploid salmon, by comparing the transcriptional patterns in lenses of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, with and without cataracts. We assembled and characterized the Atlantic salmon lens transcriptome and used RNA-seq to search for the molecular basis for cataract development in triploid fish. Transcriptional screening showed only modest differences in lens mRNA levels in diploid and triploid fish, with few uniquely expressed genes. In total, there were 165 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the cataractous diploid and triploid lens. Of these, most were expressed at lower levels in triploid fish. Differential expression was observed for genes encoding proteins with known function in the retina (phototransduction) and proteins associated with repair and compensation mechanisms. The results suggest a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress in triploid lenses, and that mechanisms connected to the ability to handle damaged proteins are differentially affected in cataractous lenses from diploid and triploid salmon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2020.108150DOI Listing
October 2020

The single-leg vertical hop provides unique asymmetry information in individuals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2020 12 16;80:105107. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Physical Therapy, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Traditional testing to identify asymmetries after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction include four similar horizontal hopping tests. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single-leg vertical hopping test can identify performance and biomechanical asymmetries, and whether performance asymmetries provide unique information compared to traditional tests.

Methods: Twelve women with history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [age: 21.1 years (SD 3.2), height: 165.8 cm (SD 6.0), mass: 68.3 kg (SD 8.8)] completed traditional horizontal hop testing. Participants also performed a single-leg vertical hop for maximal height while instrumented for three-dimensional motion analysis. Paired t-tests were performed to identify side-to-side differences in performance variables and Spearman's rank correlations were performed of limb symmetry indices to identify whether the single-leg vertical hop test provides unique information. Repeated measures MANOVAs were performed to identify single-leg vertical hop biomechanical asymmetries.

Findings: Participants exhibited significant side-to-side performance differences during the single-leg vertical hop [mean difference = 0.02 m (SD 0.03), P = .04]. Only weak to moderate relationships were identified between limb symmetry indices of the single-leg vertical hop and other horizontal hopping tests. The vertical hop elicited significant asymmetries of joint kinematics (P = .04) and angular impulse (P = .04). Specifically, the involved limb showed lower peak ankle dorsiflexion (P = .004) and knee abduction (P = .02) angles, lower sagittal plane impulse at the knee (P = .02) and greater sagittal plane impulse at the hip (P = .03).

Interpretation: The single-leg vertical hop can identify performance and biomechanical asymmetries in individuals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, potentially providing complementary information to standard horizontal hopping tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2020.105107DOI Listing
December 2020

ZIKV Infection Induces DNA Damage Response and Alters the Proteome of Gastrointestinal Cells.

Viruses 2020 07 17;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Manitoba Centre for Proteomics & Systems Biology, Room 799, University of Manitoba, 715 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P4, Canada.

The zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurotropic virus that causes congenital abnormalities in babies when they are infected in utero. Some studies have reported these congenital abnormalities result from ZIKV attacking neural progenitor cells within the brain which differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Each of these glial cells play important roles during development of the fetal brain. In addition to ZIKV-induced congenital abnormalities, infected patients experience gastrointestinal complications. There are presently no reports investigating the role of this virus at the proteomic level in gastrointestinal associated cells, so we conducted an in vitro proteomic study of ZIKV-induced changes in Caco-2, a colon-derived human cell line which is known to be permissive to ZIKV infection. We used SomaScan, a new aptamer-based proteomic tool to identify host proteins that are dysregulated during ZIKV infection at 12, 24, and 48 h post-infection. Bioinformatic analyses predicted that dysregulation of differentially-regulated host proteins results in various gastrointestinal diseases. Validation of the clinical relevance of these promising protein targets will add to the existing knowledge of ZIKV biology. These potential proteins may be useful targets towards the development of therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412063PMC
July 2020

Production and verification of the first Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) clonal lines.

BMC Genet 2020 07 8;21(1):71. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Marine Research, 5984, Matredal, Norway.

Background: In several fish species homozygous and heterozygous clonal lines have been produced using gynogenetic and androgenetic techniques. These lines are standardized and can be reproduced over generations. In rainbow trout such lines have existed for decades and has become important research tools in genome studies as well as in studies of commercially important traits. The Atlantic salmon is one of the best studied fish species globally, but all experiments are done on fish of wild or domesticated origin and access to standardized immortal fish lines would be of great benefit. Here, we describe the protocols developed to produce mitotic gynogenes, and from these the first clonal lines in Atlantic salmon.

Results: Atlantic salmon eggs fertilized with UV irradiated sperm combined with a pressure shock applied at 4700-4800 minC at 8 °C gave all homozygous (doubled haploid) gynogenetic progeny with high survival. From the six first maturing females, five all homozygous clonal lines were produced by meiotic gynogenesis and were verified as clonal and identical to their mother with microsatellite markers.

Conclusions: We have now produced the first documented cloned Atlantic salmon lines. This work demonstrates the potential for production of further Atlantic salmon clonal lines, potentially with distinct characteristics. Such lines will provide an important resource for further elucidation of phenotypic and genetic traits in this globally important species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00878-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346428PMC
July 2020

"A cleaner break": Genetic divergence between geographic groups and sympatric phenotypes revealed in ballan wrasse ().

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 5;10(12):6120-6135. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Institute of Marine Research Bergen Norway.

Capture and long-distance translocation of cleaner fish to control lice infestations on marine salmonid farms has the potential to influence wild populations via overexploitation in source regions, and introgression in recipient regions. Knowledge of population genetic structure is therefore required. We studied the genetic structure of ballan wrasse, a phenotypically diverse and extensively used cleaner fish, from 18 locations in Norway and Sweden, and from Galicia, Spain, using 82 SNP markers. We detected two very distinct genetic groups in Scandinavia, northwestern and southeastern. These groups were split by a stretch of sandy beaches in southwest Norway, representing a habitat discontinuity for this rocky shore associated benthic egg-laying species. Wrasse from Galicia were highly differentiated from all Scandinavian locations, but more similar to northwestern than southeastern locations. Distinct genetic differences were observed between sympatric spotty and plain phenotypes in Galicia, but not in Scandinavia. The mechanisms underlying the geographic patterns between phenotypes are discussed, but not identified. We conclude that extensive aquaculture-mediated translocation of ballan wrasse from Sweden and southern Norway to western and middle Norway has the potential to mix genetically distinct populations. These results question the sustainability of the current cleaner fish practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319121PMC
June 2020

Preparation of Caveolin-1 for NMR Spectroscopy Experiments.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2169:137-147

Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA.

Caveolin-1 is a 20.5 kDa integral membrane protein that is involved in a myriad of cellular processes including signal transduction, relieving mechano-stresses on the cell, endocytosis, and most importantly caveolae formation. As a consequence, there is intense interest in characterizing caveolin-1 structurally. Out of the many available structural techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is particularly well suited to investigations on integral membrane proteins like caveolin-1 that have significant unstructured regions and unusual topologies. However, the technique requires relatively large amounts of protein (i.e. concentrations in the 0.5-5 mM range), and obtaining these amounts can be difficult especially for highly hydrophobic membrane proteins such as caveolin-1. Herein, we describe a robust protocol for the preparation of caveolin-1 for structural studies using NMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0732-9_13DOI Listing
March 2021

Zika virus dysregulates human Sertoli cell proteins involved in spermatogenesis with little effect on tight junctions.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 06 8;14(6):e0008335. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

University of Manitoba, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Zika virus (ZIKV), a neglected tropical disease until its re-emergence in 2007, causes microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Its re-emergence and spread to more than 80 countries led the World Health Organization in 2016 to declare a Public Health Emergency. ZIKV is mainly transmitted by mosquitos, but can persist in infected human male semen for prolonged periods and may be sexually transmitted. Testicular Sertoli cells support ZIKV replication and may be a reservoir for persistent ZIKV infection. Electrical impedance analyses indicated ZIKV infection rapidly disrupted Vero cell monolayers but had little effect upon human Sertoli cells (HSerC). We determined ZIKV-induced proteomic changes in HSerC using an aptamer-based multiplexed technique (SOMAscan) targeting >1300 human proteins. ZIKV infection caused differential expression of 299 proteins during three different time points, including 5 days after infection. Dysregulated proteins are involved in different bio-functions, including cell death and survival, cell cycle, maintenance of cellular function, cell signaling, cellular assembly, morphology, movement, molecular transport, and immune response. Many signaling pathways important for maintenance of HSerC function and spermatogenesis were highly dysregulated. These included IL-6, IGF1, EGF, NF-κB, PPAR, ERK/MAPK, and growth hormone signaling. Down-regulation of the PPAR signaling pathway might impact cellular energy supplies. Upstream molecule analysis also indicated microRNAs involved in germ cell development were downregulated by infection. Overall, this study leads to a better understanding of Sertoli cellular mechanisms used by ZIKV during persistent infection and possible ZIKV impacts on spermatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279580PMC
June 2020

Chromosome aberrations in pressure-induced triploid Atlantic salmon.

BMC Genet 2020 06 6;21(1):59. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Triploid organisms have three sets of chromosomes. In Atlantic salmon, hydrostatic pressure treatment of newly fertilized eggs has been extensively used to produce triploids which are functionally sterile due to their unpaired chromosomes. These fish often perform poorly on commercial farms, sometimes without explanation. Inheritance patterns in individuals subjected to pressure treatment have not been investigated in Atlantic salmon thus far. However, work on other species suggests that this treatment can result in aberrant inheritance. We therefore studied this in Atlantic salmon by genotyping 16 polymorphic microsatellites in eyed eggs and juveniles which had been subjected to pressure-induction of triploidy. Communally reared juveniles including fish subjected to pressure-induction of triploidy and their diploid siblings were included as a control.

Results: No diploid offspring were detected in any of the eggs or juveniles which were subjected to hydrostatic pressure; therefore, the induction of triploidy was highly successful. Aberrant inheritance was nevertheless observed in 0.9% of the eggs and 0.9% of the juveniles that had been subjected to pressure treatment. In the communally reared fish, 0.3% of the fish subjected to pressure treatment displayed aberrant inheritance, while their diploid controls displayed 0% aberrant inheritance. Inheritance errors included two eyed eggs lacking maternal DNA across all microsatellites, and, examples in both eggs and juveniles of either the maternal or paternal allele lacking in one of the microsatellites. All individuals displaying chromosome aberrations were otherwise triploid.

Conclusions: This is the first study to document aberrant inheritance in Atlantic salmon that have been subjected to pressure-induction of triploidy. Our experiments unequivocally demonstrate that even when induction of triploidy is highly successful, this treatment can cause chromosome aberrations in this species. Based upon our novel data, and earlier studies in other organisms, we hypothesize that in batches of Atlantic salmon where low to modest triploid induction rates have been reported, aberrant inheritance is likely to be higher than the rates observed here. Therefore, we tentatively suggest that this could contribute to the unexplained poor performance of triploid salmon that is occasionally reported in commercial aquaculture. These hypotheses require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00864-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276064PMC
June 2020

Transcriptomic comparison of communally reared wild, domesticated and hybrid Atlantic salmon fry under stress and control conditions.

BMC Genet 2020 05 29;21(1):57. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Domestication is the process by which organisms become adapted to the human-controlled environment. Since the selection pressures that act upon cultured and natural populations differ, adaptations that favour life in the domesticated environment are unlikely to be advantageous in the wild. Elucidation of the differences between wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon may provide insights into some of the genomic changes occurring during domestication, and, help to predict the evolutionary consequences of farmed salmon escapees interbreeding with wild conspecifics. In this study the transcriptome of the offspring of wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon were compared using a common-garden experiment under standard hatchery conditions and in response to an applied crowding stressor.

Results: Transcriptomic differences between wild and domesticated crosses were largely consistent between the control and stress conditions, and included down-regulation of environmental information processing, immune and nervous system pathways and up-regulation of genetic information processing, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and digestive and endocrine system pathways in the domesticated fish relative to their wild counterparts, likely reflective of different selection pressures acting in wild and cultured populations. Many stress responsive functions were also shared between crosses and included down-regulation of cellular processes and genetic information processing and up-regulation of some metabolic pathways, lipid and energy in particular. The latter may be indicative of mobilization and reallocation of energy resources in response to stress. However, functional analysis indicated that a number of pathways behave differently between domesticated and wild salmon in response to stress. Reciprocal F1 hybrids permitted investigation of inheritance patterns that govern transcriptomic differences between these genetically divergent crosses. Additivity and maternal dominance accounted for approximately 42 and 25% of all differences under control conditions for both hybrids respectively. However, the inheritance of genes differentially expressed between crosses under stress was less consistent between reciprocal hybrids, potentially reflecting maternal environmental effects.

Conclusion: We conclude that there are transcriptomic differences between the domesticated and wild salmon strains studied here, reflecting the different selection pressures operating on them. Our results indicate that stress may affect certain biological functions differently in wild, domesticated and hybrid crosses and these should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00858-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257211PMC
May 2020

Assessment of zebrafish embryo photomotor response sensitivity and phase-specific patterns following acute- and long-duration exposure to neurotoxic chemicals and chemical weapon precursors.

J Appl Toxicol 2020 09 6;40(9):1272-1283. Epub 2020 May 6.

U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

Zebrafish are an attractive model for chemical screening due to their adaptability to high-throughput platforms and ability to display complex phenotypes in response to chemical exposure. The photomotor response (PMR) is an established and reproducible phenotype of the zebrafish embryo, observed 24 h post-fertilization in response to a predefined sequence of light stimuli. In an effort to evaluate the sensitivity and effectiveness of the zebrafish embryo PMR assay for toxicity screening, we analyzed chemicals known to cause both neurological effects and developmental abnormalities, following both short (1 h) and long (16 h+) duration exposures. These include chemicals that inhibit aerobic respiration (eg, cyanide), acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (organophosphates pesticides) and several chemical weapon precursor compounds with variable toxicity profiles and poorly understood mechanisms of toxicity. We observed notable concentration-responsive, phase-specific effects in the PMR after exposure to chemicals with a known mechanism of action. Chemicals with a more general toxicity profile (toxic chemical weapon precursors) appeared to reduce all phases of the PMR without a notable phase-specific effect. Overall, 10 of 20 chemicals evaluated elicited an effect on the PMR response and eight of those 10 chemicals were picked up in both the short- and long-duration assays. In addition, the patterns of response uniquely differentiated chemical weapon precursor effects from those elicited by inhibitors of aerobic respiration and organophosphates. By providing a rapid screening test for neurobehavioral effects, the zebrafish PMR test could help identify potential mechanisms of action and target compounds for more detailed follow-on toxicological evaluations. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496110PMC
September 2020

Assessing the quality of health research from an Indigenous perspective: the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander quality appraisal tool.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 04 10;20(1):79. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Wardliparingga Aboriginal Health Research Unit, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, PO Box 11060, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia.

Background: The lack of attention to Indigenous epistemologies and, more broadly, Indigenous values in primary research, is mirrored in the standardised critical appraisal tools used to guide evidence-based practice and systematic reviews and meta-syntheses. These critical appraisal tools offer no guidance on how validity or contextual relevance should be assessed for Indigenous populations and cultural contexts. Failure to tailor the research questions, design, analysis, dissemination and knowledge translation to capture understandings that are specific to Indigenous peoples results in research of limited acceptability and benefit and potentially harms Indigenous peoples. A specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quality Appraisal Tool is needed to address this gap.

Method: The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quality Appraisal Tool (QAT) was developed using a modified Nominal Group and Delphi Techniques and the tool's validity, reliability, and feasibility were assessed over three stages of independent piloting. National and international research guidelines were used as points of reference. Piloting of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander QAT with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous experts led to refinement of the tool.

Results: The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander QAT consists of 14 questions that assess the quality of health research from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspective. The questions encompass setting appropriate research questions; community engagement and consultation; research leadership and governance; community protocols; intellectual and cultural property rights; the collection and management of research material; Indigenous research paradigms; a strength-based approach to research; the translation of findings into policy and practice; benefits to participants and communities involved; and capacity strengthening and two-way learning. Outcomes from the assessment of the tool's validity, reliability, and feasibility were overall positive.

Conclusion: This is the first tool to appraise research quality from the perspective of Indigenous peoples. Through the uptake of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander QAT we hope to improve the quality and transparency of research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, with the potential for greater improvements in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-00959-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147059PMC
April 2020

Reconstitution of full-length human caveolin-1 into phospholipid bicelles: Validation by analytical ultracentrifugation.

Biophys Chem 2020 04 26;259:106339. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, 6 E Packer Ave, Bethlehem, PA, USA. Electronic address:

A significant hurdle in obtaining biophysical information on membrane proteins is developing a successful strategy for their reconstitution into a suitable membrane mimic. In particular, utilization of the more 'native-like' membrane mimics such as bicelles is generally more challenging than simple micellar solubilization. Caveolin-1, an integral membrane protein involved in membrane curvature, endocytosis, mechano-protection, and signal transduction, has been shown to be particularly recalcitrant to standard reconstitution protocols due to its highly hydrophobic characteristics. Herein we describe a robust method to incorporate recombinantly produced full-length caveolin-1 into bicelles at levels needed for biophysical experimentation. The benchmark of successful reconstitution is the obtainment of protein in a homogeneous state; therefore, we developed a validation procedure to monitor the success of the reconstitution using analytical ultracentrifugation of density-matched bicelles. Our findings indicated that our protocol produces a very homogeneous preparation of caveolin-1 associated with bicelles, and that caveolin-1 is highly α-helical (by circular dichroism spectroscopy). We believe that this methodology will serve as a general strategy to facilitate biophysical studies on membrane proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2020.106339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571804PMC
April 2020

An Integrated Multi-Omics Analysis Defines Key Pathway Alterations in a Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model.

Metabolites 2020 Feb 25;10(3). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

DuPont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, DK-8220 Brabrand, Aarhus, Denmark.

Obesity is a multifactorial disease with many complications and related diseases and has become a global epidemic. To thoroughly understand the impact of obesity on whole organism homeostasis, it is helpful to utilize a systems biological approach combining gene expression and metabolomics across tissues and biofluids together with metagenomics of gut microbial diversity. Here, we present a multi-omics study on liver, muscle, adipose tissue, urine, plasma, and feces on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Gene expression analyses showed alterations in genes related to lipid and energy metabolism and inflammation in liver and adipose tissue. The integration of metabolomics data across tissues and biofluids identified major differences in liver TCA cycle, where malate, succinate and oxaloacetate were found to be increased in HFD mice. This finding was supported by gene expression analysis of TCA-related enzymes in liver, where expression of malate dehydrogenase was found to be decreased. Investigations of the microbiome showed enrichment of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae in the HFD group. Our findings help elucidate how the whole organism metabolome and transcriptome are integrated and regulated during obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143281PMC
February 2020

Atlantic salmon and sea trout display synchronised smolt migration relative to linked environmental cues.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3529. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Bergen, Norway.

Anadromous salmon and sea trout smolts face challenging migrations from freshwater to the marine environment characterised by high mortality. Therefore, the timing of smolt migration is likely to be critical for survival. Time-series comparing migration of Atlantic salmon and sea trout smolts in the same river, and their response to the same environmental cues, are scarce. Here, we analysed migration timing of ~41 000 Atlantic salmon and sea trout smolts over a 19-year period from the river Guddalselva, western Norway. Trout displayed a longer migration window in earlier years, which decreased over time to become more similar to the salmon migration window. On average, salmon migrated out of the river earlier than trout. Migration of both species was significantly influenced by river water temperature and water discharge, but their relative influence varied across the years. On average, body-length of smolts of both species overlapped, however, size differences were observed within the migration period and among the years. We conclude that salmon and trout smolts in this river are highly synchronised and migrate in response to the same range of linked environmental cues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60588-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044379PMC
February 2020

Epistatic regulation of growth in Atlantic salmon revealed: a QTL study performed on the domesticated-wild interface.

BMC Genet 2020 02 7;21(1):13. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Population Genetics Research group, Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, Nordnes, NO-5817, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Quantitative traits are typically considered to be under additive genetic control. Although there are indications that non-additive factors have the potential to contribute to trait variation, experimental demonstration remains scarce. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of growth in Atlantic salmon by exploiting the high level of genetic diversity and trait expression among domesticated, hybrid and wild populations.

Results: After rearing fish in common-garden experiments under aquaculture conditions, we performed a variance component analysis in four mapping populations totaling ~ 7000 individuals from six wild, two domesticated and three F1 wild/domesticated hybrid strains. Across the four independent datasets, genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with weight and length were detected on a total of 18 chromosomes, reflecting the polygenic nature of growth. Significant QTLs correlated with both length and weight were detected on chromosomes 2, 6 and 9 in multiple datasets. Significantly, epistatic QTLs were detected in all datasets.

Discussion: The observed interactions demonstrated that the phenotypic effect of inheriting an allele deviated between half-sib families. Gene-by-gene interactions were also suggested, where the combined effect of two loci resulted in a genetic effect upon phenotypic variance, while no genetic effect was detected when the two loci were considered separately. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of epistasis in a quantitative trait in Atlantic salmon. These novel results are of relevance for breeding programs, and for predicting the evolutionary consequences of domestication-introgression in wild populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-0816-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006396PMC
February 2020

Domestication leads to increased predation susceptibility.

Sci Rep 2020 02 6;10(1):1929. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, NO, 5817, Bergen, Norway.

Domestication involves adapting animals to the human-controlled environment. Genetic changes occurring during the domestication process may manifest themselves in phenotypes that render domesticated animals maladaptive for life in the wild. Domesticated Atlantic salmon frequently interbreed with wild conspecifics, and their offspring display reduced survival in the wild. However, the mechanism(s) contributing to their lower survival in the wild remains a subject of conjecture. Here, we document higher susceptibility to predation by brown trout in fast-growing domesticated salmon, as compared to their slow-growing wild conspecifics, demonstrating that directional selection for increased growth comes at a cost of decreased survival when under the risk of predation, as predicted by the growth/predation risk trade-off. Despite earlier documentation of altered risk-taking behavior, this study demonstrates for the first time that domestication of Atlantic salmon has lead to increased predation susceptibility, and that this consitutes a mechanism underpinning the observed survial differences in the wild.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58661-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005312PMC
February 2020

Learner Analysis to Inform the Design and Development of a Serious Game for Nongaming Female Emerging Health Care Preprofessionals: Qualitative Sample Study.

JMIR Serious Games 2020 Feb 6;8(1):e16003. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Lehigh University College of Education, Bethlehem, PA, United States.

Background: Overall, 75% of health care practitioners are women, but half of all females do not play digital games of any kind. There is no consensus in the literature regarding optimal design elements to maximize the efficacy of serious games. To capitalize on the promise of serious games in health care education, it is important for instructional designers to understand the underlying learners' values, attitudes, and beliefs that might motivate nongaming female health care preprofessional students to independently choose to persistently play serious games to mastery.

Objective: Specifically, the aim of this study was to seek answers to 2 questions. First, what values, attitudes, and beliefs contribute to the nongaming behaviors of 12th-grade female emerging health care preprofessionals? Second, how do the values, attitudes, and beliefs of 12th-grade female emerging health care preprofessionals align with important design features of serious games?

Methods: In this study, a learner analysis was conducted using semistructured interviews with 8 12th-grade college-bound female health science students to better understand learners' values, attitudes, and beliefs to inform the design and development of a serious game. These interviewees represented a diverse subset of the female emerging health care preprofessionals who self-identified themselves as not playing games at all, not very often, or infrequently.

Results: The findings suggest that the study participants exhibited a complex fusion of desire for both accomplishment and affiliation. The participants were all independent, competitive, and prosocial leaders. They thought strategically and consciously self-limited their leisure time to achieve personally meaningful long-term goals. They embraced overcoming expected failures and aimed to achieve relevant high-stakes wins in all academic, athletic, extracurricular, and leisure activities they valued while consciously avoiding what they considered to be non-goal-oriented activities.

Conclusions: The results of this study reinforce the need for a robust learner analysis to identify the multifaceted behavioral characteristics of targeted learners before the design and development of serious games. The common characteristics of the 12th-grade female health science students in this study suggest that they will choose to invest their limited leisure time playing a personally meaningful, preprofessionally authentic serious game if the collective design elements are aligned with the students' self-conceptualization of their present or future selves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/16003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055850PMC
February 2020

Inferring Atlantic salmon post-smolt migration patterns using genetic assignment.

R Soc Open Sci 2019 Oct 2;6(10):190426. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Bergen, Norway.

Understanding migratory patterns is important for predicting and mitigating unwanted consequences of environmental change or anthropogenic challenges on vulnerable species. Wild Atlantic salmon undergo challenging migrations between freshwater and marine environments, and the numbers of salmon returning to their natal rivers to reproduce have declined over several decades. Mortality from sea lice linked to fish farms within their seaward migration routes is proposed as a contributing factor to these declines. Here, we used 31 microsatellite markers to establish a genetic baseline for the main rivers in the Hardangerfjord, western Norway. Mixed stock analysis was used to assign Atlantic salmon post-smolts caught in trawls in 2013-2017 back to regional reporting units. Analyses demonstrated that individuals originating from rivers located in the inner region of the fjord arrived at the outer fjord later than individuals from middle and outer fjord rivers. Therefore, as post-smolts originating from inner rivers also have to migrate longer distances to exit the fjord, these data suggest that inner fjord populations are more likely to be at risk of mortality through aquaculture-produced sea lice, and other natural factors such as predation, than middle or outer fjord populations with earlier exit times and shorter journeys. These results will be used to calibrate models estimating mortality from sea lice on wild salmon for the regulation of the Norwegian aquaculture industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837218PMC
October 2019

A case report of trisomy 17 mosaicism: PMP22 gene duplication as a result of trisomy 17 associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Clin Dysmorphol 2020 Jan;29(1):65-68

Birmingham Women's Hospital, Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust Birmingham.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCD.0000000000000305DOI Listing
January 2020

Mid-Term Outcomes of Retroperitoneal and Transperitoneal Exposures in Open Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Jul 31;66:35-43.e1. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Background: There have been a number of studies comparing perioperative outcomes of the retroperitoneal (RP) and transperitoneal (TP) approaches to open aortic aneurysm repair (OAR), many of which have shown conflicting results. There remains a paucity of data comparing these 2 exposures beyond 30 days. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term outcomes between RP and TP exposures in OAR.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of elective OAR from a single institution from 2010 to 2014 with at least one year of follow-up. Patients with any prior aortic repair, prior midline TP or RP exposures, prior small bowel obstruction (SBO), or prior abdominal wall hernia repair were excluded. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative details, and postoperative variables up to 5 years were compared. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, aortic or arterial reinterventions, incisional reinterventions, SBO or reintervention for SBO, and composite reintervention.

Results: Of the 273 OARs identified, 136 OARs (86 TP and 50 RP exposures) met criteria for the study. The average follow-up was 43.4 months. Of the preoperative and intraoperative characteristics, patients with RP exposures were significantly more likely to be female (30% vs. 12.8%; P = .014) and to have larger aneurysm (6.1 ± 1.02 cm vs. 5.4 ± 1.01 cm; P < .001), tube graft (48% vs 19.8%; P < .001), and renal bypass (30% vs. 2.3%; P < .001). Patients with TP exposures were significantly more likely to have inferior mesenteric artery reimplantation (15.1% vs. 4%; P = .046), infrarenal clamping (65.9% vs. 22%; P < .001), and iliac aneurysm (36% vs. 4%; P < .001). During mid-term follow-up, there was not a difference in all-cause survival at 3 years (95.8% vs. 95.8%; P = .52). Although there were more incisional hernias in the TP group (48% vs. 8%; P < .001), there was no difference in incisional reinterventions (14% vs. 6%; P = .36). There were no differences in aortic or arterial reinterventions (5% vs. 4%; P = .86), SBO (7% vs. 0%; P = .99), intervention for SBO (3% vs. 0%; P = .99), or composite reinterventions (16% vs. 10%; P = .6) between the TP and RP exposures.

Conclusions: In mid-term follow-up, OAR through TP exposure had more incisional hernias compared with RP exposure. However, there is no difference in mortality or composite reinterventions between approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2019.10.074DOI Listing
July 2020

Secondary structure of caveolins: a mini review.

Biochem Soc Trans 2019 10;47(5):1489-1498

Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, 6 E. Packer Ave, Bethlehem, PA 18015, U.S.A.

Caveolae are 50-100 nm invaginations found within the plasma membrane of cells. Caveolae are involved in many processes that are essential for homeostasis, most notably endocytosis, mechano-protection, and signal transduction. Within these invaginations, the most important proteins are caveolins, which in addition to participating in the aforementioned processes are structural proteins responsible for caveolae biogenesis. When caveolin is misregulated or mutated, many disease states can arise which include muscular dystrophy, cancers, and heart disease. Unlike most integral membrane proteins, caveolin does not have a transmembrane orientation; instead, it is postulated to adopt an unusual topography where both the N- and C-termini lie on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, and the hydrophobic span adopts an intramembrane loop conformation. While knowledge concerning the biology of caveolin has progressed apace, fundamental structural information has proven more difficult to obtain. In this mini-review, we curate as well as critically assess the structural data that have been obtained on caveolins to date in order to build a robust and compelling model of the caveolin secondary structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20190375DOI Listing
October 2019

Population genetic analysis reveals a geographically limited transition zone between two genetically distinct Atlantic salmon lineages in Norway.

Ecol Evol 2019 Jun 22;9(12):6901-6921. Epub 2019 May 22.

Institute of Marine Research Bergen Norway.

Atlantic salmon is characterized by a high degree of population genetic structure throughout its native range. However, while populations inhabiting rivers in Norway and Russia make up a significant proportion of salmon in the Atlantic, thus far, genetic studies in this region have only encompassed low to modest numbers of populations. Here, we provide the first "in-depth" investigation of population genetic structuring in the species in this region. Analysis of 18 microsatellites on >9,000 fish from 115 rivers revealed highly significant population genetic structure throughout, following a hierarchical pattern. The highest and clearest level of division separated populations north and south of the Lofoten region in northern Norway. In this region, only a few populations displayed intermediate genetic profiles, strongly indicating a geographically limited transition zone. This was further supported by a dedicated cline analysis. Population genetic structure was also characterized by a pattern of isolation by distance. A decline in overall genetic diversity was observed from the south to the north, and two of the microsatellites showed a clear decrease in number of alleles across the observed transition zone. Together, these analyses support results from previous studies, that salmon in Norway originate from two main genetic lineages, one from the Barents-White Sea refugium that recolonized northern Norwegian and adjacent Russian rivers, and one from the eastern Atlantic that recolonized the rest of Norway. Furthermore, our results indicate that local conditions in the limited geographic transition zone between the two observed lineages, characterized by open coastline with no obvious barriers to gene flow, are strong enough to maintain the genetic differentiation between them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662299PMC
June 2019
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