Publications by authors named "Glen Otto"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Decreased systemic IGF-1 in response to calorie restriction modulates murine tumor cell growth, nuclear factor-κB activation, and inflammation-related gene expression.

Mol Carcinog 2013 Dec 6;52(12):997-1006. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.

Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity and has potent anticancer effects associated with altered hormones and cytokines. We tested the hypothesis that CR inhibits MC38 mouse colon tumor cell growth through modulation of hormone-stimulated nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and protumorigenic gene expression. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomized (n = 30/group) to receive control diet or 30% CR diet. At 20 wk, 15 mice/group were killed for body composition analysis. At 21 wk, serum was obtained for hormone analysis. At 22 wk, mice were injected with MC38 cells; tumor growth was monitored for 24 d. Gene expression in excised tumors and MC38 cells was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. In vitro MC38 NF-κB activation (by p65 ELISA and immunofluorescence) were measured in response to varying IGF-1 concentrations (1-400 ng/mL). Relative to controls, CR mice had decreased tumor volume, body weight, body fat, serum IGF-1, serum leptin, and serum insulin, and increased serum adiponectin (P < 0.05, each). Tumors from CR mice, versus controls, had downregulated inflammation- and/or cancer-related gene expression, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2, S100A9, and F4/80, and upregulated 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression. In MC38 cells in vitro, IGF-1 increased NF-κB activation and NF-κB downstream gene expression (P < 0.05, each). We conclude that CR, in association with reduced systemic IGF-1, modulates MC38 tumor growth, NF-κB activation, and inflammation-related gene expression. Thus, IGF-1 and/or NF-κB inhibition may pharmacologically mimic the anticancer effects of CR to break the obesity-colon cancer link.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.21940DOI Listing
December 2013

The enhancing effects of obesity on mammary tumor growth and Akt/mTOR pathway activation persist after weight loss and are reversed by RAD001.

Mol Carcinog 2013 Jun 30;52(6):446-58. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, remains high in US women. Activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a key role in the obesity-breast cancer link. However, the impact of weight normalization in obese postmenopausal women on breast tumorigenesis and/or Akt/mTOR activation is poorly characterized. To model this, ovariectomized female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (n = 20), a calorie restriction (CR) regimen (n = 20), or a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet (n = 30). At week 17, DIO mice were switched to control diet, resulting in formerly obese (FOb) mice with weights identical to the controls by week 20. MMTV-Wnt-1 mammary tumor cells were injected at 20 wk into each mouse. Two weeks post-injection, vehicle or the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 at 10 or 15 mg/kg body weight (n = 10/diet group) was administered by gavage twice/week until termination. Relative to controls, CR mice had decreased (and DIO mice had increased) serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR pathway components. RAD001 decreased tumor growth in the CR, control, and FOb mice. Wnt-1 tumor cells treated in vitro with serum from mice from each group established that diet-dependent circulating factors contribute to tumor growth and invasiveness. These findings suggest weight normalization in obese mice does not immediately reverse tumor progression or Akt/mTOR activation. Treatment with RAD001 blocked mammary tumor development and mTOR activation observed in the FOb mice, suggesting combination of lifestyle and pharmacologic strategies may be effective for breaking the obesity-breast cancer link.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.21878DOI Listing
June 2013

Rapamycin partially mimics the anticancer effects of calorie restriction in a murine model of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011 Jul 18;4(7):1041-51. Epub 2011 May 18.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas, USA.

Etiologic factors for pancreatic cancer, the 4th deadliest malignant neoplasm in the United States, include obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism. Calorie restriction (CR) and rapamycin each affect energy metabolism and cell survival pathways via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. By using a Panc02 murine pancreatic cancer cell transplant model in 45 male C57BL/6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that rapamycin mimics the effects of CR on pancreatic tumor growth. A chronic regimen of CR, relative to an ad libitum-fed control diet, produced global metabolic effects such as reduced body weight (20.6 ± 1.6 g vs. 29.3 ± 2.3 g; P < 0.0001), improved glucose responsiveness, and decreased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 (126 ± 8 ng/mL vs. 199 ± 11 ng/mL; P = 0.0006) and leptin (1.14 ± 0.2 ng/mL vs. 5.05 ± 1.2 ng/mL; P = 0.01). In contrast, rapamycin treatment (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal every other day, initiated in mice following 20 weeks of ad libitum control diet consumption), relative to control diet, produced no significant change in body weight, IGF-1 or leptin levels, but decreased glucose responsiveness. Pancreatic tumor volume was significantly reduced in the CR group (221 ± 107 mm(3); P < 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, the rapamycin group (374 ± 206 mm(3); P = 0.04) relative to controls (550 ± 147 mm(3)), and this differential inhibition correlated with expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. Both CR and rapamycin decreased phosphorylation of mTOR, p70/S6K, and S6 ribosomal protein, but only CR decreased phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, extracellular signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase, and STAT3(TYR705). These findings suggest that rapamycin partially mimics the anticancer effects of CR on tumor growth in a murine model of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131470PMC
July 2011

A bistable switch and anatomical site control Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression in the intestine.

PLoS Pathog 2010 Sep 16;6(9):e1001102. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

A fundamental, but unanswered question in host-pathogen interactions is the timing, localization and population distribution of virulence gene expression during infection. Here, microarray and in situ single cell expression methods were used to study Vibrio cholerae growth and virulence gene expression during infection of the rabbit ligated ileal loop model of cholera. Genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT) were powerfully expressed early in the infectious process in bacteria adjacent to epithelial surfaces. Increased growth was found to co-localize with virulence gene expression. Significant heterogeneity in the expression of tcpA, the repeating subunit of TCP, was observed late in the infectious process. The expression of tcpA, studied in single cells in a homogeneous medium, demonstrated unimodal induction of tcpA after addition of bicarbonate, a chemical inducer of virulence gene expression. Striking bifurcation of the population occurred during entry into stationary phase: one subpopulation continued to express tcpA, whereas the expression declined in the other subpopulation. ctxA, encoding the A subunit of CT, and toxT, encoding the proximal master regulator of virulence gene expression also exhibited the bifurcation phenotype. The bifurcation phenotype was found to be reversible, epigenetic and to persist after removal of bicarbonate, features consistent with bistable switches. The bistable switch requires the positive-feedback circuit controlling ToxT expression and formation of the CRP-cAMP complex during entry into stationary phase. Key features of this bistable switch also were demonstrated in vivo, where striking heterogeneity in tcpA expression was observed in luminal fluid in later stages of the infection. When this fluid was diluted into artificial seawater, bacterial aggregates continued to express tcpA for prolonged periods of time. The bistable control of virulence gene expression points to a mechanism that could generate a subpopulation of V. cholerae that continues to produce TCP and CT in the rice water stools of cholera patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2940755PMC
September 2010

RpoS controls the Vibrio cholerae mucosal escape response.

PLoS Pathog 2006 Oct;2(10):e109

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Vibrio cholerae causes a severe diarrhoeal disease by secreting a toxin during colonization of the epithelium in the small intestine. Whereas the initial steps of the infectious process have been intensively studied, the last phases have received little attention. Confocal microscopy of V. cholerae O1-infected rabbit ileal loops captured a distinctive stage in the infectious process: 12 h post-inoculation, bacteria detach from the epithelial surface and move into the fluid-filled lumen. Designated the "mucosal escape response," this phenomenon requires RpoS, the stationary phase alternative sigma factor. Quantitative in vivo localization assays corroborated the rpoS phenotype and showed that it also requires HapR. Expression profiling of bacteria isolated from ileal loop fluid and mucus demonstrated a significant RpoS-dependent upregulation of many chemotaxis and motility genes coincident with the emigration of bacteria from the epithelial surface. In stationary phase cultures, RpoS was also required for upregulation of chemotaxis and motility genes, for production of flagella, and for movement of bacteria across low nutrient swarm plates. The hapR mutant produced near-normal numbers of flagellated cells, but was significantly less motile than the wild-type parent. During in vitro growth under virulence-inducing conditions, the rpoS mutant produced 10- to 100-fold more cholera toxin than the wild-type parent. Although the rpoS mutant caused only a small over-expression of the genes encoding cholera toxin in the ileal loop, it resulted in a 30% increase in fluid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Together, these results show that the mucosal escape response is orchestrated by an RpoS-dependent genetic program that activates chemotaxis and motility functions. This may furthermore coincide with reduced virulence gene expression, thus preparing the organism for the next stage in its life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.0020109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617127PMC
October 2006

Listeria monocytogenes invades the epithelial junctions at sites of cell extrusion.

PLoS Pathog 2006 Jan 27;2(1):e3. Epub 2006 Jan 27.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Listeria monocytogenes causes invasive disease by crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier. This process depends on the interaction between the bacterial surface protein Internalin A and the host protein E-cadherin, located below the epithelial tight junctions at the lateral cell-to-cell contacts. We used polarized MDCK cells as a model epithelium to determine how L. monocytogenes breaches the tight junctions to gain access to this basolateral receptor protein. We determined that L. monocytogenes does not actively disrupt the tight junctions, but finds E-cadherin at a morphologically distinct subset of intercellular junctions. We identified these sites as naturally occurring regions where single senescent cells are expelled and detached from the epithelium by extrusion. The surrounding cells reorganize to form a multicellular junction that maintains epithelial continuity. We found that E-cadherin is transiently exposed to the lumenal surface at multicellular junctions during and after cell extrusion, and that L. monocytogenes takes advantage of junctional remodeling to adhere to and subsequently invade the epithelium. In intact epithelial monolayers, an anti-E-cadherin antibody specifically decorates multicellular junctions and blocks L. monocytogenes adhesion. Furthermore, an L. monocytogenes mutant in the Internalin A gene is completely deficient in attachment to the epithelial apical surface and is unable to invade. We hypothesized that L. monocytogenes utilizes analogous extrusion sites for epithelial invasion in vivo. By infecting rabbit ileal loops, we found that the junctions at the cell extrusion zone of villus tips are the specific target for L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion. Thus, L. monocytogenes exploits the dynamic nature of epithelial renewal and junctional remodeling to breach the intestinal barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.0020003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1354196PMC
January 2006

Magnetic resonance imaging and surgical repair of cleft palate in a four-week-old canine (Canis familiaris): an animal model for cleft palate repair.

Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 2004 Nov;43(6):17-21; quiz 58

Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Successful cleft palate repair (palatoplasty) was accomplished in a male canine pup from a kindred with autosomal recessive transmission for a complete cleft palate phenotype. This case represents the potential application of a new animal model for cleft palate repair. This reproducible congenital defect provides a clinically relevant model to improve research into the human anomaly, as compared with previous iatrogenic or teratogenically induced animal models. This case report presents the basis for new repair techniques and for studying the genetic basis of the cleft palate defect.
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November 2004

Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in a conditioned colony of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques.

Comp Med 2004 Oct;54(5):578-84

Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

We describe a tuberculosis outbreak caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a conditioned colony of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Animals in five rooms were exposed, but most (16/27) infections were confined to the room that housed a mixed population of cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. In this room, rhesus (8/8) and cynomolgus (10/11) macaques naturally exposed to M. bovis were infected at nearly identical rates (Fisher exact test, 2-tailed P = 1). The clinical signs of disease and pathologic lesions in infected macaques, however, were moderately different between the two species. Rhesus macaques were more likely (5/8) to exhibit clinical signs of persistent coughing and inappetance, and had more severe pulmonary lesions. By contrast, clinical signs of disease were seen in only 1 of 19 cynomolgus macaques, and overall, the pulmonary lesions were often focal and less severe, although some still had severe involvement of the lungs similar to that seen in rhesus macaques. These differences should be taken into consideration when developing or evaluating a tuberculosis-screening program. On the basis of observations made during this outbreak, we recommend that alternative screening methods such as the PRIMAGAM test and the ESAT-6 ELISA, be incorporated into the screening program to aid in the identification of infected animals.
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October 2004

pH-regulated gene expression of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

Infect Immun 2003 Jun;71(6):3529-39

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine, California 94305, USA.

Colonization by the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been shown to be intricately linked to the development of gastritis, ulcers, and gastric malignancy. Little is known about mechanisms employed by the bacterium that help it adapt to the hostile environment of the human stomach. In an effort to extend our knowledge of these mechanisms, we utilized spotted-DNA microarrays to characterize the response of H. pylori to low pH. Expression of approximately 7% of the bacterial genome was reproducibly altered by shift to low pH. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes led to the discovery that acid exposure leads to profound changes in motility of H. pylori, as a larger percentage of acid-exposed bacterial cells displayed motility and moved at significantly higher speeds. In contrast to previous publications, we found that expression of the bacterial virulence gene cagA was strongly repressed by acid exposure. Furthermore, this transcriptional repression was reflected at the level of protein accumulation in the H. pylori cell.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC155744PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/iai.71.6.3529-3539.2003DOI Listing
June 2003

Use of molecular methods for genetic monitoring of an institutional mouse breeding colony.

Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 2002 Jul;41(4):23-9

Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA.

It is important to perform genetic quality control on inbred mouse strains to minimize variability of genetic backgrounds. We used sensitive molecular methods to examine the genetic integrity of inbred mouse substrains maintained at an academic institution. Our goal, in part, was to compare the different molecular genetic monitoring methods to determine which were most sensitive, efficient, and beneficial in our genetic monitoring program. We examined the sensitivity and efficiency of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) analysis of microsatellites and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of minisatellites with commercial, human, and synthetic mouse minisatellite probes. Although no polymorphisms were detected with the microsatellite analysis, certain minisatellite probes detected a small degree of polymorphism between our mouse substrains and the commercially available strains used as controls. Minisatellite probes also detected intra-substrain variation within our colonies; this variation probably represents mutations in highly unstable loci rather than genetic variation. Our analysis indicated that the genetic integrity of in-house C57BL/Ka, BALB/cKa, and C3H/Km inbred substrains had remained intact over 35 generations. Genetic monitoring by RFLP minisatellite analysis was more sensitive and efficient in detecting substrain differences than was SSLP microsatellite analysis. On the basis of these results, we established a strategy for future analysis of the in-house breeding colony.
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July 2002

Use of microisolator caging in a risk-based mouse import and quarantine program: a retrospective study.

Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 2002 Jan;41(1):20-7

Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5410, USA.

The expanding use of genetically engineered mice has placed increasing demands upon research facilities to import mutant strains from noncommercial sources. Conventional quarantine strategies use relatively large amounts of space per animal and/or require specialized equipment (e.g., cubicles, isolators, and ventilated racks). We have retrospectively assessed a quarantine program instituted 4 years ago that used a small amount of space and minimized the need for special equipment. Shipments presumed, in light of health reports, to be free of agents excluded from our colonies were housed in static microisolator caging in a shared quarantine room. Rather than functioning as an "all-in-all-out" area, the room continually received new shipments, which were released intermittently as multi-shipment groups after testing was performed. Noninvasive testing of the imported mice was combined with nonsurvival sampling of sentinels that had been exposed to shipped animals via direct contact and/or exposure to soiled bedding. During the 4-year period examined, the vast majority of shipments presumed to be free of excluded agents showed no evidence of contamination when screened. When active infection was detected in the shared room, the procedures in place proved sufficient to prevent cross-contamination of other shipments. The use of sentinel animals to detect the shedding of infectious agents during quarantine was found to be an effective strategy that minimized the potential impact of invasive testing on quarantined animals. Although the program we describe is not appropriate for all situations, this type of approach may be considered by institutions wishing to explore alternatives to conventional quarantine strategies during periods of restricted space availability.
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January 2002