Publications by authors named "Gloria Tamborini"

79 Publications

Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse: Introducing an Era of Multimodality Imaging-Based Diagnosis and Risk Stratification.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 20138 Milan, Italy.

Mitral valve prolapse is a common cardiac condition, with an estimated prevalence between 1% and 3%. Most patients have a benign course, but ever since its initial description mitral valve prolapse has been associated to sudden cardiac death. Although the causal relationship between mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac death has never been clearly demonstrated, different factors have been implicated in arrhythmogenesis in patients with mitral valve prolapse. In this work, we offer a comprehensive overview of the etiology and the genetic background, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and we focus on the state-of-the-art imaging-based diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Going beyond the classical, well-described clinical factors, such as young age, female gender and auscultatory findings, we investigate multimodality imaging features, such as alterations of anatomy and function of the mitral valve and its leaflets, the structural and contractile anomalies of the myocardium, all of which have been associated to sudden cardiac death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999774PMC
March 2021

Proper Selection Does Make the Difference: A Propensity-Matched Analysis of Percutaneous and Surgical Cut-Down Transfemoral TAVR.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, IRCCS Centro Cardiologico Monzino, 20100 Milan, Italy.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established technique to treat severe symptomatic aortic stenosis patients with a wide range of surgical risk. Currently, the common femoral artery is the first choice as the main access route for the procedure. The objective of this observational study is to report our experience on percutaneous and surgical cut-down transfemoral TAVRs comparing the two approaches.

Methods: From January 2014 to January 2019, five hundred eleven consecutive patients underwent TAVR for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. We analyzed only elective transfemoral procedures. After propensity score-matching based on age, sex, EuroSCORE II, mean aortic gradient, and left ventricular ejection fraction, we obtained two homogeneous populations: surgical cut-down ( = 119) and percutaneous ( = 225), which were labeled Group 1 and Group 2, respectively.

Results: The main findings were that there were no significant procedural outcome differences between the two groups, but Group 2 patients had a shorter length of hospital stay and were more frequently discharged home. At follow-up, Group 1 patients had lower survival rates.

Conclusions: An accurate preoperative assessment of the femoral access is mandatory to achieve satisfactory outcomes with transfemoral TAVRs. Nevertheless, the percutaneous approach allows shorter in-hospital stay and the need for rehabilitation, thus potentially decreasing the costs of the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956334PMC
February 2021

Response to: 'Size of the shadow'.

Heart 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milano, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318919DOI Listing
January 2021

Novelties in 3D Transthoracic Echocardiography.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 21;10(3). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Via Parea 4, 20138 Milan, Italy.

Cardiovascular imaging is developing at a rapid pace and the newer modalities, in particular three-dimensional echocardiography, allow better analysis of heart structures. Identifying valve lesions and grading their severity represents crucial information and nowadays is strengthened by the introduction of new software, such as transillumination, which provide detailed morphology descriptions. Chambers quantification has never been so rapid and accurate: machine learning algorithms generate automated volume measurements, including left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, which is extremely important for clinical decisions. This review provides an overview of the latest innovations in the echocardiography field, and is helpful by providing a better insight into heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865963PMC
January 2021

A severe right-to-left intracardiac shunt after NobleStitch failure: when a device is needed.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Oct 23;4(5):1-4. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Via Carlo Parea 4, Milan, Italy.

Background: Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been demonstrated to be superior to medical therapy in stroke prevention in selected patients. Beyond traditional permanent metallic devices, NobleStitch EL, a suture-based system, has been developed as a potential alternative.

Case Summary: A 50-year-old man underwent transcatheter closure of PFO with mild interatrial septal bulging and tunnel-like morphology with a NobleStitch device. A transthoracic echocardiography performed immediately after PFO closure showed residual shunt (RS), which persisted unchanged at staged controls, due to the inability of the delivery system to capture both the septum primum and the septum secundum. A second procedure was performed with the implantation of a Figulla Flex II 27/30 mm device, with no RS detectable at control echocardiography.

Discussion: The NobleStitch device is interesting in its concept, but several pitfalls may be encountered during its deployment. Opposite to permanent metallic devices, RSs after the procedure are not expected to decrease over time and should be managed with a different approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649439PMC
October 2020

Predictive Value of Pre-Operative 2D and 3D Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Repair: Long Term Follow Up of Mitral Valve Regurgitation Recurrence and Heart Chamber Remodeling.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2020 Oct 20;7(4). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, 20138 Milan, Italy.

The "ideal" management of asymptomatic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) in valve prolapse (MVP) is still debated. The aims of this study were to identify pre-operatory parameters predictive of residual MR and of early and long-term favorable remodeling after MVP repair. We included 295 patients who underwent MV repair for MVP with pre-operatory two- and three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE and 3DTTE) and 6-months (6M) and 3-years (3Y) follow-up 2DTTE. MVP was classified by 3DTTE as simple or complex and surgical procedures as simple or complex. Pre-operative echo parameters were compared to post-operative values at 6M and 3Y. Patients were divided into Group 1 (6M-MR < 2) and Group 2 (6M-MR ≥ 2), and predictors of MR 2 were investigated. MVP was simple in 178/295 pts, and 94% underwent simple procedures, while in only 42/117 (36%) of complex MVP a simple procedure was performed. A significant relation among prolapse anatomy, surgical procedures and residual MR was found. Post-operative MR ≥ 2 was present in 9.8%: complex MVP undergoing complex procedures had twice the percentage of MR ≥ 2 vs. simple MVP and simple procedures. MVP complexity resulted independent predictor of 6M-MR ≥ 2. Favorable cardiac remodeling, initially found in all cases, was maintained only in MR < 2 at 3Y. Pre-operative 3DTTE MVP morphology identifies pts undergoing simple or complex procedures predicting MR recurrence and favorable cardiac remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7040046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712008PMC
October 2020

T1 mapping and cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking in mitral valve prolapse.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 15;31(2):1100-1109. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Via C. Parea 4, 20138, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: T1 mapping (T1-map) and cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) techniques have been introduced for the early detection of interstitial myocardial fibrosis and deformation abnormalities. We sought to demonstrate that T1-map and CMR-FT may identify the presence of subclinical myocardial structural changes in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP).

Methods: Consecutive MVP patients with moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation and comparative matched healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled and underwent CMR-FT analysis to calculate 2D global and segmental circumferential (CS) and radial strain (RS) and T1-map to determine global and segmental native T1 (nT1) values.

Results: Seventy-three MVP patients (mean age, 57 ± 13 years old; male, 76%; regurgitant volume, 57 ± 21 mL) and 42 matched control subjects (mean age, 56 ± 18 years; male, 74%) were included. MVP patients showed a lower global CS (- 16.3 ± 3.4% vs. - 17.8 ± 1.9%, p = 0.020) and longer global nT1 (1124.9 ± 97.7 ms vs. 1007.4 ± 26.1 ms, p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Moreover, MVP patients showed lower RS and CS in basal (21.6 ± 12.3% vs. 27.6 ± 8.9%, p = 0.008, and - 13.0 ± 6.7% vs. - 14.9 ± 4.1%, p = 0.013) and mid-inferolateral (20.6 ± 10.7% vs. 28.4 ± 8.7%, p < 0.001, and - 12.8 ± 6.3% vs. - 16.5 ± 4.0%, p < 0.001) walls as compared to other myocardial segments. Similarly, MVP patients showed longer nT1 values in basal (1080 ± 68 ms vs. 1043 ± 43 ms, p < 0.001) and mid-inferolateral (1080 ± 77 ms vs. 1034 ± 37 ms, p < 0.001) walls as compared to other myocardial segments. Of note, nT1 values were significantly correlated with CS (r, 0.36; p < 0.001) and RS (r, 0.37; p < 0.001) but not with regurgitant volume.

Conclusions: T1-map and CMR-FT identify subclinical left ventricle tissue changes in patients with MVP. Further studies are required to correlate these subclinical tissue changes with the outcome.

Key Points: • T1 mapping (T1-map) and cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) techniques have been introduced for the early detection of interstitial myocardial fibrosis and deformation abnormalities. • In MVP patients, we demonstrated a longer global nT1 with associated reduced global circumferential (CS) and radial strain (RS) as compared to control subjects. • Among MVP patients, the mid-basal left ventricle inferolateral wall showed longer nT1 with reduced CS and RS as compared to other myocardial segments. Further studies are required to correlate these subclinical tissue changes with the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07140-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Multimodality imaging assessment of mitral annular disjunction in mitral valve prolapse.

Heart 2021 Jan 28;107(1):25-32. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Mitral annular disjunction (MAD) is an abnormality linked to mitral valve prolapse (MVP), possibly associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. We assessed the agreement among different imaging techniques for MAD identification and measurement.

Methods: 131 patients with MVP and significant mitral regurgitation undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were retrospectively enrolled. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) was available in 106 patients. MAD was evaluated in standard long-axis views (four-chamber, two-chamber, three-chamber) by each technique.

Results: Considering any-length MAD, MAD prevalence was 17.3%, 25.5%, 42.0% by TTE, TOE and CMR, respectively (p<0.05). The agreement on MAD identification was moderate between TTE and CMR (κ=0.54, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.59) and good between TOE and CMR (κ=0.79, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.84). Assuming CMR as reference and according to different cut-off values for MAD (≥2 mm, ≥4 mm, ≥6 mm), specificity (95% CI) of TTE and TOE was 99.6 (99.0 to 100.0)% and 98.7 (97.4 to 100.0)%; 99.3 (98.4 to 100.0)% and 97.6 (95.8 to 99.4)%; 97.8 (96.2 to 99.3)% and 93.2 (90.3 to 96.1)%, respectively; sensitivity (95% CI) was 43.1 (37.8 to 48.4)% and 74.5 (69.4 to 79.5)%; 54.0 (48.7 to 59.3)% and 88.9 (85.2 to 92.5)%; 88.0 (84.5 to 91.5)% and 100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)%, respectively. MAD length was 8.0 (7.0-10.0), 7.0 (5.0-8.0], 5.0 (4.0-7.0) mm, respectively by TTE, TOE and CMR. Agreement on MAD measurement was moderate between TTE and CMR (ρ=0.73) and strong between TOE and CMR (ρ=0.86).

Conclusions: An integrated imaging approach could be necessary for a comprehensive assessment of patients with MVP and symptoms suggestive for arrhythmias. If echocardiography is fundamental for the anatomic and haemodynamic characterisation of the MV disease, CMR may better identify small length MAD as well as myocardial fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317330DOI Listing
January 2021

Three-dimensional echocardiography investigation of the mechanisms of tricuspid annular dilatation.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Jan 20;36(1):33-43. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Section of Cardiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5758 S. Maryland Ave., MC 9067, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Tricuspid annular (TA) size, assessed by 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), has a well-established prognostic value in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery, with TA dilatation triggering simultaneous tricuspid annuloplasty. While TA dilatation is common in patients with dilated atria secondary to atrial fibrillation, little is known about the mechanisms of TA dilatation in patients with sinus rhythm (SR). This study aimed to identify echocardiographic parameters most closely related to the TA size as a potential tool for identification of patients prone to developing TA enlargement. 120 patients with SR underwent clinically indicated TTE, including 30 patients with normal hearts and 90 patients diagnosed with at least one right heart abnormality, defined as: right ventricular (RV) or right atrial (RA) dilatation, ≥ moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP). RA and RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV, ESV) and function were measured using commercial 3D software (TomTec). 3D RV long and short axes were used as surrogate indices of RV shape. Degrees of TR and sPAP were estimated by 2D TTE. 3D TA sizing was performed at end-diastole using 3D custom software. Linear regression analysis was used to identify variables best correlated with TA size, followed by multivariate analysis to identify independent associations. The highest correlations were found between TA area and: RA ESV (r = 0.73; p < 0.01), RV EDV (r = 0.58; p < 0.01), RV end-diastolic long and short axes (r = 0.53, 0.42; both p < 0.01), TR degree (r = 0.40; p < 0.01) and sPAP (r = 0.32; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that RA ESV was the only parameter independently associated with TA area (p < 0.05, r = 0.85). In conclusion, RA volume plays an important role in TA dilatation even in patients with normal SR. Understanding of annular remodeling mechanisms could aid in identifying patients at higher risk for TA dilatation, especially those scheduled for mitral valve surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-019-01686-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Mitral valve regurgitation in patients undergoing TAVI: Impact of severity and etiology on clinical outcome.

Int J Cardiol 2020 01 19;299:228-234. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: Mitral regurgitation (MR) is frequently associated with severe aortic stenosis, but its influence on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains controversial. This study sought to assess the baseline etiology and degree of MR in TAVI population, identify the predictors of MR changes and investigate the clinical and prognostic impact of baseline MR at mid and long-term follow-up.

Methods: We enrolled 572 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI. MR degree and etiology were evaluated by echocardiography at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes were obtained up to 3-year follow-up.

Results: At baseline, 168 patients (29%) had moderate-to-severe MR (MR ≥ 2). Organic MR was more frequently associated with MR ≥ 2 (MR < 2: 20%, MR ≥ 2: 43%, p < 0.001). Relevant MR had improved more in functional MR (79%) compared to organic MR (50%, p = 0.001). At the multivariate analysis, the coexistence of coronary artery disease (p = 0.026), absence of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.038) and functional etiology (p = 0.025) were predictors of MR improvement after TAVI. Patients with baseline MR ≥ 2 had a higher mortality rate than those with MR < 2 at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Moreover, a landmark analysis starting from 1-year to 3-year follow-up, demonstrated that organic MR was associated with an increased risk of mortality throughout 3-year follow-up compared with functional MR, irrespective of MR severity.

Conclusions: Baseline MR ≥ 2 in TAVI patients was associated with early and late mortality rate. At 1-year, significant improvement in MR severity was observed mainly in patients with functional MR ≥ 2. Organic MR ≥ 2 had a negative impact on 3-year, but not 1-year, mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.07.060DOI Listing
January 2020

Automated, machine learning-based, 3D echocardiographic quantification of left ventricular mass.

Echocardiography 2019 02 28;36(2):312-319. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Cardiac Imaging Center, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Although 3D echocardiography (3DE) circumvents many limitations of 2D echocardiography by allowing direct measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass, it is seldom used in clinical practice due to time-consuming analysis. A recently developed 3DE machine learning (ML) approach allows automated determination of LV mass. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of this new approach by comparing it to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference and to conventional 3DE volumetric analysis.

Methods: We prospectively studied 23 patients who underwent 3DE (Philips EPIQ) and CMR imaging on the same day. Single-beat wide-angle 3D datasets of the left ventricle were acquired. LV mass was quantified using the new automated software (Philips HeartModel) with manual corrections when necessary and using conventional volumetric analysis (TomTec). CMR analysis was performed by manual slice-by-slice tracing of LV endo- and epicardial boundaries. Reproducibility of the ML approach was assessed using repeated measurements and quantified by intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CoV).

Results: Automated LV mass measurements were feasible in 20 patients (87%). The results were similar to CMR-derived values (Bland-Altman bias 5 g, limits of agreement ±37 g) and also to the conventional 3DE analysis (bias 7 g, ±27 g). Processing time was considerably shorter: 1.02 ± 0.24 minutes (CMR: 2.20 ± 0.13 minutes; TomTec: 2.36 ± 0.09 minutes), although manual corrections were performed in most patients. Repeated measurements showed high reproducibility: ICC = 0.99; CoV = 4 ± 5%.

Conclusions: 3D Echocardiography analysis of LV mass using novel ML-based algorithm is feasible, fast, and accurate and may thus facilitate the incorporation of 3DE measurements of LV mass into clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14234DOI Listing
February 2019

Echocardiographic Assessment of the Tricuspid Annulus: The Effects of the Third Dimension and Measurement Methodology.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2019 02 17;32(2):238-247. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Cardiac Imaging Center, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Evaluation of the tricuspid annulus is crucial for the decision making at the time of left heart surgery. Current recommendations for tricuspid valve repair are based on two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), despite the known underestimation compared with three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. However, little is known about the differences in 3D tricuspid annular (TA) sizing using TTE versus transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The aims of this study were to (1) compare 2D and 3D TA measurements performed with both TTE and TEE and (2) compare two 3D methods for TA measurements: multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and dedicated software (DS) designed to take into account TA nonplanarity.

Methods: Seventy patients underwent 2D and 3D TTE and TEE. Two-dimensional images were used to measure TA diameter from apical four-chamber, right ventricular-focused (TTE), and midesophageal four-chamber (TEE) views. Three-dimensional full-volume data sets were analyzed using both MPR and DS, to obtain major and minor axes, perimeter, and area. Intertechnique agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis.

Results: Measurements on 2D TTE and TEE, which were view dependent, underestimated TA major dimensions in all views compared with 3D values, irrespective of the 3D method. MPR and DS measurements were significantly different, with DS resulting in larger values for all parameters, irrespective of approach. No differences were found between 3D TTE and 3D TEE for both MPR and DS.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for methodology that respects the 3D geometry of the tricuspid annulus, including its nonplanarity, which cannot be accurately assessed from 2D images and is not equally taken into account by different 3D measurement methodologies. Accordingly, a 3D cutoff value for TA enlargement needs to be established and is likely to be larger than the guideline-recommended 2D-based 40-mm cutoff. Importantly, noninvasive 3D TTE can be used instead of 3D TEE because TA measurements are not different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2018.09.008DOI Listing
February 2019

Multi-parametric "on board" evaluation of right ventricular function using three-dimensional echocardiography: feasibility and comparison to traditional two-and three dimensional echocardiographic measurements.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Feb 15;35(2):275-284. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Via Parea 4, 20138, Milan, Italy.

Three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) of right ventricle (RV) has been validated in many clinical settings. However, the necessity of complicated and off-line dedicated software has reduced its diffusion. A new simplified "on board" 3DE software (OB) has been developed to obtain RV volumes and ejection fraction (EF) together with several conventional parameters automatically derived from 3DE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), longitudinal strain (LS). Aims of this study were to evaluate feasibility and accuracy of OB RV analysis. A complete 2DE and 3DE with OB 3DRV evaluation was obtained in 35 normal subjects and 105 patients with different pathologies. Results were compared with the conventional off-line software (OFL) and with the 2D-derived corresponding values. A subgroup of 22 patients underwent also cardiac CMR. OB 3DRV was feasible in 133/140 cases (95%) in a mean time of 97.5 ± 33 s lower than OFL analysis (129 ± 52 s plus dataset loading 80 ± 24 s). Imaging quality was good in 84%. OB and OFL 3DE RV volumes and EF were similar. 3DE derived FSA and LS (but not TAPSE) were similar to 2DE values and correlated with tissue Doppler systolic peak velocity, dP/dt, systolic pulmonary pressure and myocardial performance index. OB RV volumes and EF well correlated with CMR. (bias + SD: - 21.5 ± 20 mL for EDV; - 8.2 ± 12.4 mL for ESV; - 1 ± 5.9% for EF). OB 3DE method is feasible, simple, time saving. It easily provides 3DE RV volumes and multiple functional parameters. Off-line operator border adjustment may improve accuracy of 3DE TAPSE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-018-1496-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Machine learning based automated dynamic quantification of left heart chamber volumes.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 May;20(5):541-549

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5758 South Maryland Ave, MC 9067 Room 5513, Chicago, IL, USA.

Aims: Studies have demonstrated the ability of a new automated algorithm for volumetric analysis of 3D echocardiographic (3DE) datasets to provide accurate and reproducible measurements of left ventricular and left atrial (LV, LA) volumes at end-systole and end-diastole. Recently, this methodology was expanded using a machine learning (ML) approach to automatically measure chamber volumes throughout the cardiac cycle, resulting in LV and LA volume-time curves. We aimed to validate ejection and filling parameters obtained from these curves by comparing them to independent well-validated reference techniques.

Methods And Results: We studied 20 patients referred for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations, who underwent 3DE imaging the same day. Volume-time curves were obtained for both LV and LA chambers using the ML algorithm (Philips HeartModel), and independently conventional 3DE volumetric analysis (TomTec), and CMR images (slice-by-slice, frame-by-frame manual tracing). Automatically derived LV and LA volumes and ejection/filling parameters were compared against both reference techniques. Minor manual correction of the automatically detected LV and LA borders was needed in 4/20 and 5/20 cases, respectively. Time required to generate volume-time curves was 35 ± 17 s using ML algorithm, 3.6 ± 0.9 min using conventional 3DE analysis, and 96 ± 14 min using CMR. Volume-time curves obtained by all three techniques were similar in shape and magnitude. In both comparisons, ejection/filling parameters showed no significant inter-technique differences. Bland-Altman analysis confirmed small biases, despite wide limits of agreement.

Conclusion: The automated ML algorithm can quickly measure dynamic LV and LA volumes and accurately analyse ejection/filling parameters. Incorporation of this algorithm into the clinical workflow may increase the utilization of 3DE imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jey137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933871PMC
May 2019

Comprehensive Assessment of Mitral Valve Geometry and Cardiac Remodeling With 3-Dimensional Echocardiography After Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair.

Am J Cardiol 2018 10 4;122(7):1195-1203. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

MitraClip is a validated treatment for significant mitral regurgitation (MR) in high-risk patients. Aims of the study were to evaluate immediate changes in mitral valve (MV) geometry induced by MitraClip and correlations between baseline geometry and cardiac remodeling. Eighty patients who underwent MitraClip for primary (48%) or secondary (52%) MR were enrolled. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic 3D images were acquired immediately before and after the procedure for MV annulus (MVA) morphology analysis. Transthoracic 3D echocardiography was performed preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up (6MFU). Patients were classified on the basis of MR reduction (ΔMR) at 6MFU as Optimal (ΔMR ≥ 2) or Suboptimal (ΔMR < 2). An optimal result was reached in 60 (75%) patients, whereas 20 subjects showed a ΔMR< 2 at 6MFU. The Optimal showed significantly smaller baseline MVA (antero-posterior diameter 4.05 ± 0.59 vs 4.43 ± 0.68 cm; anterolateral-posteromedial diameter 4.38 ± 0.56 vs 4.70 ± 0.73 cm; MVA circumference 14.1 ± 1.7 vs 15.1 ± 2.3 cm; and 3D area 14.8 ± 3.9 vs 17.4 ± 5.3 cm), lower sphericity index and nonplanar angle compared with Suboptimal. A value of antero-posterior diameter ≥4.44cm was identified (receiver-operating characteristic curve) as a possible cut-off for preoperative identification of Suboptimal patients. Postoperatively, MitraClip induced reduction of MVA flattening (nonplanar angle), sphericity index, and size (as expressed by antero-posterior diameter, MVA circumference and area). At 6MFU, the Optimal showed significant decrease in left ventricular volumes and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. In conclusion, MitraClip induces remarkable changes in MVA geometry and favorable left ventricular remodeling is detected in patients with optimal mid-term outcome; a preprocedural antero-posterior diameter <4.44cm seems to be a potential predictor of mid-term optimal result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.06.036DOI Listing
October 2018

Technological Advancements in Echocardiographic Assessment of Thoracic Aortic Dilatation: Head to Head Comparison Among Multidetector Computed Tomography, 2-Dimensional, and 3-Dimensional Echocardiography Measurements.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Jul;33(4):232-239

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE, 3DTTE) versus multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with ascending aortic (AA) dilation.

Materials And Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with AA dilation were evaluated by 2DTTE, X-plane (XP) 3DTTE, and MDCT. Aorta diameters were measured at aortic annulus, aortic root (SIN), sinotubular junction, AA, aortic arch before the prebrachiocephalic artery (PRE), and before left subclavian artery (INTRA). Leading edge-to-leading edge (L-L) and inner-to-inner (I-I) measurements were compared with MDCT data.

Results: Feasibility, quality of imaging, and accuracy was high with all echocardiographic methods. Specifically for MDCT maximum SIN diameter, the best correlation and agreement was obtained using XP maximum diameter at 3DTTE (MDCT: 44.8±7.4 mm vs. XP: 44.4±7.4 mm; r=0.975; bias=-0.4 mm). The same was true for AA maximum diameter at MDCT (MDCT: 46.6±8.1 mm vs. XP: 47.5±8.1 mm; r=0.991; bias=0.1 mm). For aortic arch the best correlation and agreement with MDCT were as follows: 2DTTE L-L diameter for arch PRE (MDCT: 37.9±5.3 mm vs. TTE: 36.6±4.5 mm; r=0.927; bias=-0.9 mm) and MDCT minimum diameter with XP minimum diameter for arch INTRA (MDCT: 28.2±5.0 mm vs. TTE 28.8±4.7 mm; r=0.939; bias=-0.3 mm).

Conclusion: In patients with aortic dilatation or aneurysm, new techniques (mainly 2D-3D probes allowing XP views) facilitate accuracy of aortic measurements at different sites of the vessel and allow standardization of analysis to better compare with MDCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000330DOI Listing
July 2018

The impact of pericardial approach and myocardial protection onto postoperative right ventricle function reduction.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Jun 5;13(1):55. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, University of Milan, Via Parea, 4, 20138, Milan, Italy.

Background: The reduction of RV function after cardiac surgery is a well-known phenomenon. It could persist up-to one year after the operation and often leads to an incomplete recovery at follow-up echocardiographic control. The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of different modalities of pericardial incision (lateral versus anterior) and of myocardial protection protocols (Buckberg versus Custodiol) onto postoperative RV dynamic by relating two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic parameters in patients undergoing mitral valve repair through minimally invasive or traditional surgery approach.

Methods: We have analyzed 44 consecutive patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation who underwent mitral reparation with different surgical approach and cardioplegia type: Group 1 (17 pts): sternotomy with Buckberg cardioplegia protocol; Group 2 (10 pts): sternotomy with Custodiol cardioplegia; Group 3 (17 pts): mini-invasive surgery with Custodiol cardioplegia. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography was performed pre- and 6 months post-surgery to evaluate RV function by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE).

Results: All patients underwent successful and uneventful. A postoperative TAPSE reduction was found in all groups. However, mini-invasive patients experienced a significant reduced variation versus traditional surgery.

Conclusions: Mini-invasive mitral repair, with lateral incision of pericardium, reduces postoperative TAPSE fall, while cardioplegia protocol fails to have an impact onto longitudinal RV function. In our study, the RV seems to experience a clinically irrelevant geometrical modification too, whose entity appears to be less evident in case of lateral pericardial approach. These results could strengthen the use of minimally invasive approach also to preserve RV function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-018-0726-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987597PMC
June 2018

Transthoracic echocardiography in patients undergoing mitral valve repair: comparison of new transthoracic 3D techniques to 2D transoesophageal echocardiography in the localization of mitral valve prolapse.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Jul 26;34(7):1099-1107. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Via Parea 4, 20138, Milan, Italy.

Successful mitral valve (MV) repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) is mainly related to surgical expertise and MV anatomy. Although 2D echocardiography, specifically transoesophageal (TOE), provides precise information regarding MV anatomy, recent advancements in matrix technology meant a decisive step forward to the point where segmental MV analysis can be accurately performed from a noninvasive 3D transthoracic (TTE) approach. The aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the feasibility and time required for real-time 3D TTE in a large consecutive cohort of patients with severe DMR in the assessment of MV anatomy; (b) to compare the accuracy of 3D TTE and 2D TOE versus surgical inspection in the recognition and localization of all components of the MV leaflets; (c) to establish the added diagnostic value of 3D colourDoppler examination to pure 3D morphologic evaluation. 149 consecutive patients with severe DMR underwent complete 3D TTE before surgery and 2D TOE in the operating room. Echocardiographic data obtained by the different techniques were compared with surgical inspection. 3D TTE was feasible in a relatively short time (8 ± 4 min), with good (49%) and optimal (33%) imaging quality in the majority of cases. 3D TTE had significant better overall accuracy compared to 2D TOE (93 and 91%, p < 0.05, respectively). 2D TOE was significantly more specific than 3D TTE in the identification of A3 prolapse (99 vs. 96%). The colourDoppler mode did not improve significantly the accuracy of 3D TTE, albeit it determined a better sensitivity in the detection of A2 prolapse if compared to 2D TOE (95 vs. 85%). 3D TTE with or without colourDoppler is a feasible and useful method in the analysis of MV prolapse; it allows a preoperative and noninvasive description of the pathology as accurate as the 2D TOE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-018-1324-2DOI Listing
July 2018

Feasibility and Accuracy of Automated Software for Transthoracic Three-Dimensional Left Ventricular Volume and Function Analysis: Comparisons with Two-Dimensional Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Manual Method, and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2017 Nov 12;30(11):1049-1058. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: Recently, a new automated software package (HeartModel) was developed to obtain three-dimensional (3D) left ventricular (LV) volumes using a model-based algorithm (MBA) with a "one-button" simple system and user-adjustable slider. The aims of this study were to verify the feasibility and accuracy of the MBA in comparison with other commonly used imaging techniques in a large unselected population, to evaluate possible accuracy improvements of free operator border adjustments or changes of the slider's default position, and to identify differences in method accuracy related to specific pathologies.

Methods: This prospective study included consecutive 200 patients. LV volumes and ejection fraction were obtained using the MBA and compared with the two-dimensional biplane method, the 3D full-volume (3DFV) modality, and, in 90 of 200 cases, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements. To evaluate the optimal position of the slider with respect to the 3DFV and CMR modalities, a set of threefold cross-validation experiments was performed. Optimized and manually corrected LV volumes obtained using the MBA were also tested. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to assess intertechnique agreement.

Results: Automatic volumes were feasible in 194 patients (94.5%), with a mean processing time of 29 ± 10 sec. MBA-derived volumes correlated significantly with all evaluated methods, with slight overestimation of two-dimensional biplane and slight underestimation of CMR measurements. Higher correlations were found between MBA and 3DFV measurements, with negligible differences both in volumes (overestimation) and in LV ejection fraction (underestimation), respectively. Optimization of the user-adjustable slider position improved the correlation and markedly reduced the bias between the MBA and 3DFV or CMR. The accuracy of MBA volumes was lower in some pathologies for incorrect definition of LV endocardium.

Conclusions: The MBA is highly feasible, reproducible, and rapid, and it correlates highly with the traditional 3DFV method. It may represent a valid alternative to 3DFV measurement for everyday clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2017.06.026DOI Listing
November 2017

Postoperative Echocardiographic Reduction of Right Ventricular Function: Is Pericardial Opening Modality the Main Culprit?

Biomed Res Int 2017 14;2017:4808757. Epub 2017 May 14.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Echocardiographic reduction of RV function, measured using TAPSE, is a well described phenomenon after cardiac surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the modality of pericardial opening (lateral versus anterior) and the postoperative right ventricular systolic function by comparing echocardiographic parameters in patients undergoing minimally invasive or traditional mitral valve repair. 34 patients with severe mitral regurgitation due to mitral valve prolapse underwent traditional (sternotomy) operation (Group A) or minimally invasive surgery with right anterolateral thoracotomy (Group B). A postoperative TAPSE fall was found in both groups. Group A experienced a significant postoperative TAPSE fall versus Group B with < 0.0001.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/4808757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5446880PMC
March 2018

Five-year echocardiographic follow-up after TAVI: structural and functional changes of a balloon-expandable prosthetic aortic valve.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 04;19(4):389-397

Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Via Parea 4, 20138 Milan, Italy.

Aims: Scarce data are available on the long-term structural and functional changes of prosthetic valves after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The objective was to evaluate with echocardiography the long-term structural and functional changes of prosthetic valves after TAVI.

Methods And Results: Structural valve deterioration (SVD) was defined as leaflet thickening ≥3mm, presence of calcification and abnormal leaflet motion. Five-year echocardiographic follow-up was available in 96 out of 318 patients who underwent TAVI with a balloon-expandable device between April 2008 and December 2011. At 1-year follow-up, no patient showed SVD. At 5-year follow-up, SVD were observed in 29 (30%) patients who showed also a significant reduction of aortic valve area (AVA) together with an increase of mean and peak aortic pressure gradients at the latest echocardiography evaluation. Moreover, rate of central aortic valve regurgitation ≥2 was higher in SVD patients as compared to those without SVD, while there was no difference in terms of paravalvular regurgitation. Despite SVD, one patient only reached the criteria for severe stenosis and no reintervention was needed at 5-year follow-up. Variables independently associated with SVD were female sex, small body surface area, use of a 23 mm valve, and small AVA at pre-discharge echocardiogram.

Conclusion: At 5-year follow-up, 30% of patients who underwent TAVI with a balloon-expandable valve showed initial SVD. However, SVD was not associated with severe stenosis in most of the patients and had no significant impact on and clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jex046DOI Listing
April 2018

Anatomical Regurgitant Orifice Detection and Quantification from 3-D Echocardiographic Images.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2017 05 16;43(5):1048-1057. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.

The vena contracta and effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) are currently used for the clinical assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) from 2-D color Doppler imaging. In addition to being highly user dependent and having low repeatability, these methods do not represent accurately the anatomic regurgitant orifice (ARO), which affects the adequate assessment of MR patients. We propose a novel method for semi-automatic detection and quantitative assessment of the 3-D ARO shape from 3-D transesophageal echocardiographic images. The algorithm was tested on a set of 25 patients with MR, and compared with EROA for validation. Results indicate the robustness of the proposed approach, with low variability in relation to different settings of user-defined segmentation parameters. Although EROA and ARO exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.8), relatively large biases were measured, indicating that EROA probably underestimates the real shape and size of the regurgitant orifice. Along with the higher reproducibility of the proposed approach, this highlights the limitations of current clinical approaches and underlines the importance of accurate assessment of the ARO shape for diagnosis and treatment in MR patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2016.12.017DOI Listing
May 2017

Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Comprehensive Evaluation of Right and Left Heart Chamber Remodeling Following Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2016 10 5;29(10):946-954. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: Percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) is an alternative treatment in patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR) who are denied surgery. Although in surgical patients, outcomes have been related both to acute hemodynamic favorable results and to positive cardiac remodeling in the midterm, in the case of PMVR the effect on cardiac chamber remodeling has never been extensively studied. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the short- and mid-term remodeling induced by PMVR on cardiac chamber volume using two- and three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging and (2) to assess changes in left ventricular (LV) shape on the basis of 3D TTE data.

Methods: Patients undergoing PMVR were prospectively enrolled. Two-dimensional and 3D TTE data sets acquired at baseline, and at 30 days and 6 months after PMVR were analyzed to assess LV and right ventricular (RV) volumes and ejection fraction and left atrial and right atrial volumes. Moreover, 3D endocardial surfaces were extracted to compute 3D shape indexes of LV sphericity and conicity at end-diastole and end-systole.

Results: Six of the 64 enrolled patients did not reach follow-up and were excluded. The analysis was feasible in all 58 patients considered (26 with functional MR and 32 [55%] with degenerative MR). PMVR resulted in significant reduction of MR and in favorable remodeling: (1) effective PMVR was mainly associated with decreased LV loading, (2) PMVR-related reverse remodeling was observed in patients with degenerative MR and those with functional MR at 30 days and continued at 6-month follow-up, (3) favorable remodeling in LV shape from abnormally spherical to more normal conical took place in both groups after PMVR, and (4) RV volumes and systolic function were preserved after PMVR.

Conclusions: A comprehensive two-dimensional and 3D TTE analysis allows investigation from a double perspective (volume and morphology) of the entity and modality of changes following PMVR. In high-risk patients undergoing PMVR, postprocedural heart remodeling involves all cardiac chambers, occurs in the short term, and further improves at midterm follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2016.06.009DOI Listing
October 2016

Detailed Transthoracic and Transesophageal Echocardiographic Analysis of Mitral Leaflets in Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Repair.

Am J Cardiol 2016 07 22;118(1):113-20. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Centro Cardiologico Monzino Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan, Italy.

A recent histological study of resected scallop-P2 in mitral valve (MV) prolapse, showed that chordae tendinae may be missing or hidden in superimposed fibrous tissue of the leaflets, contributing to their thickening. This may have relevant clinical implication because detailed analysis of MV leaflets has a central role in the evaluation of patients undergoing repair. The aim of this study was to analyze MV leaflets focusing on thickness of prolapsing segments and the presence of chordal rupture (CR). We enrolled 246 patients (age 63 ± 13 years, 72 men) with isolated P2 prolapse and also 50 age-matched patients with normal MV anatomy as control group. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were retrospectively analyzed to quantify the length and the proximal and distal thickness of both anterior (A2) and posterior (P2) MV scallops. Measurements were performed at end diastole in the standard TTE and TEE views. TTE and TEE measurements were feasible in all cases. Echocardiographically 176 patients had CR (group A), 45 had no rupture (group B), and 25 had an uncertain diagnosis (group C). All pathological groups showed thickening and elongation of involved leaflets versus normal, whereas no differences in leaflets characteristics were found among MV groups. Most patients undergoing MV repair had CR with thickening of the prolapsed segment. These findings are in agreement with recent histological studies showing superimposed fibrous tissue on MV leaflets partially including ruptured chordae. This may also explain that in cases without ruptured chordae, thickness of the leaflets is markedly increased (hidden chordae?). In conclusion, detailed analysis of MV apparatus may further improve knowledge of these patients and may influence surgical timing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.04.020DOI Listing
July 2016

Segmentation of the left ventricular endocardium from magnetic resonance images by using different statistical shape models.

J Electrocardiol 2016 May-Jun;49(3):383-91. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.

We evaluate in this paper different strategies for the construction of a statistical shape model (SSM) of the left ventricle (LV) to be used for segmentation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images. From a large database of LV surfaces obtained throughout the cardiac cycle from 3D echocardiographic (3DE) LV images, different LV shape models were built by varying the considered phase in the cardiac cycle and the registration procedure employed for surface alignment. Principal component analysis was computed to describe the statistical variability of the SSMs, which were then deformed by applying an active shape model (ASM) approach to segment the LV endocardium in CMR images of 45 patients. Segmentation performance was evaluated by comparing LV volumes derived by ASM segmentation with different SSMs and those obtained by manual tracing, considered as a reference. A high correlation (r(2)>0.92) was found in all cases, with better results when using the SSM models comprising more than one frame of the cardiac cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.03.017DOI Listing
November 2017

Right heart chamber geometry and tricuspid annulus morphology in patients undergoing mitral valve repair with and without tricuspid valve annuloplasty.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2016 Jun 28;32(6):885-94. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Via Parea 4, 20138, Milan, Italy.

According to current recommendations, patients could benefit from tricuspid valve (TV) annuloplasty at the time mitral valve (MV) surgery if tricuspid regurgitation is severe or if tricuspid annulus (TA) dilatation is present. Therefore, an accurate pre-operative echocardiographic study is mandatory for left but also for right cardiac structures. Aims of this study are to assess right atrial (RA), right ventricular (RV) and TA geometry and function in patients undergoing MV repair without or with TV annuloplasty. We studied 103 patients undergoing MV surgery without (G1: 54 cases) or with (G2: 49 cases) concomitant TV annuloplasty and 40 healthy subjects (NL) as controls. RA, RV and TA were evaluated by three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography. Comparing the pathological to the NL group, TA parameters and 3D right chamber volumes were significantly larger. RA and RV ejection fraction and TA% reduction were lower in pathological versus NL, and in G2 versus G1. In pathological patients, TA area positively correlated to systolic pulmonary pressure and negatively with RV and RA ejection fraction. Patients undergoing MV surgery and TV annuloplasty had an increased TA dimensions and a more advanced remodeling of right heart chambers probably reflecting an advanced stage of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-016-0846-8DOI Listing
June 2016

Sustained favourable haemodynamics 1 year after TAVI: improvement in NYHA functional class related to improvement of left ventricular diastolic function.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2016 Nov 20;17(11):1269-1278. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Via Parea 4, 20138 Milan, Italy.

Aims: Despite expected improvement in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the complex relationship between pre-existent LV systolic and diastolic function and changes in LV haemodynamics and clinical symptoms have been scarcely investigated. This study investigated the presence of pre-operative LV diastolic dysfunction and its improvement over time after TAVI alongside improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis.

Methods And Results: The study population (n = 358) was divided into two groups according to baseline LV ejection fraction (LVEF): LVEF < 50% (n = 96) and LVEF ≥ 50% (n = 262). We compared clinical and echocardiographic parameters between groups before TAVI, at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Grade III LV diastolic dysfunction was more frequent in patients with LVEF < 50% compared with patients with LVEF ≥ 50% (50.0 vs. 16.3%, P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic echocardiographic parameters improved after TAVI together with improvement in NYHA class both in patients with LVEF < 50% (diastolic dysfunction grade ≥2: baseline 100% of patients; 12 months 58.8%, P < 0.001; NYHA III/IV: baseline, 93.8%; 12 months, 9.7%, P < 0.001) and with LVEF ≥ 50% (diastolic dysfunction grade ≥2: baseline, 87.1%; 12 months, 61.2%; NYHA III/IV: baseline, 74.5%; 12 months, 2.6%, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality was comparable between groups.

Conclusion: TAVI exerts favourable effects on LV systolic and diastolic function with a remarkable improvement in LV diastolic function associated with improvement in NYHA functional class at follow-up. Prognosis at 1 year after TAVI was not influenced by baseline LV diastolic dysfunction both in patients with and without LV systolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jev306DOI Listing
November 2016

Incidence and severity of atherosclerotic cardiovascular artery disease in patients undergoing TAVI.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015 Jun 25;31(5):975-85. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy,

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has extended the treatment options for severe, symptomatic aortic valve stenosis (AS). Risk factors for AS have been shown to be similar to atherosclerosis. Consequently, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular and carotid artery diseases are often found concurrently with diagnostic, procedural and prognostic implications. This study sought to describe comprehensive vascular assessment in terms of prevalence, severity and correlations in TAVI candidates. A total of 323 patients (81 ± 6 years) undergoing TAVI were enrolled. Vascular pathologies were evaluated by invasive coronary angiography, computer-tomography (abdominal aorta, renal, iliac and femoral arteries), echo-color Doppler ultrasound (carotid artery), and transoesophageal echocardiography (thoracic aorta). CAD was found in 173 (54%) patients, of which 65 (38%) had 1-vessel, 45 (26%) 2-vessel and 59 (34%) 3-vessel disease. Carotid artery disease was present in 33.6% patients, of which 23.6% unilateral and 10.0% bilateral. Iliac, femoral and renal stenosis were found in 29.2%, 22.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. Cardiovascular risk factor and gender correlated with CAD. CAD patients presented more frequently with significant stenosis (luminal narrowing ≥ 50%) of at least one other district. Multi-districts significant stenosis stratified patients on long-term survival and the coexistence of 3-districts involvement with CAD negatively impacts on mortality. Multimodality imaging assessment shows that coronary, carotid, and peripheral artery disease are often found concurrently in patients undergoing TAVI. Several risk factors and gender correlate with the presence and severity of CAD and peripheral pathologies. Long-term mortality is increased in patients with a more compromised vascular situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-015-0651-9DOI Listing
June 2015