Publications by authors named "Giuseppe Malizia"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Performance of the model for end-stage liver disease score for mortality prediction and the potential role of etiology.

J Hepatol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Gastroenterology Unit, ASL Latina, Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy.

Background & Aims: Although the discriminative ability of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is generally considered acceptable, its calibration is still unclear. In a validation study, we assessed the discriminative performance and calibration of 3 versions of the model: original MELD-TIPS, used to predict survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS); classic MELD-Mayo; and MELD-UNOS, used by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). We also explored recalibrating and updating the model.

Methods: In total, 776 patients who underwent elective TIPS (TIPS cohort) and 445 unselected patients (non-TIPS cohort) were included. Three, 6 and 12-month mortality predictions were calculated by the 3 MELD versions: discrimination was assessed by c-statistics and calibration by comparing deciles of predicted and observed risks. Cox and Fine and Grey models were used for recalibration and prognostic analyses.

Results: In the TIPS/non-TIPS cohorts, the etiology of liver disease was viral in 402/188, alcoholic in 185/130, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in 65/33; mean follow-up±SD was 25±9/19±21 months; and the number of deaths at 3-6-12 months was 57-102-142/31-47-99, respectively. C-statistics ranged from 0.66 to 0.72 in TIPS and 0.66 to 0.76 in non-TIPS cohorts across prediction times and scores. A post hoc analysis revealed worse c-statistics in non-viral cirrhosis with more pronounced and significant worsening in the non-TIPS cohort. Calibration was acceptable with MELD-TIPS but largely unsatisfactory with MELD-Mayo and -UNOS whose performance improved much after recalibration. A prognostic analysis showed that age, albumin, and TIPS indication might be used to update the MELD.

Conclusions: In this validation study, the performance of the MELD score was largely unsatisfactory, particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. MELD recalibration and candidate variables for an update to the MELD score are proposed.

Lay Summary: While the discriminative performance of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is credited to be fair to good, its calibration, the correspondence of observed to predicted mortality, is still unsettled. We found that application of 3 different versions of the MELD in 2 independent cirrhosis cohorts yielded largely imprecise mortality predictions particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. Thus, we propose a recalibration and suggest candidate variables for an update to the model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.07.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Liver and cardiovascular mortality after hepatitis C virus eradication by DAA: Data from RESIST-HCV cohort.

J Viral Hepat 2021 08 7;28(8):1190-1199. Epub 2021 May 7.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, PROMISE, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Real-world evidence on the course of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) chronic liver disease after Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) obtained with direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) are still limited, and the effects on mortality remain unclear. We evaluated the post-treatment survival of 4307 patients in the RESIST-HCV cohort (mean age 66.3 ± 11.6 years, 56.9% males, 24.7% chronic hepatitis, 66.9% Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and 8.4% Child-Pugh B cirrhosis) treated with DAAs between March 2015 and December 2016 and followed for a median of 73 weeks (range 16-152). Proportional cause-specific hazard regression for competing risks was used to evaluate the survival and to assess the predictors of liver and cardiovascular death. Overall, 94.7% of patients achieved SVR while 5.3% were HCV RNA-positive at last follow-up. Sixty-three patients (1.4%) died during the observation period. SVR was associated with a decreased risk of liver mortality (hazard ratio,HR0.09, beta -2.37, p < .001). Also, platelet count (HR 0.99, beta-0.01, p = .007) and albumin value (HR 0.26, beta -1.36 p = .001) were associated with liver mortality by competing risk analysis. SVR was associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality regardless of presence of cirrhosis (HR 0.07, beta-2.67, p < .001). Presence of diabetes (HR 3.45, beta 1.24, p = .014) and chronic kidney disease class ≥3 (HR 3.60, beta 1.28, p = 0.016) were two factors independently associated with higher risk of cardiovascular mortality. Patients with SVR to a DAA therapy have a better liver and cardiovascular survival, and the effects of HCV eradication are most evident in patients with compensated liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8359835PMC
August 2021

Is Transient Elastography Needed for Noninvasive Assessment of High-Risk Varices? The REAL Experience.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 08;114(8):1275-1282

Sezione di Gastroenterologia e Epatologia, Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (Di.Bi.M.I.S.), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Introduction: The Baveno VI consensus guidelines and an expanded algorithm suggest that transient elastography (TE) and platelet (PLT) count can be used to identify patients with cirrhosis who can avoid esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The primary aims of this study were to assess the ability of a simple algorithm, which uses only laboratory parameters, to predict medium/large esophageal varices (EV) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and cirrhosis from the Rete Sicilia Selezione Terapia-HCV (RESIST-HCV) cohort and to compare the performance of the algorithm with Baveno VI and Expanded Baveno VI criteria. The secondary aim was to assess the role of TE in ruling out large EV.

Methods: In total, 1,381 patients with HCV-associated cirrhosis who had EGD and TE within 1 year of starting treatment with direct-acting antivirals were evaluated. Using multivariate logistic analysis, laboratory variables were selected to determine which were independently associated with medium/large EV to create the RESIST-HCV criteria. These criteria were tested in a training cohort with patients from a single center (Palermo) and validated with patients from the 21 other centers of the RESIST-HCV program (validation cohort).

Results: In the entire cohort, medium/large EV were identified in 5 of 216 patients (2.3%) using the Baveno VI criteria and 13 of 497 patients (2.6%) using the Expanded Baveno VI criteria. PLT count and albumin level were independently associated with medium/large EV. The best cut-off values were a PLT count greater than 120 × 10 cells/μL and serum albumin level greater than 3.6 g/dL; negative predictive values (NPVs) were 97.2% and 94.7%, respectively. In the training cohort of 326 patients, 119 (36.5%) met the RESIST-HCV criteria and the NPV was 99.2%. Among 1,055 patients in the validation cohort, 315 (30%) met the RESIST-HCV criteria and the NPV was 98.1%. Adding TE to the RESIST-HCV criteria reduced the avoided EGDs for approximately 25% of patients and the NPV was 98.2%.

Discussion: The "easy-to-use" RESIST-HCV algorithm avoids EGD for high-risk EV screening for more than 30% of patients and has the same performance criteria as TE. Using these criteria simplifies the diagnosis of portal hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000266DOI Listing
August 2019

Direct-acting antivirals after successful treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma improve survival in HCV-cirrhotic patients.

J Hepatol 2019 08 6;71(2):265-273. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Semeiotica Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Italy.

Background & Aims: The effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV), following successful treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has been studied extensively. However, the benefit in terms of overall survival (OS) remains to be conclusively demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of DAAs on OS, HCC recurrence, and hepatic decompensation.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled 163 consecutive patients with HCV-related cirrhosis and a first diagnosis of early Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0/A HCC, who had achieved a complete radiologic response after curative resection or ablation and were subsequently treated with DAAs. DAA-untreated patients from the ITA.LI.CA. cohort (n = 328) served as controls. After propensity score matching, outcomes of 102 DAA-treated (DAA group) and 102 DAA-untreated patients (No DAA group) were compared.

Results: In the DAA group, 7/102 patients (6.9%) died, HCC recurred in 28/102 patients (27.5%) and hepatic decompensation occurred in 6/102 patients (5.9%), after a mean follow-up of 21.4 months. OS was significantly higher in the DAA group compared to the No DAA group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.39; 95% CI0.17-0.91; p = 0.03). HCC recurrence was not significantly different between the DAA and No DAA groups (HR0.70; 95% CI0.44-1.13; p = 0.15). A significant reduction in the rate of hepatic decompensation was observed in the DAA group compared with the No DAA group (HR0.32; 95% CI0.13-0.84; p = 0.02). In the DAA group, sustained virologic response was a significant predictor of OS (HR 0.02; 95% CI 0.00-0.19; p <0.001), HCC recurrence (HR 0.25; 95% CI 0.11-0.57; p <0.001) and hepatic decompensation (HR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.38; p = 0.02).

Conclusions: In patients with HCV-related cirrhosis who had been successfully treated for early HCC, DAAs significantly improved OS compared with No DAA treatment.

Lay Summary: We aimed to determine whether direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) significantly improve overall survival in patients with hepatitis C virus-related compensated cirrhosis and a first diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which has been successfully treated with curative resection or ablation. Using propensity-score matched patients, we found that DAAs improved overall survival and reduced the risk of hepatic decompensation. However, the risk of HCC recurrence was not significantly reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.03.027DOI Listing
August 2019

Refining early-TIPS criteria requires good quality prognostic studies.

Liver Int 2018 03;38(3):412-414

Gastroenterology Unit, Ospedale V. Cervello, Palermo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13671DOI Listing
March 2018

Clinical states of cirrhosis and competing risks.

J Hepatol 2018 03 27;68(3):563-576. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.

The clinical course of cirrhosis is mostly determined by the progressive increase of portal hypertension, hyperdynamic circulation, bacterial translocation and activation of systemic inflammation. Different disease states, encompassing compensated and decompensated cirrhosis and a late decompensated state, are related to the progression of these mechanisms and may be recognised by haemodynamic or clinical characteristics. While these disease states do not follow a predictable sequence, they correspond to varying mortality risk. Acute-on-chronic liver failure may occur either in decompensated or in compensated cirrhosis and is always associated with a high short-term mortality. The increasing severity of these disease states prompted the concept of clinical states of cirrhosis. A multistate approach has been considered to describe the clinical course of the disease. Such an approach requires the assessment of the probabilities of different outcomes in each state, which compete with each other to occur first and mark the transition towards a different state. This requires the use of competing risks analysis, since the traditional Kaplan-Meier analysis should only be used in two-state settings. Accounting for competing risks also has implications for prognosis and treatment efficacy research. The aim of this review is to summarise relevant clinical states and to show examples of competing risks analysis in multistate models of cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.10.020DOI Listing
March 2018

New concepts on the clinical course and stratification of compensated and decompensated cirrhosis.

Hepatol Int 2018 Feb 5;12(Suppl 1):34-43. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

The clinical course of cirrhosis has been typically described by a compensated and a decompensated state based on the absence or, respectively, the presence of any of bleeding, ascites, encephalopathy or jaundice. More recently, it has been recognized that increasing portal hypertension and several major clinical events are followed by a marked worsening in prognosis, and disease states have been proposed accordingly in a multistate model. The development of multistate models implies the assessment of the probabilities of more than one possible outcome from each disease state. This requires the use of competing risks analysis which investigates the risk of several competing outcomes. In such a situation, the Kaplan-Meier risk estimates and the Cox regression may be not appropriate. Clinical states of cirrhosis presently considered as suitable for a comprehensive multistate model include: in compensated cirrhosis, early (mild) portal hypertension with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) >5 and <10 mmHg, clinically significant portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 10 mmHg) without gastro-esophageal varices (GEV), and GEV; in decompensated cirrhosis, a first variceal bleeding without other decompensating events, any first non-bleeding decompensation and any second decompensating event; and in a late decompensation state, refractory ascites, sepsis, renal failure, recurrent encephalopathy, profound jaundice, acute on chronic liver failure, all predicting a very short survival. In this review, we illustrate how competing risks analysis and multistate models may be applied to cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-017-9808-zDOI Listing
February 2018

Intravenous Immunoglobulins Improve Survival in Monoclonal Gammopathy-Associated Systemic Capillary-Leak Syndrome.

Am J Med 2017 10 9;130(10):1219.e19-1219.e27. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Service de médecine interne 2, CHU La Pitié-Salpêtrière, APHP, Université Paris 6, France. Electronic address:

Background: Monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome, also known as Clarkson disease, is a rare condition characterized by recurrent life-threatening episodes of capillary hyperpermeability in the context of a monoclonal gammopathy. This study was conducted to better describe the clinical characteristics, natural history, and long-term outcome of monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome.

Methods: We conducted a cohort analysis of all patients included in the European Clarkson disease (EurêClark) registry between January 1997 and March 2016. From diagnosis to last follow-up, studied outcomes (eg, the frequency and severity of attacks, death, and evolution toward multiple myeloma) and the type of preventive treatments administered were monitored every 6 months.

Results: Sixty-nine patients (M/F sex ratio 1:1; mean ± SD age at disease onset 52 ± 12 years) were included in the study. All patients had monoclonal gammopathy of immunoglobulin G type, with kappa light chains in 47 (68%). Median (interquartile range) follow-up duration was 5.1 (2.5-9.7) years. Twenty-four patients (35%) died after 3.3 (0.9-8) years. Fifty-seven (86%) patients received at least one preventive treatment, including intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) n = 48 (73.8%), theophylline n = 22 (33.8%), terbutaline n = 22 (33.8%), and thalidomide n = 5 (7.7%). In the 65 patients with follow-up, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 78% (n = 35) and 69% (n = 17), respectively. Multivariate analysis found preventive treatment with IVIg (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70; P = .007) and terbutaline (hazard ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.96; P = .041) to be independent predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: We describe the largest cohort to date of patients with well-defined monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. Preventive treatment with IVIg was the strongest factor associated with survival, suggesting the use of IVIg as the first line in prevention therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.05.023DOI Listing
October 2017

Screening and surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma: perspective of a new era?

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2016 Dec 24;16(12):1291-1302. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

a Section of Gastroenterology , Villa Sofia, V. Cervello Hospital , Palermo , Italy.

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Early diagnosis of HCC is important since observational studies have reported that, in patients undergoing surveillance, cancer is diagnosed at an earlier stage with increased chances of curative therapies. Anyway, despite the extensive use of screening for HCC, its effectiveness is still a controversial topic since supporting evidence is not unequivocal and some issues need to be explored. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to review main literature data supporting performance and effectiveness of screening for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Expert commentary: Clinical benefit of screening for HCC is controversial and there are no sufficient data supporting its effectiveness in reducing cancer specific mortality. Since it is unlikely that RCTs will be performed in the future, surveillance should be still reasonably recommended in all at-risk population, until potential data against its effectiveness will be provided. In the future additional and more effective non-invasive tests will be needed, as well as proper surveillance intervals and risk threshold for surveillance enrollment must be assessed and refined by prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2016.1246965DOI Listing
December 2016

Statins in Cirrhosis: The Magic Pill?

Hepatology 2016 06;63(6):2047-9

Unità Operativa Complessa di Gastroenterologia, Ospedale V. Cervello, Palermo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.28616DOI Listing
June 2016

Prognosis research and risk of bias.

Intern Emerg Med 2016 Mar 24;11(2):251-60. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Radiology Section, DIBIMED. University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

The interest in prognosis research has been steadily growing during the past few decades because of its impact on clinical decision making. However, since the methodology of prognosis research is still incompletely defined, the quality of published prognosis studies is largely unsatisfactory. Seven major domain for risk of bias in prognosis research have been identified, including study participation, attrition, selection of candidate predictors, outcome definition, confounding factors, analysis, and interpretation of results. The methodology for performing prognostic studies is currently aimed at avoiding such potential biases. Amongst methodologic requirements in prognosis research, the following should be considered most relevant: beforehand publication of the study protocol including the full statistical plan; inclusion of patients at a similar point along the course of the disease; rationale and biological plausibility of candidate predictors; complete information; control of overfitting and underfitting; adequate data handling and analysis; publication of the original data. Validation and analysis of the impact that prediction models have on patient management, are key steps for translation of prognosis research into clinical practice. Finally, transparent reporting of prognostic studies is essential for assessing reliability, applicability and generalizability of study results, and recommendations are now available for this aim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-016-1404-zDOI Listing
March 2016

Beta-blockers in 2016: Still the safest and most useful drugs for portal hypertension?

Hepatology 2016 06 22;63(6):1771-3. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

Hemodynamic Hepatic Laboratory, Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS. Centro d'investigaciones biomedicas en Red, Enfermedades hepaticas y Digestivo (CIBEReHD)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.28502DOI Listing
June 2016

Delayed-onset superior mesenteric artery syndrome presenting as oesophageal peptic stricture.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2012 Jan 10;6(1):94-102. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Operative Unit of Gastroenterology, Palermo University, Palermo, Italy.

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an infrequent cause of vomiting and weight loss due to compression of the third part of the duodenum by the SMA. We describe the case of a 17-year-old woman, admitted to our department for progressive dysphagia and severe weight loss due to an oesophageal peptic stricture, caused by chronic acid reflux secondary to duodenal compression by the SMA. Symptoms improved after (par)enteral nutrition and repeated oesophageal dilatation, thus supporting the role of intensive medical and endoscopic intervention as an alternative to surgery, at least in some cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000336278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355678PMC
January 2012

The systemic capillary leak syndrome: a case series of 28 patients from a European registry.

Ann Intern Med 2011 Apr;154(7):464-71

Service de médecine interne 2, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47-83 boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.

Background: The systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disease characterized by life-threatening attacks of capillary hyperpermeability.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, and outcomes of patients with SCLS who were not previously reported in the literature.

Design: Case series.

Setting: Patients referred to a European multicenter SCLS registry between January 1997 and July 2010.

Patients: 28 patients with SCLS.

Measurements: Frequency, severity of attacks, and vital status were assessed every 6 months, from diagnosis to the end of the study.

Results: 13 men and 15 women referred to the registry who were not previously reported in the literature had 252 attacks. Median age at disease onset was 49.1 years (range, 5.4 to 77.7 years), and median annual frequency of attacks was 1.23 (range, 0.13 to 21.18) per patient. Monoclonal IgG gammopathy was observed in 25 patients (89%). Preventive treatment included intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 18), terbutaline (n = 9), and aminophylline (n = 10). Eight patients died (29%); 1-year survival was 89%, and 5-year survival was 73%. Death was directly related to SCLS attacks in 6 of 8 cases (75%). In 10 patients with a prediagnosis period greater than 6 months who received preventive treatment, the annual frequency of attacks after diagnosis decreased by a median of 1.55 (range, 0.14 to 8.84) per patient. Five years after diagnosis, survival was 85% in 23 patients who had received prophylactic treatment and 20% in 5 patients who had not.

Limitation: The benefits of preventive treatment could not be precisely ascertained because of the small sample size and because most patients received several treatments.

Conclusion: Clinical experience with these 28 patients with SCLS suggests that prophylactic treatment with β(2)-agonists or intravenous immunoglobulin may reduce the frequency and severity of attacks and may improve survival.

Primary Funding Source: Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-154-7-201104050-00004DOI Listing
April 2011

An open-safety study of dual antiviral therapy in real-world patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2010 Nov;19(11):1113-23

Unità operativa di Gastroenterologia e Medicina, Ospedali Riuniti Villa Sofia e Cervello, Palermo, Italy.

Purpose: Treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C with alpha-interferon and ribavirin usually produces adverse events within the first 3 months. We aimed to assess safety and predictors of discontinuation or dose modification of these drugs.

Methods: Observational study of 312 patients with predominantly genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated openly along 5 years in a clinical practice setting.

Results: Eighty-four percent of patients experienced at least one adverse event (853 events in total, 3.3 per patient on average). Incidence rate was higher during the first 90 days and decreased thereafter (<5%). Discontinuation rates at 30 and 90 days and at end of treatment were 2, 4 and 8%, respectively. Seventy percent of discontinuation cases were due to adverse events rather than to laboratory abnormalities. Serious adverse events were rare (<1%). Dose modifications were made in 158 patients (51%) on 237 occasions. After adjusting for covariates, older age was a predictor of early discontinuation, whereas HCV genotypes 1-4 and daily ribavirin dose of 1000 mg or more were predictors of dose modification.

Conclusions: The majority of real-world patients with chronic hepatitis C tolerate acceptably dual therapy and very few discontinue it. Subjective decisions on dose reduction of either compound appears to have a major impact on adherence of patients. There is a need to better define, collect and analyse clinical features which may predict adverse events and safety-related decisions during therapy of chronic hepatitis C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.2025DOI Listing
November 2010
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