Publications by authors named "Gloria X Reyes"

6 Publications

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Ligation of newly replicated DNA controls the timing of DNA mismatch repair.

Curr Biol 2021 Mar 7;31(6):1268-1276.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany; Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg (ZMBH), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. Electronic address:

Mismatch repair (MMR) safeguards genome stability through recognition and excision of DNA replication errors. How eukaryotic MMR targets the newly replicated strand in vivo has not been established. MMR reactions reconstituted in vitro are directed to the strand containing a preexisting nick or gap, suggesting that strand discontinuities could act as discrimination signals. Another candidate is the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that is loaded at replication forks and is required for the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease. Here, we discovered that overexpression of DNA ligase I (Cdc9) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes elevated mutation rates and increased chromatin-bound PCNA levels and accumulation of Pms1 foci that are MMR intermediates, suggesting that premature ligation of replication-associated nicks interferes with MMR. We showed that yeast Pms1 expression is mainly restricted to S phase, in agreement with the temporal coupling between MMR and DNA replication. Restricting Pms1 expression to the G2/M phase caused a mutator phenotype that was exacerbated in the absence of the exonuclease Exo1. This mutator phenotype was largely suppressed by increasing the lifetime of replication-associated DNA nicks, either by reducing or delaying Cdc9 ligase activity in vivo. Therefore, Cdc9 dictates a window of time for MMR determined by transient DNA nicks that direct the Mlh1-Pms1 in a strand-specific manner. Because DNA nicks occur on both newly synthesized leading and lagging strands, these results establish a general mechanism for targeting MMR to the newly synthesized DNA, thus preventing the accumulation of mutations that underlie the development of human cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.12.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281387PMC
March 2021

Identification of MLH2/hPMS1 dominant mutations that prevent DNA mismatch repair function.

Commun Biol 2020 12 10;3(1):751. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, 69120, Germany.

Inactivating mutations affecting key mismatch repair (MMR) components lead to microsatellite instability (MSI) and cancer. However, a number of patients with MSI-tumors do not present alterations in classical MMR genes. Here we discovered that specific missense mutations in the MutL homolog MLH2, which is dispensable for MMR, confer a dominant mutator phenotype in S. cerevisiae. MLH2 mutations elevated frameshift mutation rates, and caused accumulation of long-lasting nuclear MMR foci. Both aspects of this phenotype were suppressed by mutations predicted to prevent the binding of Mlh2 to DNA. Genetic analysis revealed that mlh2 dominant mutations interfere with both Exonuclease 1 (Exo1)-dependent and Exo1-independent MMR. Lastly, we demonstrate that a homolog mutation in human hPMS1 results in a dominant mutator phenotype. Our data support a model in which yeast Mlh1-Mlh2 or hMLH1-hPMS1 mutant complexes act as roadblocks on DNA preventing MMR, unraveling a novel mechanism that can account for MSI in human cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01481-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730388PMC
December 2020

Inactivation of folylpolyglutamate synthetase Met7 results in genome instability driven by an increased dUTP/dTTP ratio.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 01;48(1):264-277

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg D-69120, Germany.

The accumulation of mutations is frequently associated with alterations in gene function leading to the onset of diseases, including cancer. Aiming to find novel genes that contribute to the stability of the genome, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection for increased mutator phenotypes. Among the identified genes, we discovered MET7, which encodes folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that facilitates several folate-dependent reactions including the synthesis of purines, thymidylate (dTMP) and DNA methylation. Here, we found that Met7-deficient strains show elevated mutation rates, but also increased levels of endogenous DNA damage resulting in gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs). Quantification of deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools in cell extracts from met7Δ mutant revealed reductions in dTTP and dGTP that cause a constitutively active DNA damage checkpoint. In addition, we found that the absence of Met7 leads to dUTP accumulation, at levels that allowed its detection in yeast extracts for the first time. Consequently, a high dUTP/dTTP ratio promotes uracil incorporation into DNA, followed by futile repair cycles that compromise both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. In summary, this work highlights the importance of folate polyglutamylation in the maintenance of nucleotide homeostasis and genome stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz1006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145683PMC
January 2020

A genetic screen pinpoints ribonucleotide reductase residues that sustain dNTP homeostasis and specifies a highly mutagenic type of dNTP imbalance.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 01;47(1):237-252

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg D-69120, Germany.

The balance and the overall concentration of intracellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are important determinants of faithful DNA replication. Despite the established fact that changes in dNTP pools negatively influence DNA replication fidelity, it is not clear why certain dNTP pool alterations are more mutagenic than others. As intracellular dNTP pools are mainly controlled by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), and given the limited number of eukaryotic RNR mutations characterized so far, we screened for RNR1 mutations causing mutator phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 24 rnr1 mutant alleles resulting in diverse mutator phenotypes linked in most cases to imbalanced dNTPs. Among the identified rnr1 alleles the strongest mutators presented a dNTP imbalance in which three out of the four dNTPs were elevated (dCTP, dTTP and dGTP), particularly if dGTP levels were highly increased. These rnr1 alleles caused growth defects/lethality in DNA replication fidelity-compromised backgrounds, and caused strong mutator phenotypes even in the presence of functional DNA polymerases and mismatch repair. In summary, this study pinpoints key residues that contribute to allosteric regulation of RNR's overall activity or substrate specificity. We propose a model that distinguishes between different dNTP pool alterations and provides a mechanistic explanation why certain dNTP imbalances are particularly detrimental.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky1154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326808PMC
January 2019

New insights into the mechanism of DNA mismatch repair.

Chromosoma 2015 Dec 11;124(4):443-62. Epub 2015 Apr 11.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

The genome of all organisms is constantly being challenged by endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage. Errors like base:base mismatches or small insertions and deletions, primarily introduced by DNA polymerases during DNA replication are repaired by an evolutionary conserved DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. The MMR system, together with the DNA replication machinery, promote repair by an excision and resynthesis mechanism during or after DNA replication, increasing replication fidelity by up-to-three orders of magnitude. Consequently, inactivation of MMR genes results in elevated mutation rates that can lead to increased cancer susceptibility in humans. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of MMR with a focus on the different MMR protein complexes, their function and structure. We also discuss how recent findings have provided new insights in the spatio-temporal regulation and mechanism of MMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00412-015-0514-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600670PMC
December 2015

Essential role of B-Raf in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination during postnatal central nervous system development.

J Cell Biol 2008 Mar;180(5):947-55

Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

Mutations in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, particularly in the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) activator B-Raf, are associated with human tumorigenesis and genetic disorders. Hence, B-Raf is a prime target for molecule-based therapies, and understanding its essential biological functions is crucial for their success. B-Raf is expressed preferentially in cells of neuronal origin. Here, we show that in mice, conditional ablation of B-Raf in neuronal precursors leads to severe dysmyelination, defective oligodendrocyte differentiation, and reduced ERK activation in brain. Both B-Raf ablation and chemical inhibition of MEK impair oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. In glial cell cultures, we find B-Raf in a complex with MEK, Raf-1, and kinase suppressor of Ras. In B-Raf-deficient cells, more Raf-1 is recruited to MEK, yet MEK/ERK phosphorylation is impaired. These data define B-Raf as the rate-limiting MEK/ERK activator in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination and have implications for the design and use of Raf inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200709069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2265404PMC
March 2008
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