Publications by authors named "Glen E Bodner"

43 Publications

Neural correlates of the production effect: An fMRI study.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 12;152:105757. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Psychology, St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address:

Recognition memory is improved for items produced at study (e.g., by reading them aloud) relative to a non-produced control condition (e.g., silent reading). This production effect is typically attributed to the extra elements in the production task (e.g., motor activation, auditory perception) enhancing item distinctiveness. To evaluate this claim, the present study examined the neural mechanisms underlying the production effect. Prior to a recognition memory test, different words within a study list were read either aloud, silently, or while saying "check" (as a sensorimotor control condition). Production improved recognition, and aloud words yielded higher rates of both recollection and familiarity judgments than either silent or control words. During encoding, fMRI revealed stronger activation in regions associated with motor, somatosensory, and auditory processing for aloud items than for either silent or control items. These activations were predictive of recollective success for aloud items at test. Together, our findings are compatible with a distinctiveness-based account of the production effect, while also pointing to the possible role of other processing differences during the aloud trials as compared to silent and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2021.105757DOI Listing
June 2021

Reducing False Recognition in the Deese-Roediger/McDermott Paradigm: Related Lures Reveal How Distinctive Encoding Improves Encoding and Monitoring Processes.

Front Psychol 2020 20;11:602347. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

School of Psychology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States.

In the Deese-Roediger/McDermott (DRM) paradigm, distinctive encoding of list items typically reduces false recognition of critical lures relative to a read-only control. This reduction can be due to enhanced item-specific processing, reduced relational processing, and/or increased test-based monitoring. However, it is unclear whether distinctive encoding reduces false recognition in a selective or global manner. To examine this question, participants studied DRM lists using a distinctive item-specific anagram generation task and then completed a recognition test which included both DRM critical lures and either strongly related lures (Experiment 1) or weakly related lures (Experiment 2). Compared to a read-control group, the generate groups showed increased correct recognition and decreased false recognition of all lure types. We then estimated the separate contributions of encoding and retrieval processes using signal-detection indices. Generation improved correct recognition by both increasing encoding of memory information for list words and by increasing memory monitoring at test. Generation reduced false recognition by reducing the encoding of memory information and by increasing memory monitoring at test. The reduction in false recognition was equivalent for critical lures and related lures, indicating that generation globally reduces the encoding of related non-presented items at study (not just critical lures), while globally increasing list-theme-based monitoring at test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.602347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714777PMC
November 2020

Comparing recollection and nonrecollection memory states for recall of general knowledge: A nontrivial pursuit.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2020 Nov 13;46(11):2207-2225. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

College of Education, Psychology and Social Work.

Based on the classic distinction between semantic and episodic memory, people answer general-knowledge questions by querying their semantic memory. And yet, an appeal of trivia games is the variety of memory experiences they arouse-including the recollection of episodic details. We report the first in-depth exploration of the memory states that arise for recalled answers to general-knowledge questions. In 2 experiments, participants classified their answers as or forms of recollection, as or forms of nonrecollection, or as a guess. A recollection state was reported for nearly half of the correct answers. Learning memory, related memory, and just know states showed similarly high accuracy and confidence-whereas the feels familiar state was much lower. The differences between familiarity and knowing highlight the importance of distinguishing these oft-conflated states. Our study establishes that episodic memory often contributes to retrieval of general-knowledge, and that the memory states arising during retrieval can be diagnostic of accuracy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000941DOI Listing
November 2020

Improving the Reporting of Young Children's Food Intake: Insights from a Cognitive Interviewing Study with Mothers of 3-7-Year Old Children.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 2;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.

Short food questions (SFQ) allow for rapid reporting of food intake across a variety of settings but are limited by poor validity and reliability. Understanding the recall process used by parents to report children's food intake can improve question design and psychometric performance. This study aimed to improve understanding of how parents report children's dietary intake using SFQ. Semi-structured, cognitive interviews were conducted with 21 mothers of 3-7-year-old children. Mothers were asked to 'think-aloud' while answering SFQ about their child's food intake. Thematic analysis identified themes relating to parent's question and answer process and barriers to recall. Information retrieval strategies focused on 'use-of-time' and 'sphere of food provision' and differed for core versus unhealthy foods. Recall of routine and home food provision were used to report core food intake, whereas recall of special occasions and food provision outside the home guided recall of discretionary foods. Mothers utilize different recall strategies for core and discretionary foods based on use of time and the sphere of food provision. The ease of reporting children's dietary intake may be improved by utilizing a shorter recall time frame, clear and direct question wording, and use of food examples and recall prompts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352554PMC
June 2020

Pure-list production improves item recognition and sometimes also improves source memory.

Mem Cognit 2020 10;48(7):1281-1294

Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Relative to reading silently, reading words aloud (a type of "production") typically enhances item recognition, even when production is manipulated between groups using pure lists. We investigated whether pure-list production also enhances memory for various item details (i.e., source memory). Screen side (Experiment 1), font size (Experiment 2), or reading versus generating from anagrams (Experiments 3-4) were the sources varied within-subject, and aloud versus silent reading was varied across groups. Thus, the manipulation of source was apparent to participants, whereas the manipulation of production was not. Traditional measures and multinomial modeling established that the aloud groups generally showed improved item recognition-and showed improved source memory when steps were taken to enhance the salience of the source manipulation (Experiment 4). In summary, reading an entire list of items improves item recognition and can also improve memory for some types of source details.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-020-01044-2DOI Listing
October 2020

The integrative memory model is detailed, but skimps on false memories and development.

Behav Brain Sci 2020 01 3;42:e284. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey, BCV3W 2MB, Canada.

The integrative memory model combines five core memory systems with an attributional system. We agree with Bastin et al. that this melding is the most novel aspect of the model. But we await further evidence that the model's substantial complexity informs our understanding of false memories or of the development of recollection and familiarity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X19001870DOI Listing
January 2020

Protective effects of testing across misinformation formats in the household scene paradigm.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2020 Mar 21;73(3):425-441. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

School of Psychology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

Many studies have demonstrated retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES), in which taking an initial recall test after witnessing an event increases suggestibility to subsequent misinformation introduced via a narrative. Recently, however, initial testing has been found to have a protective effect against misinformation introduced via cued-recall questions. We examined whether misinformation format (narrative vs. cued-recall questions) yields a similar dissociation in a paradigm that, to date, has consistently yielded a protective effect of testing (PET). After studying photos of household scenes (e.g., kitchen), some participants took an initial recall test. After a 48-hr delay, items not presented in the scenes (e.g., knives/plates) were suggested either via narrative or questions. Regardless of the misinformation format, we found a PET on both initial-test-conditionalised free recall and source-monitoring tests. However, initial testing also yielded memory costs, such that suggested items reported on the initial test were likely to persist on a final recall test. Thus, initial testing can protect against suggestibility, but can also precipitate memory errors when intrusions emerge on an initial test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747021819881948DOI Listing
March 2020

Distinctive encoding of a subset of DRM lists yields not only benefits, but also costs and spillovers.

Psychol Res 2021 Feb 28;85(1):280-290. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

School of Psychology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, 39406, USA.

Prior research has emphasized that performing distinctive encoding on a subset of lists in the DRM paradigm suppresses false recognition; we show that its benefits can be mitigated by costs and spillover effects. Within groups read half the DRM lists and solved anagrams for the other half using a strategy that emphasized either item-specific or relational processing. Their recognition was compared to three pure-list control groups (read, item-specific generation, relational generation). Correct recognition in the within groups showed a benefit for generate items and a cost for read items, resulting in little net improvement relative to pure reading. False recognition in the within groups was reduced following item-specific vs. relational generation, but there was again little net improvement. Most surprisingly, false recognition in the within groups was greater for generate than read lists. This pattern suggests that relational processing of read lists spilled over to generate lists, boosting false recognition for generate lists. Distinctive encoding of a subset of items does not appear to globally improve memory accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01241-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Registered Reports.

Can J Exp Psychol 2019 Mar;73(1):3-4

Department of Psychology, McGill University.

The invites Registered Reports. This new submission category is designed to provide researchers with a route to investigate controversial topics and address issues of replication and reproducibility. The framework for the journal is consistent with the purpose and principles set out by the Center for Open Science (2019). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000169DOI Listing
March 2019

Independent recollection-familiarity ratings: Similar effects of levels-of-processing whether amount or confidence is rated.

Can J Exp Psychol 2019 Jun 25;73(2):94-99. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University.

Independent recollection-familiarity (RF) ratings are sometimes collected to measure subjective experiences of recollection and familiarity during recognition. Although the RF ratings task purports to measure the degree to which each recognition state is experienced, the rating scale has been worded in terms of confidence rather than amount. Given prior evidence that wording influences recognition and remember/know judgments, we compared RF rating scales worded in terms of amount versus confidence across 2 groups. A robust levels-of-processing effect occurred on both recollection and familiarity ratings, and its magnitude was similar across scale wording. Scale wording did not influence recognition, and, most importantly, it had little influence on ratings of recollection and familiarity. These findings suggest that participants may use confidence to rate amount, or vice versa. Regardless, researchers should align their task instructions and scale wording, and should publish them. Such alignment and transparency is crucial for interpreting measures of the memory states that arise during recognition memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000161DOI Listing
June 2019

Independent recollection/familiarity ratings can dissociate: Evidence from the effects of test context on recognition of event details.

Can J Exp Psychol 2019 Jun 25;73(2):100-104. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University.

Bodner and Richardson-Champion (2007) found a dissociative effect of test context on binary remember/know judgments about a critical set of details from a film sequence. Details of medium difficulty were more likely to be judged "recollected" when preceded by a set of difficult details than a set of easy details, but were similarly likely to be judged "familiar." Using the same paradigm, we replicated this dissociation when participants independently rated recollection and familiarity. Our finding represents the first evidence that independent recollection/familiarity ratings can be dissociated. In contrast, previous studies using independent ratings have yielded parallel effects of variables that produce dissociative effects with binary judgments. Our discussion considers potential causes of this dissociation, whether test context influenced discrimination or response bias, and implications for interpreting subjective recognition experiences. Demonstrations that test context can affect recollection reports also have implications for designing and conducting eyewitness interviews. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000159DOI Listing
June 2019

Item-specific and relational processing both improve recall accuracy in the DRM paradigm.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2019 Jun 1;72(6):1493-1506. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

2 College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University, Adelaide SA, Australia.

Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, Huff and Bodner found that both item-specific and relational variants of a task improved correct recognition, but only the item-specific variants reduced false recognition, relative to a read-control condition. Here, we examined the outcome pattern when memory was tested using free recall, using the same item-specific versus relational task variants across three experiments as our previous study (processing instructions, pleasantness ratings, anagram generation). The outcome pattern in recall was similar to recognition, except relational processing at study actually reduced the DRM illusion, though not as much as item-specific processing. To reconcile this task difference, we suggest that the memory information laid down during relational encoding enhances the familiarity of the critical items at test. To the extent that familiarity is used less as a basis for responding in free recall than in recognition, relational processing ironically reduces rather than increases the DRM illusion in recall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747021818801427DOI Listing
June 2019

Prediction of beauty and liking ratings for abstract and representational paintings using subjective and objective measures.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(7):e0200431. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Recent research on aesthetics has challenged the adage that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder" by identifying several factors that predict ratings of beauty. However, this research has emerged in a piecemeal fashion. Most studies have examined only a few predictors of beauty, and measured either subjective or objective predictors, but not both. Whether the predictors of ratings of beauty versus liking differ has not been tested, nor has whether predictors differ for major distinctions in art, such as abstract vs. representational paintings. Finally, past studies have either relied on experimenter-generated stimuli-which likely yield pallid aesthetic experiences-or on a curation of high-quality art-thereby restricting the range of predictor scores. We report a study (N = 598) that measured 4 subjective and 11 objective predictors of both beauty ratings and liking ratings, for 240 abstract and 240 representational paintings that varied widely in beauty. A crossover pattern occurred in the ratings, such that for abstract paintings liking ratings were higher than beauty ratings, whereas for representational paintings beauty ratings were higher than liking ratings. Prediction was much better for our subjective than objective predictors, and much better for our representational than abstract paintings. For abstract paintings, liking ratings were much more predictable than beauty ratings. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200431PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034882PMC
January 2019

Inducing preference reversals in aesthetic choices for paintings: Introducing the contrast paradigm.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(4):e0196246. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Psychology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

Understanding what leads people to reverse their choices is important in many domains. We introduce a contrast paradigm for studying reversals in choices-here between pairs of abstract paintings-implemented in both within-subject (Experiment 1; N = 320) and between-subject (Experiment 2; N = 384) designs. On each trial, participants chose between a pair of paintings. A critical pair of average-beauty paintings was presented before and after either a reversal or control block. In the reversal block, we made efforts to bias preference away from the chosen average-beauty painting (by pairing it with more-beautiful paintings) and toward the non-chosen average-beauty painting (by pairing it with less-beautiful paintings). Meta-analysis revealed more reversals after reversal blocks than after control blocks, though only when the biasing manipulations succeeded. A second meta-analysis revealed that reversals were generally more likely for participants who later misidentified their initial choice, demonstrating that memory for initial choices influences later choices. Thus, the contrast paradigm has utility both for inducing choice reversals and identifying their causes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196246PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5908093PMC
August 2018

Getting at the source of distinctive encoding effects in the DRM paradigm: evidence from signal-detection measures and source judgments.

Memory 2017 05 8;25(5):647-655. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

d Department of Psychological Sciences , Kent State University , Kent , OH , USA.

Studying Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists using a distinctive encoding task can reduce the DRM false memory illusion. Reductions for both distinctively encoded lists and non-distinctively encoded lists in a within-group design have been ascribed to use of a distinctiveness heuristic by which participants monitor their memories at test for distinctive-task details. Alternatively, participants might simply set a more conservative response criterion, which would be exceeded by distinctive list items more often than all other test items, including the critical non-studied items. To evaluate these alternatives, we compared a within-group who studied 5 lists by reading, 5 by anagram generation, and 5 by imagery, relative to a control group who studied all 15 lists by reading. Generation and imagery improved recognition accuracy by impairing relational encoding, but the within group did not show greater memory monitoring at test relative to the read control group. Critically, the within group's pattern of list-based source judgments provided new evidence that participants successfully monitored for distinctive-task details at test. Thus, source judgments revealed evidence of qualitative, recollection-based monitoring in the within group, to which our quantitative signal-detection measure of monitoring was blind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2016.1205094DOI Listing
May 2017

Evaluating the basis of the between-group production effect in recognition.

Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):186-94

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary.

Reading a list of words aloud can improve recognition over silently reading them. This between-groups production effect (PE) cannot be due to relative distinctiveness because each group studies only 1 type of item. We tested 2 other possibilities. By a strategy account, a pure-aloud group might benefit from use of a production-based distinctiveness strategy at test (e.g., "Did I say this word aloud?"). By a strength account, aloud items may simply be more strongly encoded than silent items. To evaluate these accounts, we tested whether a between-group PE occurs when participants experience a salient within-group manipulation of font size, generation, or imagery at study. The answer was yes, except when imagery was the within-group task. This pattern, and aspects of participants' strategy reports, fit well with a strategy account if it is assumed that the imagery task led participants to abandon a production-based strategy. However, many of our findings were also compatible with an evaluated strength account if it is assumed that the imagery task led participants to abandon evaluating memory strength. In conjunction with recent findings, we suggest that multiple processes may contribute to the PE, and the relevant subset in play will differ as a function of study design, study task, and memory test. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000083DOI Listing
June 2016

The production effect in long-list recall: In no particular order?

Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):165-76

Department of Psychology, Western University.

The production effect reflects a memory advantage for words read aloud versus silently. We investigated how production influences free recall of a single long list of words. In each of 4 experiments, a production effect occurred in a mixed-list group but not across pure-list groups. When compared to the pure-list groups, the mixed-list effects typically reflected a cost to silent words rather than a benefit to aloud words. This cost persisted when participants had to perform a generation or imagery task for the silent items, ruling out a lazy reading explanation. This recall pattern challenges both distinctiveness and strength accounts, but is consistent with an item-order account. By this account, the aloud words in a mixed list disrupt the encoding of item-order information for the silent words, thus impairing silent word recall. However, item-order measures and a forced-choice order test did not provide much evidence that recall was guided by retrieval of item-order information. We discuss our pattern of results in light of another recent study of the effects of production on long-list recall. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000086DOI Listing
June 2016

The production effect in recognition memory: Weakening strength can strengthen distinctiveness.

Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):93-8

Department of Psychology, Kwantlen Polytechnic University.

Producing items (e.g., by saying them aloud or typing them) can improve recognition memory. To evaluate whether production increases item distinctiveness and/or memory strength we compared this effect as a function of the percentage of items that participants typed at encoding (i.e., 0%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%). Experiment 1 revealed a strength-based pattern: The production effect was similar across pure-list (i.e., 0% vs. 100%) and mixed-list (i.e., 20%, 50%, 80%) designs, and there was no observed influence of statistical distinctiveness (i.e., 20% vs. 80%). In Experiment 2, we increased the study time for unproduced items to minimise the strength difference between produced and unproduced items. The manipulation attenuated the pure-list effect without eliminating the mixed-list effect, providing support for the inference that the mixed-list effect reflects distinctiveness. An influence of statistical distinctiveness also emerged: The mixed-list effect was larger when participants produced only 20%, rather than 80%, of the items. These findings suggest that both strength and distinctiveness contribute to the production effect in recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000082DOI Listing
June 2016

The benefits of studying by production . . . And of studying production: Introduction to the special issue on the production effect in memory.

Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):89-92

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo.

The production effect refers to enhanced memory for materials that were produced at study (e.g., those read aloud) relative to materials that were not produced (e.g., those read silently). The effect has generated a wave of interest since being named in 2010 (MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko, 2010)-likely because of the simplicity of production tasks and of the substantial memory improvements that they can yield. This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology brings together 10 new studies on the production effect in memory. Our introduction provides an expanded definition of the effect along with some examples to help orient readers. The present studies contribute to our understanding of the production effect and to memory more broadly. Just as important, they also raise new questions and provide a honed set of methodological tools that will help to guide further research and theorizing about memory. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000094DOI Listing
June 2016

Reducing the Misinformation Effect Through Initial Testing: Take Two Tests and Recall Me in the Morning?

Appl Cogn Psychol 2016 Jan-Feb;30(1):61-69. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Initial retrieval of an event can reduce people's susceptibility to misinformation. We explored whether protective effects of initial testing could be obtained on final free recall and source-monitoring tests. After studying six household scenes (e.g., a bathroom), participants attempted to recall items from the scenes zero, one, or two times. Immediately or after a 48-hour delay, non-presented items (e.g., soap and toothbrush) were exposed zero, one, or four times through a social contagion manipulation in which participants reviewed sets of recall tests ostensibly provided by other participants. A protective effect of testing emerged on a final free recall test following the delay and on a final source-memory test regardless of delay. Taking two initial tests did not increase these protective effects. Determining whether initial testing will have protective (versus harmful) effects on memory has important practical implications for interviewing eyewitnesses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.3167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776340PMC
September 2015

Fluency can bias masked priming of binary judgments: evidence from an all-nonword task.

Can J Exp Psychol 2015 Jun 16;69(2):200-5. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

University of Victoria.

Using a novel all-nonword task ("Does the target have more vowels than consonants?"), new evidence is provided showing that processing fluency can bias masked priming of binary judgments. Two experiments revealed masked repetition priming for "yes" nonwords (e.g., NUISO) but not for "no" nonwords (e.g., RULON). This pattern is considered evidence that the greater ease of target processing induced by repetition primes was attributed to the target being a member of the response category associated with shorter RTs, namely the "yes" response category. This pattern of nonword priming effects reinforces Bodner and Masson's (1997) key claims: (a) a fluency-attribution process can influence masked priming, and (b) therefore, the masked-priming paradigm does not isolate lexical processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000047DOI Listing
June 2015

Effects of context on recollection and familiarity experiences are task dependent.

Conscious Cogn 2015 May 24;33:78-89. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Flinders University, Australia.

The influence of test context on reports of recollection and familiarity depends on how these subjective recognition experiences are conceptualized and measured. Bodner and Lindsay (2003) found that critical items elicited more remember judgments but fewer know judgments in a less (vs. more) memorable context. In contrast, Tousignant and Bodner (2012) found that independent ratings of recollection and familiarity were both higher in a less memorable context. We replicated the dissociative pattern with judgments using recollect/familiar labels (Experiment 1), and in a novel R/F/B task that added a "both" option to eliminate the mutual exclusivity between the recollect and familiar options (Experiment 2). Adding a "guess" option eliminated these context effects (Experiment 3), however whether allowing guesses "cleans up" or "desensitizes" recollection and familiarity judgments remains unclear. Determining which task variants provide appropriate measures of subjective recognition experiences will require an examination of additional dissociations and triangulation with other measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.11.011DOI Listing
May 2015

Masked response priming across three prime proportions: a comparison of three accounts.

Percept Mot Skills 2014 Aug;119(1):59-68

1 University of Calgary.

Unconscious priming is sensitive to contextual factors. The present study examined this adaptive process using masked arrow primes (<< or >>). Some targets required specific "fixed" left/right responses (<< or >>) and others required "free" left/right responses (<>). Different groups (n = 30 each) received response-congruent primes (SOA = 75 msec.) on 0.2, 0.5, or 0.8 of the fixed-response trials. Fixed responses were facilitated by congruent primes and free responses were faster when congruent with the prime. Critically, these masked priming effects emerged only in the 0.8 group. The pattern of extant prime-proportion effects in this paradigm best supports an adaptive associative-strength account rather than memory-recruitment or response-bias-suppression accounts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/22.23.PMS.119c18z0DOI Listing
August 2014

All varieties of encoding variability are not created equal: Separating variable processing from variable tasks.

J Mem Lang 2014 May;73:43-58

University of Calgary.

Whether encoding variability facilitates memory is shown to depend on whether item-specific and relational processing are both performed across study blocks, and whether study items are weakly versus strongly related. Variable-processing groups studied a word list once using an item-specific task and once using a relational task. Variable-task groups' two different study tasks recruited the same type of processing each block. Repeated-task groups performed the same study task each block. Recall and recognition were greatest in the variable-processing group, but only with weakly related lists. A variable-processing benefit was also found when task-based processing and list-type processing were complementary (e.g., item-specific processing of a related list) rather than redundant (e.g., relational processing of a related list). That performing both item-specific and relational processing across trials, or within a trial, yields encoding-variability benefits may help reconcile decades of contradictory findings in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2014.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4088266PMC
May 2014

Effects of distinctive encoding on correct and false memory: a meta-analytic review of costs and benefits and their origins in the DRM paradigm.

Psychon Bull Rev 2015 Apr;22(2):349-65

Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA,

We review and meta-analyze how distinctive encoding alters encoding and retrieval processes and, thus, affects correct and false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Reductions in false recognition following distinctive encoding (e.g., generation), relative to a nondistinctive read-only control condition, reflected both impoverished relational encoding and use of a retrieval-based distinctiveness heuristic. Additional analyses evaluated the costs and benefits of distinctive encoding in within-subjects designs relative to between-group designs. Correct recognition was design independent, but in a within design, distinctive encoding was less effective at reducing false recognition for distinctively encoded lists but more effective for nondistinctively encoded lists. Thus, distinctive encoding is not entirely "cost free" in a within design. In addition to delineating the conditions that modulate the effects of distinctive encoding on recognition accuracy, we discuss the utility of using signal detection indices of memory information and memory monitoring at test to separate encoding and retrieval processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-014-0648-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4305508PMC
April 2015

Assessing the costs and benefits of production in recognition.

Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Feb;21(1):149-54

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada,

The production effect is a memory advantage for items studied aloud over items studied silently. Although it typically is found within subjects, here we also obtained it between subjects in a recognition task-providing new evidence that production can be an effective study strategy. Our experiment, and a set of meta-analyses, also evaluated whether the within effect reflects costs to silent items and/or benefits to aloud items. Contrary to a strong distinctiveness account, we found little evidence that aloud items show an additional within-subjects benefit. Instead, silent items suffered an additional within-subjects cost. Blocking silent and aloud items eliminated this cost, suggesting that the cost was due to mixing silent and aloud items. Our discussion focuses on implications for distinctiveness and strength accounts of the production effect and on how to implement production as an encoding strategy depending on the learner's goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0485-1DOI Listing
February 2014

When does memory monitoring succeed versus fail? Comparing item-specific and relational encoding in the DRM paradigm.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2013 Jul 28;39(4):1246-56. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Canada.

We compared the effects of item-specific versus relational encoding on recognition memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In Experiment 1, we directly compared item-specific and relational encoding instructions, whereas in Experiments 2 and 3 we biased pleasantness and generation tasks, respectively, toward one or the other type of processing. A read condition was tested in each experiment for comparison purposes. Across experiments, item-specific and relational encoding both boosted correct recognition relative to reading, but only item-specific encoding typically reduced false recognition. Signal-detection measures revealed that less information was encoded about critical items after item-specific than after relational encoding. In contrast, item-specific and relational encoding led to equivalent increases in strategic monitoring at test (e.g., use of a distinctiveness heuristic). Thus, monitoring at test was less successful after relational than item-specific encoding because more information had been encoded about critical lures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031338DOI Listing
July 2013

Reassessing the basis of the production effect in memory.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2012 Nov 7;38(6):1711-9. Epub 2012 May 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

The production effect refers to a memory advantage for items studied aloud over items studied silently. Ozubko and MacLeod (2010) used a list-discrimination task to support a distinctiveness account of the production effect over a strength account. We report new findings in this task--including negative production effects--that better fit with an attributional account of this task. According to the attributional account, list judgments are influenced by recognition memory, knowledge of the composition of the 2 lists, and a bias to attribute non-recognized items to the 1st list. Using a recognition task to eliminate these attributional influences revealed production effects consistent with either a distinctiveness or strength account. In our discussion, we consider whether the absence of production effects on implicit-memory tests and in between-group designs provides unequivocal support for a distinctiveness account over a strength account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028466DOI Listing
November 2012

Test context affects recollection and familiarity ratings: implications for measuring recognition experiences.

Conscious Cogn 2012 Jun 5;21(2):994-1000. Epub 2012 Feb 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

The binary remember/know task requires participants to dichotomize their subjective recognition experiences into those with recollection and those only with familiarity. Many variables have produced dissociative effects on remember/know judgments. In contrast, having participants make independent recollection/familiarity ratings has consistently produced parallel effects, suggesting the dissociations may be artifacts of using binary judgments. Bodner and Lindsay (2003) reported a test-list context effect with binary judgments: Increased remembering but decreased knowing for a set of critical items tested with a set of less-memorable (vs. more-memorable) items. Here we report a parallel effect of test-list context on recollection and familiarity ratings, induced by a shift in response bias. We argue that independent ratings are preferable to binary judgments because they allow participants to directly report the co-occurrence of recollection and familiarity for each item. Implications for the measurement of self-reported recognition experiences, and for accounts of recognition memory, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2012.01.009DOI Listing
June 2012

Wiping out memories: New support for a mental context change account of directed forgetting.

Memory 2010 Oct;18(7):763-73

University of Calgary, Canada.

Costs and benefits of directed forgetting are observed when a between-list instruction to forget List 1 impairs List 1 recall while enhancing List 2 recall. These effects are often ascribed to intentional inhibition of List 1. Contrary to this inhibition account, we found that a forget instruction did not produce costs unless an explicit instruction to concentrate on List 2 was used (Experiment 1). Alternatively, costs may be ascribed to a shift in mental context between encoding and retrieval. Consistent with this mental context-change account, an unexpected task (wiping the computer screen and one's hands) produced costs comparable to a forget instruction, as did as a brief chat between lists (Experiment 2). A number-search task between lists produced neither costs nor benefits (Experiment 3), suggesting that mere distraction is insufficient for inducing mental context change. Our findings support the claim that mental context change underlies both intentional and unintentional forgetting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2010.510475DOI Listing
October 2010