Publications by authors named "Gladys Montenegro"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mutations in the ER-shaping protein reticulon 2 cause the axon-degenerative disorder hereditary spastic paraplegia type 12.

J Clin Invest 2012 Feb 9;122(2):538-44. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative conditions. They are characterized by progressive spastic paralysis of the legs as a result of selective, length-dependent degeneration of the axons of the corticospinal tract. Mutations in 3 genes encoding proteins that work together to shape the ER into sheets and tubules - receptor accessory protein 1 (REEP1), atlastin-1 (ATL1), and spastin (SPAST) - have been found to underlie many cases of HSP in Northern Europe and North America. Applying Sanger and exome sequencing, we have now identified 3 mutations in reticulon 2 (RTN2), which encodes a member of the reticulon family of prototypic ER-shaping proteins, in families with spastic paraplegia 12 (SPG12). These autosomal dominant mutations included a complete deletion of RTN2 and a frameshift mutation predicted to produce a highly truncated protein. Wild-type reticulon 2, but not the truncated protein potentially encoded by the frameshift allele, localized to the ER. RTN2 interacted with spastin, and this interaction required a hydrophobic region in spastin that is involved in ER localization and that is predicted to form a curvature-inducing/sensing hairpin loop domain. Our results directly implicate a reticulon protein in axonopathy, show that this protein participates in a network of interactions among HSP proteins involved in ER shaping, and further support the hypothesis that abnormal ER morphogenesis is a pathogenic mechanism in HSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI60560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266795PMC
February 2012

Mutation screening of mitofusin 2 in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2.

J Neurol 2011 Jul 22;258(7):1234-9. Epub 2011 Jan 22.

Department of Human Genetics, John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Biomedical Research Building, Room 523, LC: M-860, 1501 NW 10th Avenue, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is among the most common inherited neurological disorders. Mutations in the gene mitofusin 2 (MFN2) cause the axonal subtype CMT2A, which has also been shown to be associated with optic atrophy, clinical signs of first motor neuron involvement, and early onset stroke. Mutations in MFN2 account for up to 20-30% of all axonal CMT type 2 cases. To further investigate the prevalence of MFN2 mutations and to add to the genotypic spectrum, we sequenced all exons of MFN2 in a cohort of 39 CMT2 patients. We identified seven variants, four of which are novel. One previously described change was co-inherited with a PMP22 duplication, which itself causes the demyelinating form CMT1A. Another mutation was a novel in frame deletion, which is a rare occurrence in the genotypic spectrum of MFN2 characterized mainly by missense mutations. Our results confirm a MFN2 mutation rate of ~15-20% in CMT2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-011-5910-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3125445PMC
July 2011

Exome sequencing allows for rapid gene identification in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth family.

Ann Neurol 2011 Mar 20;69(3):464-70. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA.

Objective: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease comprises a large number of genetically distinct forms of inherited peripheral neuropathies. The relative uniform phenotypes in many patients with CMT make it difficult to decide which of the over 35 known CMT genes are affected in a given patient. Genetic testing decision trees are therefore broadly based on a small number of major subtypes (eg, CMT1, CMT2) and the observed mutation frequency for CMT genes. Since conventional genetic testing is expensive many rare genes are not being tested for at all.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing has recently been introduced as a novel and alternative approach. This method is capable of resequencing a nearly complete set of coding exons in an individual. We performed whole-exome sequencing in an undiagnosed family with CMT.

Results: Within over 24,000 variants detected in 2 exomes of a CMT family, we identified a nonsynonymous GJB1 (Cx32) mutation. This variant had been reported previously as pathogenic in X-linked CMT families. Sanger sequencing confirmed complete cosegregation in the family. Affected individuals had a marked early involvement of the upper distal extremities and displayed a mild reduction of nerve conduction velocities.

Interpretation: We have shown for the first time in a genetically highly heterogeneous dominant disease that exome sequencing is a valuable method for comprehensive medical diagnosis. Further improvements of exon capture design, next-generation sequencing accuracy, and a constant price decline will soon lead to the adoption of genomic approaches in gene testing of Mendelian disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.22235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3066289PMC
March 2011

Copy number variations are a rare cause of non-CMT1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

J Neurol 2010 May 1;257(5):735-41. Epub 2009 Dec 1.

Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136,, USA.

Hereditary peripheral neuropathies present a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous entities. All known forms, including the various forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) are characterized as Mendelian traits and over 35 genes have been identified thus far. The mutational mechanism of the most common CMT type, CMT1A, is a 1.5 Mb chromosomal duplication at 17p12 that contains the gene PMP22. Only recently it has been realized that such copy number variants (CNV) are a widespread phenomenon and important for disease. However, it is not known whether CNVs play a wider role in hereditary peripheral neuropathies outside of CMT1A. In a phenotypically heterogeneous sample of 97 patients, we performed the first high-density CNV study of 34 genomic regions harboring known genes for hereditary peripheral neuropathies including the 17p12 duplication region, with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarrays. We identified three CNVs that affected coding exons. A novel shorter form of a PMP22 duplication was detected in a CMT1A family previously tested negative in a commercial test. Two other CNVs in MTMR2 and ARHGEF10 are likely not disease associated. Our results indicate that CNVs are a rare cause for non-CMT1A CMT. Their potential relevance as disease modifiers remains to be evaluated. The present study design cannot rule out that specific CMT forms exist where CNVs play a larger role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-009-5401-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865568PMC
May 2010