Publications by authors named "Gloria R Gogola"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dexterity of the Less Affected Hand in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy.

Hand (N Y) 2021 Feb 19:1558944721990803. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Shriners Hospitals for Children, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: To determine if the "unaffected" hand in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) is truly unaffected.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of manual dexterity as measured by the Functional Dexterity Test (FDT) in 66 children (39 boys, 27 girls, mean age: 11 years 4 months) with hemiplegic CP. Data were stratified by Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level, birth weight, and gestational age at birth, and compared with previously published normative values.

Results: The FDT speed of the less affected hand is significantly lower than typically developing (TD) children ( < .001). The development of dexterity is significantly lower than TD children (0.009 vs. 0.036 pegs/s/year, < .001), with a deficit that increases with age. MACS score, birth weight, and age at gestation are not predictors of dexterity. The dexterity of the less affected hand is poorly correlated with that of the more affected hand.

Conclusions: Both dexterity and rate of fine motor skill acquisition in the less affected hand of children with hemiplegic CP is significantly less than that of TD children. The less affected hand should be evaluated and included in comprehensive treatment plans for these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944721990803DOI Listing
February 2021

Persistence of bacterial DNA in orthopedic infections.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Jun 2;91(2):136-140. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been proposed as a method to identify bacteria in clinical samples because it is more sensitive than culture techniques and can produce results rapidly. However, PCR can detect DNA from dead cells and thus cannot distinguish between live and dead cells in a tissue sample. Killed Staphylococcus aureus cells were implanted into the femurs and knee joints of rats to determine the length of time that DNA from dead cells is detectable in a living animal under conditions similar to common orthopedic infections. In the joint infection model studied here, the DNA from the dead planktonic bacteria was detected using PCR immediately after injection or 24 h later, but was undetectable 48 and 72 h after injection. In the biofilm implanted-device model studied, the DNA from these dead biofilm cells was detected by PCR immediately after implantation and at 24 h, but not at 48 or 72 h. Thus, our results indicate that DNA from dead cells does not persist in these animal model systems for more than 2 days, which should reduce concerns about possible false positive results using molecular DNA-based techniques for the detection of pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.01.009DOI Listing
June 2018

Validity and reliability of the Functional Dexterity Test in children.

J Hand Ther 2017 Oct - Dec;30(4):500-506. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Study Design: Clinical measurement study.

Introduction: The Functional Dexterity Test (FDT) has not been validated in children.

Purpose Of The Study: To determine reliability and validity of the FDT in a pediatric population.

Methods: Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were used to calculate interrater and test-retest reliability in typically developing children. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare FDT speed with the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT) and with 2 activities of daily living tasks to establish validity in children with congenital hand differences.

Results: The FDT demonstrated excellent interrater (ICC, 0.99) and test-retest (ICC, 0.90) reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients exceeded 0.67 for JHFT subsets of fine dexterity and were all less than 0.66 for JHFT subsets of gross grasp. Correlations with the activities of daily living tasks were good to excellent. FDT speeds in TD children exceeded those of children with congenital hand differences (P < .001), demonstrating discriminant validity.

Discussion: Children with congenital hand differences are often treated early in life, making it important to reliably assess hand function of these young children to distinguish developmental change from changes due to interventions. The FDT can reliably measure functional progress over time, help clinicians monitor the efficacy of treatment, and provide families realistic feedback on their child's progress.

Conclusion: The FDT is a valid and reliable instrument for the measurement of fine motor dexterity in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2016.08.002DOI Listing
July 2018

Contribution of tactile dysfunction to manual motor dysfunction in type II diabetes.

Muscle Nerve 2016 11 17;54(5):895-902. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, 3875 Holman Street, Garrison 104N, Houston, Texas, 77204, USA.

Introduction: Changes in sensory and motor functions of the hand in type II diabetes (T2D) patients have been reported; there is speculation that these changes are driven by tactile dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tactile feedback on manual function in T2D patients.

Methods: T2D patients and healthy controls underwent median nerve blocks at the wrist and elbow. All participants underwent traditional timed motor evaluations, force dynamometry, laboratory-based kinetic evaluations, and sensory evaluation.

Results: Tactile sensation in the T2D group at baseline was found to be equivalent to tactile function of the control group after median nerve block. Traditional timed evaluation results were negatively impacted by anesthesia, but more sensitive kinetic measures were not impacted.

Conclusions: These data suggest that mechanisms outside of tactile dysfunction play a significant role in motor dysfunction in T2D. Muscle Nerve 54: 895-902, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.25137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645679PMC
November 2016

Three-Dimensional Printing of Prosthetic Hands for Children.

J Hand Surg Am 2016 May 10;41(5):e103-9. Epub 2016 Mar 10.

Shriners Hospitals for Children, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Children with hand reductions, whether congenital or traumatic, have unique prosthetic needs. They present a challenge because of their continually changing size due to physical growth as well as changing needs due to psychosocial development. Conventional prosthetics are becoming more technologically advanced and increasingly complex. Although these are welcome advances for adults, the concomitant increases in weight, moving parts, and cost are not beneficial for children. Pediatric prosthetic needs may be better met with simpler solutions. Three-dimensional printing can be used to fabricate rugged, light-weight, easily replaceable, and very low cost assistive hands for children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.02.008DOI Listing
May 2016

Innovative evaluation of dexterity in pediatrics.

J Hand Ther 2015 Apr-Jun;28(2):144-9; quiz 150. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

University of Southern California, Biomedical Engineering Department and Division of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy, 3710 S. McClintock, RTH 402, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

Study Design: Review paper.

Introduction: Hand dexterity is multifaceted and essential to the performance of daily tasks. Timed performance and precision demands are the most common features of quantitative dexterity testing. Measurement concepts such as rate of completion, in-hand manipulation and dynamic force control of instabilities are being integrated into assessment tools for the pediatric population.

Purpose: To review measurement concepts inherent in pediatric dexterity testing and introduce concepts that are infrequently measured or novel as exemplified with two assessment tools.

Methods: Measurement concepts included in common assessment tools are introduced first. We then describe seldom measured and novel concepts embedded in two instruments; the Functional Dexterity Test (FDT) and the Strength-Dexterity (SD) Test.

Discussion: The inclusion of novel yet informative tools and measurement concepts in our assessments could aid our understanding of atypical dexterity, and potentially contribute to the design of targeted therapy programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2015.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4424153PMC
February 2016

Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy.

J Hand Ther 2015 Apr-Jun;28(2):176-83; quiz 184. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Shriners Hospitals for Children, Philadelphia, 3551 N. Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Shoulder joint deformities continue to be a challenging aspect of treating upper plexus lesions in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP). It is increasingly recognized that PBPP affects the glenohumeral joint specifically, and that abnormal scapulothoracic movements are a compensatory development. The pathophysiology and assessment of glenohumeral joint contractures, the progression of scapular dyskinesia and skeletal dysplasia, and current shoulder imaging techniques are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2014.12.001DOI Listing
February 2016

Evaluation of antibiotic-impregnated microspheres for the prevention of implant-associated orthopaedic infections.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014 Jan;96(2):128-34

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251.

Background: Prevention of infection associated with uncemented orthopaedic implants could lead to improved implant stability and better patient outcomes. We hypothesized that coating porous metal implants with antibiotic-containing microspheres would prevent infections in grossly contaminated wounds.

Methods: Bioresorbable polymer microspheres containing tobramycin were manufactured and pressed into porous metal cylinders that were then implanted into radial defects in rabbits. Control implants that did not contain antibiotic microspheres were also implanted into the contralateral limbs. Each implant was then contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus prior to closure of the wound. The animal was euthanized after clinical signs of infection appeared, or at two weeks after surgery. Periprosthetic tissue was cultured for the presence of S. aureus, and integration of the implant with the surrounding bone was measured.

Results: The antibiotic microspheres successfully prevented infection in 100% of the eleven limbs with treated implants, which represented a significant improvement (p = 0.004) compared with the infection rate of 64% (seven of eleven) for the limbs with control implants. Implant integration averaged 38.87% ± 12.69% in the fifteen uninfected limbs, which was significantly better (p = 0.012) than the average of 19.46% ± 14.49% in the seven infected limbs.

Conclusions: The antibiotic delivery system successfully prevented infection in 100% of the cases studied, resulting in an increase in implant integration.

Clinical Relevance: Antibiotic delivery utilizing the system described here may be effective in preventing implant-associated infections after orthopaedic surgery and increasing the longevity of orthopaedic implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.L.01750DOI Listing
January 2014

Hand dexterity in children: administration and normative values of the functional dexterity test.

J Hand Surg Am 2013 Dec 1;38(12):2426-31. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Shriners Hospitals for Children, Houston Hand Therapy, and the University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX; the Department of Statistical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To document normative values from the Functional Dexterity Test (FTD) for typically developing children and to optimize test administration and interpretation.

Methods: A total of 175 typically developing children aged 3 to 17 years participated in the study. Children completed the 16-peg FDT with both hands, and elapsed time was recorded in seconds. Data were analyzed as 16/time, interpreted as speed (pegs per second). A linear regression analysis predicted speed from age and hand dominance.

Results: Functional Dexterity Test speed increased linearly in typically developing children by 0.04 pegs/s for each year of age. This rate of increase was the same for dominant and nondominant hands. Dominant hands were faster than nondominant hands by 0.09 pegs/s at all ages. There was no sex difference.

Conclusions: This study provides age-specific normative values for functional dexterity in typically developing children in 2 formats: as a growth chart of FDT speed versus age and as a regression model that calculates expected speed given a child's age and tested hand dominance. Recommended pediatric modifications to the FDT are to use speed (pegs per second) instead of time (seconds) to report results, and to not assess penalties. The norms presented allow clinicians to compare both speed and rate of change over time of pediatric patients with typically developing children, which makes it possible to distinguish developmental change from intervention.

Type Of Study/level Of Evidence: Diagnostic III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.08.123DOI Listing
December 2013

Mutations in ECEL1 cause distal arthrogryposis type 5D.

Am J Hum Genet 2013 Jan 20;92(1):150-6. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Distal arthrogryposis (DA) syndromes are the most common of the heritable congenital-contracture disorders, and ~50% of cases are caused by mutations in genes that encode contractile proteins of skeletal myofibers. DA type 5D (DA5D) is a rare, autosomal-recessive DA previously defined by us and is characterized by congenital contractures of the hands and feet, along with distinctive facial features, including ptosis. We used linkage analysis and whole-genome sequencing of a multiplex consanguineous family to identify in endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1) mutations that result in DA5D. Evaluation of a total of seven families affected by DA5D revealed in five families ECEL1 mutations that explain ~70% of cases overall. ECEL1 encodes a neuronal endopeptidase and is expressed in the brain and peripheral nerves. Mice deficient in Ecel1 exhibit perturbed terminal branching of motor neurons to the endplate of skeletal muscles, resulting in poor formation of the neuromuscular junction. Our results distinguish a second developmental pathway that causes congenital-contracture syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.11.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3542461PMC
January 2013

Peg Restrained Intrinsic Muscle Evaluator (PRIME): development, reliability, and normative values of a device to quantify intrinsic hand muscle strength in children.

J Hand Surg Am 2011 May 1;36(5):894-903. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: There is a need for objective measures of pediatric intrinsic hand muscle strength as the current standard, the manual muscle test, lacks sensitivity to clinically important changes in muscle strength. We report the development, reliability, and normative values of the Peg Restrained Intrinsic Muscle Evaluator (PRIME), a device that quantifies intrinsic hand muscle strength.

Methods: Typically developing children, ages 4 to 16 years (n = 119), established normative values of intrinsic strength for thumb palmar abduction, thumb opposition, and index and small finger abduction. A subset of 30 children (15 boys, 15 girls), ages 7 to 16 years, determined inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. We calculated mean, standard deviation, intraclass correlation coefficients, and smallest detectable differences.

Results: Normative results indicate that gender and age were significant predictors of strength. Although the dominant hand generated higher strength measurements on average, differences were not statistically significant. Mean index and small finger abduction strength was significantly lower than thumb abduction and opposition in both genders. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.85 to 0.94 for inter-rater reliability and 0.88 to 0.98 for intra-rater reliability. Bland-Altman plots showed an even distribution across the zero line.

Conclusions: The PRIME device is a reliable tool for the quantification of intrinsic hand muscle strength in children. Age-specific and gender-specific normative values in typically developing children can serve as a future resource for clinicians treating pediatric hand or neuromuscular conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.01.006DOI Listing
May 2011

Use of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument to evaluate functional outcomes in arthrogryposis.

J Pediatr Orthop 2011 Apr-May;31(3):293-6

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is a subjective measurement tool designed to provide a standardized method of assessing outcomes in pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. It has earlier been shown to be useful in several pediatric musculoskeletal conditions, but there is currently no widely accepted subjective outcome measurement tool for children with arthrogryposis.

Methods: The PODCI was administered to parents of 74 children diagnosed with amyoplasia. The score distributions were compared with values published earlier for children without musculoskeletal disorders. For those patients with repeated PODCI administrations over time, the initial score was compared with the most recent score. Comparisons were made using the Student t test.

Results: PODCI scores in children with amyoplasia were significantly lower than those for typically developing children in all 6 domains. The scores were also more normally distributed than those for typically developing children in all 6 domains. Over an average follow-up period of approximately 3 years, children with amyoplasia had a statistically significant increase in scores for upper extremity function, sports participation, and global functioning.

Conclusions: These results show that the PODCI is useful in evaluating functional outcomes of children with amyoplasia, and is sensitive to change in function over time. The PODCI shows promise as a tool to evaluate long-term outcomes of surgical management in amyoplasia.

Level Of Evidence: Diagnostic Study, Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0b013e31820cad93DOI Listing
July 2011

Long head of the triceps muscle transfer for active elbow flexion in arthrogryposis.

Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg 2010 Jun;14(2):121-4

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Arthrogryposis is a condition characterized by symmetric, nonprogressive joint contractures and weak or absent musculature that is present at birth. The amyoplasia form is the most common, and in this group, the elbow is frequently involved, typically in an extension contracture bilaterally. Active elbow flexion is weak or absent, but active extension is spared. This elbow dysfunction poses a significant disability for affected children. Sensation and cognitive development is normal in children with arthrogryposis, and as a group they demonstrate a remarkable degree of adaptability to their deformities. The goal of any treatment is to facilitate the child's functional independence. This article describes the surgical technique of transfer of the long head of the triceps into the proximal ulna to provide active elbow flexion in children with arthrogryposis. The goal of the procedure is to reliably achieve antigravity active flexion while preserving active extension. It has the advantages of technical simplicity and minimal donor site morbidity. By adding this procedure to the existing options for treating this challenging condition, a surgeon is better able to tailor intervention to an individual child's strength and available donor muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BTH.0b013e3181da07aaDOI Listing
June 2010

Pediatric humeral condyle fractures.

Authors:
Gloria R Gogola

Hand Clin 2006 Feb;22(1):77-85

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Condylar and epicondylar fractures differ from other pediatric upper extremity fractures because of the anatomy and ossification of the distal humerus. These fractures are prone to nonunion,and initial deformities do not remodel well. Radiographic diagnosis and severity are difficult to determine, and adjunct studies, particularly arthrography and MRI, often are needed. The correlation of an intact cartilaginous hinge and subsequent fracture stability has helped identify fractures at risk for displacement and nonunion,prompting closer follow-up or more aggressive initial treatment. Although many humeral condylar fractures can be treated successfully with cast immobilization, operative treatment often is warranted. Specific treatment recommendations continue to evolve. The general trend is toward treating more fractures and nonunions with surgical fixation while using less invasive techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hcl.2005.09.003DOI Listing
February 2006

Effective treatment of osteomyelitis with biodegradable microspheres in a rabbit model.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004 Apr(421):293-9

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Biodegradable microspheres were manufactured from a high molecular weight copolymer of 50% lactic and 50% glycolic acid and the antibiotic tobramycin. It was hypothesized that the microspheres would be more effective than polymethylmethacrylate beads in the local delivery of tobramycin and that the microspheres would not inhibit bone healing. Osteomyelitis was established in 40 New Zealand White rabbits using Staphylococcus aureus. All animals had irrigation and debridement of the infected radii four weeks after inoculation and were divided into five treatment groups: debridement alone, microspheres alone, microspheres containing tobramycin plus parenteral treatment with cefazolin, polymethylmethacrylate beads containing tobramycin plus parenteral cefazolin, and parenteral cefazolin. All animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks of treatment. The group treated with microspheres plus parenteral antibiotics was the only group to have a significantly higher percentage of animals without bacteria after 4 weeks of treatment when compared with the control group. Additionally, the animals treated with microspheres had a higher degree of bone healing in the defect than the animals treated with bone cement. The most effective treatment was biodegradable microspheres combined with parenteral antibiotic in this rabbit osteomyelitis model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000126303.41711.a2DOI Listing
April 2004

Antibiotic microspheres: preliminary testing for potential treatment of osteomyelitis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003 Oct(415):279-85

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Osteomyelitis is a difficult problem for orthopaedic surgeons. The current standard of treatment requires high doses of antibiotic to be administered parenterally, which can damage vital organs. A local drug delivery system, which targets only the infected tissues, would eliminate some of the complications associated with extended courses of parenteral antibiotic treatment. In the current study, biodegradable microspheres were manufactured from a high molecular weight copolymer of 50% lactic and 50% glycolic acid and the antibiotic tobramycin. Various formulations of microspheres were tested for in vitro elution characteristics to determine the optimum formulation for linear release of antibiotic for at least 4 weeks. The optimal formulation then was implanted into a pouch created in the quadriceps muscle of mice to evaluate the in vivo elution of the antibiotic and the inflammatory response elicited by the microspheres. Results indicate that a sustained linear release of antibiotic from the microspheres is possible for a period of at least 4 weeks and that the inflammatory response was within levels required for the microspheres to be considered biocompatible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000093920.26658.aeDOI Listing
October 2003
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