Publications by authors named "Giuseppe Quero"

71 Publications

Pancreaticoduodenectomy in octogenarians: The importance of "biological age" on clinical outcomes.

Surg Oncol 2021 Nov 24;40:101688. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Gemelli Pancreatic Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli" IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center), Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: With the prolongation of life expectancy, an increasing number of elderly patients are evaluated for pancreatic surgery. However, the influence of increasing age on outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still unclear, especially in octogenarians. Aim of this study is to evaluate the perioperative characteristics and outcomes of octogenarians undergoing PD.

Methods: Data for 812 patients undergoing PD between 2019 and 2020 in 10 referral centers in Italy were reviewed. Patients aged 80 years or older were matched based on nearest neighbor propensity scores in a 1:1 ratio to patients younger than 80 years. Propensity scores were calculated using 7 perioperative variables including gender, ASA score, neoadjuvant treatment (NAT), biliary stent positioning, type of surgical approach (open, laparoscopic, robot-assisted), associated vascular resections, type of lesion. Perioperative characteristics and short-term postoperative outcomes were compared before and after matching.

Results: Overall, 81 (10%) patients had 80 years or more. Before matching, octogenarians had a higher rate of ASA score≥ 3 (n = 35, 43.2% vs. n = 207, 28.3%; p = 0.005) and less frequently underwent NAT (n = 11, 13.6% vs. n = 213, 29.1%; p = 0.003). Matching was successfully performed for 70 octogenarians. After matching, no differences in preoperative and intraoperative characteristics were found. Postoperatively, ICU admission was more frequent in octogenarians (50% vs 30%; p = 0.01). Although in-hospital mortality was higher in octogenarians before matching (7.4% vs 2.9% in the younger cohort; p = 0.03), no difference was noted between the matched cohorts (p = 0.36). Postoperative morbidity was comparable between groups in the whole and selected populations. At the multivariate analysis, chronological age was not recognized as a prognostic factor for cumulative major complications, while ASA ≥3 was the only confirmed influencing feature (OR 2.98; 95%CI: 1.6-6.8; p = 0.009).

Conclusio: In high-volume centers, PD in octogenarians shows similar outcomes than younger patients. Age itself should not be considered an exclusion criterion for PD, but a focused preoperative assessment is essential for adequate patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101688DOI Listing
November 2021

Quantitative assessment of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pancreatic surgery: an Italian multicenter analysis of 1423 cases from 10 tertiary referral centers.

Updates Surg 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Surgery, Gemelli Pancreatic Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli", IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Few evidences are present on the consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on pancreatic surgery. Aim of this study is to evaluate how COVID-19 influenced the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways of surgical pancreatic diseases. A comparative analysis of surgical volumes and clinical, surgical and perioperative outcomes in ten Italian referral centers was conducted between the first semester 2020 and 2019. One thousand four hundred and twenty-three consecutive patients were included in the analysis: 638 from 2020 and 785 from 2019. Surgical volume in 2020 decreased by 18.7% (p < 0.0001). Benign/precursors diseases (- 43.4%; p < 0.0001) and neuroendocrine tumors (- 33.6%; p = 0.008) were the less treated diseases. No difference was reported in terms of discussed cases at the multidisciplinary tumor board (p = 0.43), mean time between diagnosis and neoadjuvant treatment (p = 0.91), indication to surgery and surgical resection (p = 0.35). Laparoscopic and robot-assisted procedures dropped by 45.4% and 61.9%, respectively, during the lockdown weeks of 2020. No difference was documented for post-operative intensive care unit accesses (p = 0.23) and post-operative mortality (p = 0.06). The surgical volume decrease in 2020 will potentially lead, in the near future, to the diagnosis of a higher rate of advanced stage diseases. However, the reassessment of the Italian Health Service kept guarantying an adequate level of care in tertiary referral centers. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04380766.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-021-01171-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611384PMC
November 2021

Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for colorectal peritoneal metastases: analysis of short- and long-term outcomes.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Peritoneal metastases carry the worst prognosis among all sites of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. In recent years, the advent of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has improved survival for selected patients with limited peritoneal involvement. We report the evolution of CRS and HIPEC for colorectal peritoneal metastases at a tertiary referral center over a 10-year period.

Methods: Patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases undergoing CRS and HIPEC were included and retrospectively analyzed at a tertiary referral center from January 2006 to December 2015. Main outcomes included evaluation of grade III/IV complications, mortality rate, overall and disease-free survival, and prognostic factors influencing survival on a Cox multivariate analysis.

Results: Sixty-seven CRSs were performed on 67 patients during this time for colorectal peritoneal metastases. The median patient age was 57 years with 55.2% being female. The median peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) was 7, with complete cytoreduction achieved in 65 (97%) cases. Grade > 2 complications occurred in 6 cases (8.9%) with no mortality. The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 41 months, with a 3-year overall survival of 43%. In case of complete cytoreduction, median overall and disease-free survival were 57 months and 36 months respectively, with a 3-year disease-free survival of 62%. Complete cytoreduction and nonmucinous histology were key factors independently associated with improved overall survival.

Conclusions: CRS and HIPEC for limited peritoneal metastases from CRC are safe and effective, with acceptable morbidity. In selected patients, it offers a highly favorable long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-021-02353-zDOI Listing
October 2021

The impact of gastrojejunostomy orientation on delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a single center comparative analysis.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Gemelli Pancreatic Center, CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center) Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli" IRCCS; Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) represents the most frequent complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of gastrojejunostomy (GJ)orientation on DGE incidence after PD.

Methods: One-hundred and twenty-one consecutive PDs were included in the analysis and divided in the horizontal (H-GJ group) and vertical GJ anastomosis groups (V-GJ group). Postoperative data and the value of the flow angle between the efferent jejunal limb and the stomach of the GJ anastomosis at the upper gastrointestinal series were registered.

Results: Seventy-five patients (62%)underwent H-GJ, while 46 patients (38%)underwent V-GJ. The incidence of DGE was significantly lower in the V-GJ group as compared to the H-GJ group (23.9%vs45.3%; p = 0.02). V-GJ was also associated to a less severe DGE manifestation (p = 0.006). The flow angle was significantly lower in case of V-GJ as compared to H-GJ (24.5°vs37°; p = 0.002). At the multivariate analysis, ASA score≥3 (p = 0.02), H-GJ (p = 0.03), flow angle>30°(p = 0.004) and Clavien-Dindo≥3 (p = 0.03) were recognized as independent prognostic factors for DGE. These same factors were independent prognostic features also for a more severe DGE manifestation.

Conclusion: VGJ and the more acute flow angle appear to be associated to a lower incidence rate and severity of DGE. This modified technique should be considered by surgeons in order to reduce postoperative DGE occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2021.09.015DOI Listing
September 2021

Role of serum procalcitonin in predicting the surgical outcomes of acute calculous cholecystitis.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Nov 2;406(7):2375-2382. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Emergency Surgery and Trauma, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli", IRCCS, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Acute calculous cholecystitis (AC) is a syndrome of right upper quadrant pain, fever, and leukocytosis associated with gallbladder inflammation. In the preoperative planning, the severity of AC should be considered as well as time of onset of symptoms and patient comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of an early PCT assessment in the emergency department in predicting the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for AC.

Study Design: Retrospective, mono-centric study conducted in a teaching urban hospital. We evaluated all patients admitted to our ED from January 1st, 2015, to December 31st, 2019, underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for AC having a preoperative PCT determination in ED.

Results: A total of 2285 patients in our ED were admitted for AC. Among them 822 patients were treated surgically, 174 had a PCT determination in ED. Median age was 63 [50-74]. Overall, 33 patients (19.0%) had major complications (MC): 32 needed an open surgery conversion, and 3 among them deceased. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PCT, WBC, BUN, and CCI were significantly associated to MC in our cohort. When we calculated the area under the ROC curve with regard to MC, a procalcitonin value > 0.09 at admission had sensitivity = 84.8% [68.1-94.9] and specificity = 51.8% [43.2-60.3] for the occurrence of MC.

Conclusion: Our results, suggest that a PCT > 0.09 ng/mL at ED admission, could be associated to a poor surgical outcome in patients treated by laparoscopic surgery for AC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-021-02252-3DOI Listing
November 2021

Laparoscopic vs. open resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) from gastric origin: different approaches for different diseases.

Minerva Surg 2021 Aug 28;76(4):372-381. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Digestive Surgery, IRCCS A. Gemelli University Polyclinic Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Background: Although minimally-invasive techniques are currently recognized as effective and validated treatment for small gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the role of laparoscopy is not yet established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic treatment of gastric GISTs compared to the results obtained in a group of patients treated with conventional surgery.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed, using a prospectively maintained comprehensive database of 100 patients treated for gastric GIST in the period from 2000 to 2015. Thirty-six patients were treated laparoscopically, and 64 patients underwent conventional surgery. The analyzed medical data included clinical and pathological features of removed tumors, perioperative parameters as well as short and long-term results of surgical treatment.

Results: Histopathological examination confirmed radical resections for all patients. No deaths were reported in the 90-day postoperative period. Patients in laparoscopic group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (5.5 vs. 7 days, P<0.0001), fewer extended and combined surgical procedures (11.2% vs. 34.4% and 2.8% vs. 39%; P=0.02 and P<0.001, respectively), and a smaller tumor size compared to laparotomic group (3 vs. 6 cm, P<0.0001). The median postoperative follow-up for the entire study population was 42 months. During this period, 11 patients died and 4 of them developed a tumor recurrence. None of them was in the laparoscopic group.

Conclusions: Laparoscopy in the treatment of gastric GISTs has unquestionable advantages, but its choice is strictly related to tumor features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08574-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Adhesive small bowel obstruction in elderly patients: a single-center analysis of treatment strategies and clinical outcomes.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 7;56(7):784-790. Epub 2021 May 7.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Agostino Gemelli IRCCS di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: The incidence of adhesive bowel obstruction (ASBO) progressively increases with age. Strong evidences on the influencing role of age on ASBO clinical course and management are still lacking. Aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the clinical outcomes of patients older than 65 years of age admitted to a tertiary referral Emergency Department with a diagnosis of ASBO.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of patients admitted for ASBO in the period 2014-2019. Patients were divided in elderly (≥65 years) and non-elderly (<65 years). Primary endpoint was to compare the all-cause in-hospital mortality and the occurrence of major complications in the two groups. Secondary endpoint was a comparison of clinical presentation, clinical course and management.

Results: We enrolled 285 elderly and 492 non-elderly patients. Vomit was more frequent in the elderly (51.9% vs 34.6%;  < .001), while no difference was evidenced for the remaining symptoms of ASBO presentation. A higher rate of non-operative management (NOM) (26.3% vs 16.5%;  = .010), ICU admission (16% vs 0.6%;  < .001), mortality (2.1% vs 0.2%;  = .007) and cumulative major complications (8.8% vs 3.3%;  = .001), as well as a prolonged hospitalization (8.2 vs 5.4 days;  < .001) was evidenced in the ≥65 years group. Multivariate analysis identified increasing age (OR:2.8; 95%CI:1.09-7.2;  = .040) and Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 2 (OR:2.5; 95% CI:1.2-6.4;  = .050) as the only independent predictors of cumulative major complications.

Conclusions: Despite the similarity in terms of clinical presentation, elderly patient present higher mortality rate and occurrence of major complications. A comprehensive geriatric assessment is recommended to optimize the diagnostic and clinical strategies in case of ASBO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1921256DOI Listing
July 2021

The role of mesopancreas excision for ampullary carcinomas: a single center propensity-score matched analysis.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Oct 18;23(10):1557-1564. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Pancreatic Surgery Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy; CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center), Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Roma, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Roma, Italy.

Background: Few evidences are available on the prognostic role of mesopancreas excision(MPe) for ampullary cancers(ACs). Aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes between pancreaticoduodenectomy(PD) with(PD-MPe group) and without(sPD group) MP.

Methods: Thirty-seven sPDs were matched and compared to 37 PD-MPes for perioperative outcomes, recurrence rate, disease-free(DFS) and overall survival(OS).

Results: The PD-MPe technique related to a significantly higher number of harvested lymph nodes[16 (±6)] as compared to the sPD [10 (±5); p < 0.0001]. Tumor recurrence was more frequent in the sPD cohort[21 (56.8%) vs 12 (32.4%) in the PD-MPe population; p = 0.03]. Although not statistically different, PD-MPe was associated with a better DFS(40% vs 35.7% for sPD; p = 0.08) and OS(59.3% vs 39.1% for sPD; p = 0.07). At the multivariate analysis, a higher number of lymph nodes retrieved and a more extensive lymphovascular clearance reached with the MPe technique, together with lymph nodes metastases, were recognized as independent prognostic factors for a worse OS and DFS.

Conclusion: The PD-MPe technique is associated with a better oncological radicality thanks to the higher number of retrieved lymph nodes and to the more appropriate tumor clearance. This reflects in a lower incidence of tumor relapse and in improved outcomes in terms of OS and DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2021.03.011DOI Listing
October 2021

Pancreaticoduodenectomy model demonstrates a fundamental role of dysfunctional β cells in predicting diabetes.

J Clin Invest 2021 06;131(12)

UOS Centro Malattie Endocrine e Metaboliche, UOC Endocrinologia e Diabetologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy.

BACKGROUNDThe appearance of hyperglycemia is due to insulin resistance, functional deficits in the secretion of insulin, and a reduction of β cell mass. There is a long-standing debate as to the relative contribution of these factors to clinically manifesting β cell dysfunction. The aim of this study was to verify the acute effect of one of these factors, the reduction of β cell mass, on the subsequent development of hyperglycemia.METHODSTo pursue this aim, nondiabetic patients, scheduled for identical pancreaticoduodenectomy surgery, underwent oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp (HC) procedures, followed by arginine stimulation before and after surgery. Based on postsurgery OGTT, subjects were divided into 3 groups depending on glucose tolerance: normal glucose tolerance (post-NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (post-IGT), or having diabetes mellitus (post-DM).RESULTSAt baseline, the 3 groups showed similar fasting glucose and insulin levels; however, examining the various parameters, we found that reduced first-phase insulin secretion, reduced glucose sensitivity, and rate sensitivity were predictors of eventual postsurgery development of IGT and diabetes.CONCLUSIONDespite comparable functional mass and fasting glucose and insulin levels at baseline and the very same 50% mass reduction, only reduced first-phase insulin secretion and glucose sensitivity predicted the appearance of hyperglycemia. These functional alterations could be pivotal to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM).TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT02175459.FUNDINGUniversità Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research; European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI146788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203447PMC
June 2021

Survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for advanced gastric cancer: experience from a Western tertiary referral center.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Sep 11;406(6):1847-1857. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Selection criteria and prognostic factors for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intra-operative peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have not been well defined, and the literature data are not homogeneous. The aim of this study was to compare prognostic factors influencing overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a population of patients affected by AGC with surgery alone and surgery plus HIPEC, both with curative (PCI, peritoneal carcinomatosis index > 1) and prophylactic (PCI = 0) intent.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was conducted in patients affected by AGC from January 2006 to December 2015. Uni- and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors were performed.

Results: A total of 85 patients with AGC were analyzed. A 5-year OS for surgery alone, CRS plus curative HIPEC, and surgery plus prophylactic HIPEC groups was 9%, 27% and 33%, respectively. Statistical significance was reached comparing both prophylactic HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p = 0.05), curative HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p = 0.03), and curative vs prophylactic HIPEC (p = 0.04). A 5-year DFS for surgery alone, CRS + curative HIPEC, and surgery + prophylactic HIPEC groups was 9%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Statistical significance was reached comparing both prophylactic HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p < 0.0001), curative HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p = 0.008), and curative vs prophylactic HIPEC (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: Patients with AGC undergoing surgery plus HIPEC had a better OS and DFS with respect to patients treated with surgery alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-021-02102-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481141PMC
September 2021

Survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for advanced gastric cancer: experience from a Western tertiary referral center.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Jun 21;406(4):1071-1080. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Selection criteria and prognostic factors for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intra-operative peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have not been well defined and the literature data are not homogeneous. The aim of this study was to compare prognostic factors influencing overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a population of patients affected by AGC with surgery alone and surgery plus HIPEC, both with curative (PCI, Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index >1) and prophylactic (PCI=0) intent.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was conducted in patients affected by AGC from January 2006 to December 2015. Uni- and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors were performed.

Results: A total of 85 patients with AGC were analyzed. Five-year OS for surgery alone, CRS plus curative HIPEC, and surgery plus prophylactic HIPEC groups was 9%, 27%, and 33%, respectively. Statistical significance was reached comparing both prophylactic HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p = 0.05), curative HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p = 0.03), and curative vs prophylactic HIPEC (p = 0.04). Five-year DFS for surgery alone, CRS + curative HIPEC, and surgery + prophylactic HIPEC groups was 9%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Statistical significance was reached comparing both prophylactic HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p < 0.0001), curative HIPEC vs surgery alone group (p = 0.008), and curative vs prophylactic HIPEC (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: Patients with AGC undergoing surgery plus HIPEC had a better OS and DFS with respect to patients treated with surgery alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-021-02137-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208915PMC
June 2021

Challenges in Crohn's Disease Management after Gastrointestinal Cancer Diagnosis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with a progressive course, potentially affecting the entire gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Several studies have shown an increased risk of both intestinal and extra-intestinal cancer in patients with CD, due to long-standing transmural inflammation and damage accumulation. The similarity of symptoms among CD, its related complications and the de novo onset of gastrointestinal cancer raises difficulties in the differential diagnosis. In addition, once a cancer diagnosis in CD patients is made, selecting the appropriate treatment can be particularly challenging. Indeed, both surgical and oncological treatments are not always the same as that of the general population, due to the inflammatory context of the gastrointestinal tract and the potential exacerbation of gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with CD; moreover, the overlap of the neoplastic disease could lead to adjustments in the pharmacological treatment of the underlying CD, especially with regard to immunosuppressive drugs. For these reasons, a case-by-case analysis in a multidisciplinary approach is often appropriate for the best diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation of patients with CD after gastrointestinal cancer onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867285PMC
February 2021

Early Procalcitonin Assessment in the Emergency Department in Patients with Intra-Abdominal Infection: An Excess or a Need?

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2021 Oct 2;22(8):787-796. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Emergency Surgery and Trauma, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A, Gemelli, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Intra-abdominal infection (IAI) is a wide range of intra-abdominal disease. Management involves empirical therapy and source control. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been suggested to assist in defining individual infection status and delivering individualized therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on patient outcomes of an early procalcitonin (PCT) assessment (in the emergency department [ED]) in patients with IAI. This was a retrospective, mono-centric study evaluating consecutive patients admitted to the ED from 2015 to 2019 with diagnosis of IAI. According to whether there had been PCT determination in the ED, patients were divided into no ePCT determination (no-ePCT) and early PCT determination in the ED (ePCT). The primary endpoint was the intra-hospital mortality rate. Secondary endpoints were occurrence of major complications and length of hospital stay (LOS). The propensity score match (PSM) was generated using a logistic regression model on the baseline covariates considered to be potentially influencing the decision to determine PCT in the ED and confounding factors identified as significant at a preliminary statistical analysis with respect to in-hospital death. A series of 3,429 patients were included. The ePCT group consisted to 768 (22.4%), whereas the no-ePCT group contained 2,661 patients (77.6%). When the PSM was matched to the two groups, no significant difference was observed. Considering patients with uncomplicated infections, the PCT determination was associated with a higher mortality rate. We found no significant differences regarding outcomes with the exception of LOS, which was slightly longer in the ePCT group. However, we observed a tendency toward a minor difference in the number of complications in the ePCT group, in particular a reduced rate of progression to sepsis. Early PCT determination could be irrelevant in IAIs. The PCT value may be cost-effective and possibly improve the prognosis in cIAIs. Further research is needed to understand the optimal use of PCT, including in combination with other emerging diagnostic tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2020.373DOI Listing
October 2021

Management of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients: A propensity score-matched analysis of surgical vs. medical treatment.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Dec 23;53(12):1620-1626. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a life-threatening emergency in elderly patients.

Aims: To compare the commonly used management strategies for elderly patients with AC as well as resulting morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS).

Methods: All patients ≥ 65 years admitted to our emergency department for AC between January 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2018 were included in the study. We compared patients that received medical treatment to patients who received operative procedures. In order to correct for baseline covariates and factors associated to clinical management, we used a 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. The primary outcome was the overall in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of major complications and LOS.

Results: A total of 1075 patients were enrolled: 483 patients received a medical treatment and 592 patients underwent interventional procedures. After PSM, 770 patients (385 for each treatment group) were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that both mortality and cumulative major complications were similar in medical and interventional group. We found that among comorbidities, Charlson comorbidity index and congestive heart failure were significantly higher in the medical treatment group (5 [4-6] vs. 4 [3-6] and 11.7% vs. 4.7%, respectively; p<0.001). LOS was slightly lower in the medical treatment group (7.0 days [4.9-11.1] vs. 7.9 [4.9-13.5]; p = 0.046).

Conclusion: Medical management outcomes for AC in elderly patients were similar to operative treatments in terms of mortality and cumulative major complications. A conservative approach should always be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.01.011DOI Listing
December 2021

Capsule Endoscopy Versus Colonoscopy in Patients With Previous Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective Comparative Study.

Gastroenterology Res 2020 Oct 31;13(5):217-224. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

IHU, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, 1 Place de L'Hopital, 67091 Strasbourg, France.

Background: Colonic capsule endoscopy (CCE) derived from the video capsule endoscopy, initially proposed to explore the small bowel, has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for colonic polyp detection. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and reliability of CCE after colorectal surgery. Secondary outcomes were to identify the detection rate of colonic lesions and recognition of the surgical anastomosis as compared to colonoscopy.

Methods: This is a prospective single-center study conducted over a 2-year period. Thirty-seven patients with a history of colorectal surgery were prospectively included in this study. Each patient received both CCE and colonoscopy, performed by different operators blinded to each other's results.

Results: Thirty-two patients (86.5%) completed the study and were included in the final analysis. All capsules were naturally expelled. In three patients (9.4%), the anal verge was not identified during the CCE recording and the examination of the colon was considered incomplete. Surgical anastomosis was accurately identified by CCE in 78.2% of the patients versus 93.8% for colonoscopy (P = 0.65). Thirty-eight lesions were detected in 14 patients. The sensitivity of CCE to detect colonic polyps was 95.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 77.3-99.2%), the specificity 82.4% (95% CI: 59.0-93.8%). Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CCE to detect colonic polyps were 87.0% and 93.3%, respectively. No complications related to the passage of the capsule through the intestinal anastomosis were detected.

Conclusions: CCE proved to be safe and feasible, reporting a similar detection rate of colonic lesion compared to colonoscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/gr1309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665853PMC
October 2020

Robotic rectal resection: oncologic outcomes.

Updates Surg 2021 Jun 10;73(3):1081-1091. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli" IRCCS di Roma, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Robotic surgery has progressively gained popularity in the treatment of rectal cancer. However, only a few studies on its oncologic effectiveness are currently present, with contrasting results. The purpose of this study is to report a single surgeon's experience on robotic rectal resection (RRR) for cancer, focusing on the analysis of oncologic outcomes, both in terms of pathological features and long-term results. One-hundred and twenty-two consecutive patients who underwent RRR for rectal cancer from January 2013 to December 2019 were retrospectively enrolled. Patients' characteristics and perioperative outcomes were collected. The analyzed oncologic outcomes were pathological features [distal (DM), circumferential margin (CRM) status and quality of mesorectal excision (TME)] and long-term outcomes [overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)]. The mean operative time was 275 (± 60.5) minutes. Conversion rate was 6.6%. Complications occurred in 27 cases (22.1%) and reoperation was needed in 2 patients (1.5%). The median follow-up was 30.5 (5.9-86.1) months. None presented DM positivity. CRM positivity was 2.5% (2 cases) while a complete TME was reached in 94.3% of cases (115 patients). Recurrence rate was 5.7% (2 local, 4 distant and 1 local plus distant tumor relapse). OS and DFS were 90.7% and 83%, respectively. At the multivariate analysis, both CRM positivity and near complete/incomplete TME were recognized as negative prognostic factors for OS and DFS. Under appropriate logistic and operative conditions, robotic surgery for rectal cancer proves to be oncologically effective, with adequate pathological results and long-term outcomes. It also offers acceptable peri-operative outcomes, further confirming the safety and feasibility of the technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-020-00911-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184562PMC
June 2021

EUS-guided fine needle tattooing (EUS-FNT) for preoperative localization of small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs): a single-center experience.

Surg Endosc 2021 01 21;35(1):486-492. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: and study aims Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) can be difficult to detect intra-operatively. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle tattooing (EUS-FNT) to facilitate intra-operative detection of pNETs.

Patients And Methods: Sixteen patients with pNETs (8 insulinoma and 8 non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) underwent EUS-FNT. The procedure was carried out using the conventional curvilinear EUS. Tattooing was performed by intralesional injection of 1-2 mL of Spot® ink (Spot®, GI Supply, Comp Hill, PA, US) using a standard 22 gauge EUS-FNA needle.

Results: All identified pNETs could be tattooed in one session. The procedure was well tolerated in all patients without any complication. The time interval between tattooing and surgery was between 1 and 565 days (mean of 52 days). Nine patients underwent open and seven laparoscopic surgery. The tattooed lesions could be recognized in all but one patient. In one patient, a small hematoma secondary to the EUS-FNT was observed. Pathological examination of the resection specimen showed local R0 resection in all cases, and no interference with the specimen evaluation was encountered.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that EUS-guided FNT is a safe and useful method to mark preoperatively small (≤ 2 cm) pNETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07996-5DOI Listing
January 2021

From biology to surgery: One step beyond histology for tailored surgical treatments of gastric cancer.

Surg Oncol 2020 Sep 5;34:86-95. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Italy.

Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer related death. Although its incidence is globally declined, prognosis remains dismal in the Western hemisphere, while better outcomes are evidenced in Asian countries. Endoscopic or surgical resection with or without lymphadenectomy represents the only chance of cure, with limited improvements of the prognosis in case of associated chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. This could be mainly attributed to the uniform fashion of treatment of gastric cancer, mainly based on the histological features, that usually do not reflect the complexity of the disease. With the recent introduction of genomic technologies and new generation sequencing techniques, gastric cancer biology is now investigated in great details. This has brought to the publication of three main molecular classifications, based on the underlying molecular biology of gastric cancer. Although only few clinical reports are currently present in literature, the identification of gastric cancer molecular subtypes has shown interesting findings that may pave the way to a tailored clinical and surgical management. The aim of this review is, thus, to give a comprehensive overview of the current molecular classifications as compared to the available histopathological ones, also focusing on the potential clinical and surgical benefits and the future perspectives for a more personalized treatment of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.04.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Improving the width of lossy mode resonances in a reflection configuration D-shaped fiber by nanocoating laser ablation.

Opt Lett 2020 Sep;45(17):4738-4741

The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of lossy mode resonances (LMRs) in the optical spectrum depends on the homogeneity of the thin film deposited. In this Letter, a method for improving the FWHM is applied for an LMR generated by a D-shaped optical fiber in reflection configuration. For this purpose, three samples with different attenuation were deposited with DC sputtering thin films of , and a further controlled immersion of the samples in water was performed. A laser-cleaner method was used to improve the FWHM characteristics of one of the samples from 106 to 53 nm. This improvement can be applied to thin-film-based sensors where there is a problem with the inhomogeneity of the coating thickness. Moreover, with this technique, it was proved that a coated length of just 3-4 mm permits the generation of an LMR, with implications for the miniaturization of the final device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.402177DOI Listing
September 2020

Endocrine and Metabolic Insights from Pancreatic Surgery.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2020 10 20;31(10):760-772. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Endocrinologia e Diabetologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rome, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia Traslazionale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Although it is well established that diabetes can also develop as a result of diseases or maneuvers on the exocrine pancreas, the complex relationship between glucose disorders and underlying pancreatic disease is still debated. There is evidence that several features linked to pancreatic diseases can modify endocrine and metabolic conditions before and after surgery. However, pancreatic surgery provides a rare opportunity to correlate in vivo endocrine and metabolic pathways with ex vivo pancreatic samples, to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of acute islet removal, and finally to clarify the pathogenesis of diabetes. This approach could therefore represent a unique method to shed light on the molecular mechanisms, predicting factors, and metabolic consequences of insulin resistance, islet plasticity, β cell failure, and type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2020.07.003DOI Listing
October 2020

Applications of Elastography in Ablation Therapies: An Animal Model Study.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2020 Sep 13;30(9):980-986. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

IRCAD (Institute for Research on Cancer of the Digestive System), Strasbourg, France.

Ablation therapies are one of the main local treatments for solid organ tumors. After applying any ablation therapy, few days should be waited to perform an imaging study and analyze the result. In this work, we analyzed the correlation between elastography monitoring after procedure and the result of ablation. The objective of this study is to determine tissue changes in short term after the application of ablation systems using different diagnostic imaging methods. Descriptive study in an swine model. Different types of ablation therapies (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation [MWA], and LASER ablation [LA]) were applied in the liver and kidneys. We compared their results by medical image monitoring (ultrasound, computed tomography, elastography) and macroscopic analysis. All the animals survived the procedures. No major intraoperative complications were reported. We determined the characteristics of each procedure. MWA session was faster than the other types of ablation therapies. Regarding ablation area diameters, the largest was achieved with MWA and the smallest with LA. Macroscopically, we observed a central ablation zone, a peripheral ablation zone, and surrounding normal tissue. It was correlated with elastography images. Monitoring of the results of ablation therapies shortly after their application is possible through imaging studies. It allows determining the size of the ablation zone, its characteristics, ruling out complications, and its early results. Elastography could efficiently support this goal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2020.0485DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Gastric Structure and Function Documented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Strongly Associated with Post-operative Weight Loss and Quality of Life: a Prospective Study.

Obes Surg 2020 Dec 8;30(12):4741-4750. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, Strasbourg, France.

Background: This prospective study applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on gastric structure and function. The impact of these changes on patient outcomes was analyzed.

Method: Obese patients without gastrointestinal symptoms referred for bariatric surgery were recruited prospectively. Pre-operative assessment included (i) high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring and (ii) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of gastric capacity, accommodation, and emptying with the 400 ml liquid Nottingham test meal (NTM). Studies were repeated 6-7 months after LSG. Weight loss and changes in the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) assessed patient outcomes.

Results: From 35 patients screened, 23 (66%) completed the study (17 females, age 36 ± 10 years, BMI 42 ± 5 kg/m2). Mean excess weight loss was 59 ± 18% at follow-up. Total gastric volume (capacity) after the meal was 467 mL (455-585 ml) before and 139 mL (121-185 ml) after LSG (normal reference 534 (419-675) mL), representing a mean 70% reduction (p < 0.0001). Similar findings were present for gastric content volume indicating rapid early-phase gastric emptying (GE) post-LSG. Conversely, late-phase GE was slower post-LSG (2.5 ± 1.0 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 mL/min; p < 0.0001; (reference 1.5(1.4-4.9) mL/min)). Patients with ≥ 80% reduction in gastric capacity had greater weight loss (p = 0.008), but worse gastrointestinal outcomes (p = 0.023).

Conclusions: MRI studies quantified the marked reduction in gastric capacity after LSG. The reduction in capacity was associated with rapid early- but slow late-phase GE after surgery. These changes were associated with weight loss; however, reductions in gastric capacity ≥ 80% were linked to increased acid reflux and impacted on gastrointestinal quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04831-7DOI Listing
December 2020

Response to the letter to the editor: Hyperglycemia or inappropriate fluid therapy.

Surgery 2020 09 4;168(3):567. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.05.024DOI Listing
September 2020

Chronic pancreatitis: an overview of diagnosis and management.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Jul 8;14(7):515-526. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS , Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis entails a heavy burden on the healthcare system because of its often protracted evolution, requiring complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

Areas Covered: This review focuses on novel imaging and endoscopic diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that have changed the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. We have conducted an extensive search of original papers and guidelines, in order to provide a comprehensive and up to date review of available evidence in these areas of interest.

Expert Opinion: The traditional challenges in managing chronic pancreatitis patients stemmed from the limitations of diagnostic modalities, which could not correctly identify patients in an early stage of the disease, as well as from the scarcity of therapeutic options available. Advances in imaging of CT-scan, MRI, and EUS have opened the way for early diagnosis and staging. This has allowed more aggressive and tailored therapeutic modalities, particularly in endoscopic therapy and minimally invasive surgical interventions. Although high-quality data from large RCTs is still scarce, evidence-based algorithms for diagnosis and therapy are now changing the way we address this chronic disease. In the near future, we can expect a tailored approach based on patient and disease-related predictive factors, relying on a vast armamentarium of endoscopic and surgical solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2020.1774365DOI Listing
July 2020

Acute Diverticulitis in Elderly Patients: Does Age Really Matter?

Dig Dis 2021 2;39(1):33-41. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Contrasting results are reported on the clinical course of acute diverticulitis (AD) in the geriatric population. The aim of this study is to compare the AD clinical outcomes between patients aged up to 80 years and those ≥80 years.

Methods: A total of 1,139 patients were enrolled: 276 patients aged ≥80 years were compared with a group of 863 patients aged <80 years. The primary outcome was to compare the overall mortality. Secondary outcomes included major complications, in-hospital length of stay (LOS), and need for surgical procedures.

Results: Patients ≥80 years with AD had different clinical presentation compared with younger patients: they had less fever (21.4 vs. 35.2%; p < 0.001) and abdominal pain (47.8 vs. 65.6%; p < 0.001) rates, but a higher digestive tract bleeding (31.5 vs. 12.3%; p < 0.001) and fatigue (12.7 vs. 7.1%; p = 0.004) rates. Median LOS, cumulative major complications, and mortality rates were higher for patients ≥80 years.Multivariate analysis identified age, absence of abdominal pain, and dyspnea at presentation as independent predictors of intrahospital death or major complications.

Conclusions: Patients with AD and age ≥80 years have a higher mortality rate and cumulative major complications as compared with younger patients. Invasive treatments were associated to a poor prognosis in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509049DOI Listing
February 2021

Propensity score-matched comparison of short- and long-term outcomes between surgery and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for intestinal type early gastric cancer (EGC) of the middle and lower third of the stomach: a European tertiary referral center experience.

Surg Endosc 2021 06 1;35(6):2592-2600. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00166, Rome, Italy.

Background: Despite the comparable results between ESD and gastrectomy reported in multiple Asiatic studies, limited data are currently present on the long-term efficacy of ESD for EGC in Western countries. The aim of this study was to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of the endoscopic submucosal dissection and surgery for non-diffuse early gastric cancer treatment in a Western cohort of patients.

Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of intestinal type EGC located in the middle and lower third of the stomach from 2005 to 2015 were enrolled in the study. All patients completed a 5-year follow-up. Patients were divided according to the procedure performed (ESD/subtotal gastrectomy). The two groups were matched for age, gender, ASA score, tumor dimension, and grade of infiltration (mucosa/submucosa).

Results: After matching, 84 patients (42 per group) were included in the analysis. Peri-procedural morbidity rate was 7.1% and no difference was observed between the two groups (4.8% vs 9.5% for ESD and STG groups, respectively; p = 0.3). Similar results in terms of 5-year OS and DFS were observed for ESD and STG (77.7% vs 71.8% ; p = 0.78 and 74.9% vs 72% ; p = 0.7, respectively). At the multivariate analysis, ASA3 score was recognized as the only negative predictor factor for the 5-year OS (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.2-16.8; p < 0.001). Regarding the DFS, both ASA3 score (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.7-10.9; p < 0.001) and submucosal infiltration(OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.2-22.4 ; p = 0.02) were identified as independent risk factors for a worse outcome.

Conclusions: Our results confirm the safety and feasibility ESD for EGC treatment in a Western setting. In addition, this is one of the few reports showing comparable results both in terms of short- and long-term outcomes between ESD and surgery for intestinal type ECG treatment in Western countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07677-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Total mesopancreas excision for periampullary malignancy: a single-center propensity score-matched comparison of long-term outcomes.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2020 May 24;405(3):303-312. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Few comparative studies are available on the long-term prognostic role of mesopancreas (MP) excision after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We compared the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing standard PD (sPD) and PD with MP excision (PD-MPe).

Methods: Sixty sPDs were compared to 60 matched PD-MPe patients for intraoperative and postoperative data, histopathological findings, and long-term outcomes.

Results: R0 rate was similar in the two groups (p = 0.17). However, PD-MPe related to a lower rate of MP resection margin positivity (16.7% vs 5%; p = 0.04) and to a higher harvested lymph nodes number (19.8 ± 7.6 vs 10.1 ± 5.1; p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence was more frequent in the sPD cohort (55.5% vs 26.8% in the PD-MPe group; p = 0.002), with a consequent worse disease-free survival (DFS) (14.8% vs 22.3%; p = 0.04). An inferior 5-year overall survival (OS) was noted in case of MP margin positivity compared with MP margin negativity (0% vs 29%; p < 0.0001). MP positivity resulted as an independent prognostic factor for both a worse OS and DFS at the multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: PD-MPe offers clinical advantages in terms of MP resection margin status, local recurrence, long-term mortality, and DFS. The lower MP positivity rate, achieved with PD-MPe, leads to better outcomes both in terms of OS and DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-020-01873-4DOI Listing
May 2020

Resectable pancreatic solid lesions: Time to move from surgical diagnosis?

Endosc Ultrasound 2020 Mar-Apr;9(2):76-82

Digestive Surgery Department, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

Benign or malignant conditions can present as pancreatic solid lesions (PSLs), and a thorough diagnostic workup is necessary to differentiate them. The need to acquire a tissue sample to reach a definitive diagnosis should be stratified by the findings at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a pancreatic protocol. Tissue biopsy is currently indicated in patients fit for chemotherapy in whom a metastatic tumor or a locally advanced unresectable lesion are discovered. For these patients, EUS-guided tissue acquisition, with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy represents the gold standard to provide a definitive cyto- and/or histopathologic diagnosis, with a high rate of accuracy. For resectable PSLs with a nonhypoenhancing MDCT pattern, which is not disease specific, a tissue diagnosis to distinguish benign from malignant etiologies appears mandatory. On the other hand, for hypo-enhancing PSLs, the debate of whether to obtain a preoperative definitive diagnosis still favors direct surgery. However, availability of novel EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy needles, which can ameliorate the negative predictive value of EUS-FNA and allow performance of DNA and RNA whole-genome extraction and RNA sequencing, coupled with the increasing evidence that preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be of value for these patients may change completely the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to resectable PSLs. These recent breakthroughs suggest the need for a new multidisciplinary consensus meeting to integrate them into the decision-making process assessing the need for preoperative tissue diagnosis in resectable PSLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_67_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279080PMC
April 2020

The Causes of Gastroesophageal Reflux after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Quantitative Assessment of the Structure and Function of the Esophagogastric Junction by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Manometry.

Obes Surg 2020 Jun;30(6):2108-2117

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The incidence of de novo gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) after LSG is substantial. However, an objective correlation with the structural gastric and EGJ changes has not been demonstrated yet. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on the structure and function of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and stomach.

Methods: Investigations were performed before and after > 50% reduction in excess body weight (6-12 months after LSG). Subjects with GERD at baseline were excluded. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), high-resolution manometry (HRM), and ambulatory pH-impedance measurements were used to assess the structure and function of the EGJ and stomach before and after LSG.

Results: From 35 patients screened, 23 (66%) completed the study (age 36 ± 10 years, BMI 42 ± 5 kg/m). Mean excess weight loss was 59 ± 18% after 7.1 ± 1.7-month follow-up. Esophageal acid exposure (2.4 (1.5-3.2) to 5.1 (2.8-7.3); p = 0.040 (normal < 4.0%)) and reflux events increased after surgery (57 ± 24 to 84 ± 38; p = 0.006 (normal < 80/day)). Esophageal motility was not altered by surgery; however, intrabdominal EGJ length and pressure were reduced (both p < 0.001); whereas the esophagogastric insertion angle (35° ± 11° to 51° ± 16°; p = 0.0004 (normal < 60°)) and esophageal opening diameter (16.9 ± 2.8 mm to 18.0 ± 3.7 mm; p = 0.029) were increased. The increase in reflux events correlated with changes in EGJ insertion angle (p = 0.010). Patients with > 80% reduction in gastric capacity (TGV) had the highest prevalence of symptomatic GERD.

Conclusion: LSG has multiple effects on the EGJ and stomach that facilitate reflux. In particular, EGJ disruption as indicated by increased (more obtuse) esophagogastric insertion angle and small gastric capacity were associated with the risk of GERD after LSG. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01980420.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04438-yDOI Listing
June 2020

Erratum.

Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2020 Apr;29(2):xi

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, 1 Place de l'Hôpital, Strasbourg 67091, France; IRCAD, Research Institute Against Cancer of the Digestive System, 1 Place de l'Hôpital, Strasbourg 67091, France; Department of General, Digestive and Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital of Strasbourg, 1 Place de l'Hôpital, Strasbourg 67091, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soc.2020.02.011DOI Listing
April 2020
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